Advanced glycation end products induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition via downregulating Sirt 1 and upregulating TGF-β in human endothelial cells.
ABSTRACT: In the present study, we examined the advanced glycation end products- (AGEs-) induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results demonstrated that AGE-BSAs significantly reduced the cluster of differentiation 31 (CD 31) expression, whereas they promoted the expression of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), α-smooth muscle antibody (α-SMA), and collagen I at both mRNA and protein levels in HUVECs. And the AGE-BSAs also promoted the receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) and receptor I for TGF-β (TGFR I) markedly with a dose dependence, whereas the Sirt 1 was significantly downregulated by the AGE-BSA at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the Sirt 1 activity manipulation with its activator, resveratrol (RSV), or its inhibitor, EX527, markedly inhibited or ameliorated the AGE-mediated TGF-β upregulation. And the manipulated Sirt 1 activity positively regulated the AGE-induced CD31, whereas it negatively regulated the AGE-induced FSP-1. Thus, Sirt 1 was confirmed to regulate the AGE-induced EndMT via TGF-β. In summary, we found that AGE-BSA induced EndMT in HUVECs via upregulating TGF-β and downregulating Sirt 1, which also negatively regulated TGF-β in the cell. This study implied the EndMT probably as an important mechanism of AGE-induced cardiovascular injury.
Project description:Endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an important pathological change in many diseases. Semaphorin7A (Sema7A) has been reported to regulate nerve and vessel homeostasis, but its role in EndMT remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of Sema7A on EndMT and the underlying mechanism. Sema7A-overexpressed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (Sema7A-HUVECs) were generated and showed lower levels of endothelial cell markers and higher levels of mesenchymal cell markers indicating the occurrence of EndMT. RNA-sequencing analysis showed a total of 1168 upregulated genes and 886 downregulated genes. Among them, most of the molecules associated with EndMT were upregulated in Sema7A-HUVECs. Mechanistically, Sema7A-HUVECs showed a higher TGF-?2 expression and activated TGF-?/Smad Signaling. Importantly, Sema7A overexpression upregulated activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) that was found to selectively bind the promotor region of TGF-?2, but not TGF-?1, promoting TGF-?2 transcription, which was further confirmed by ATF3-siRNA knockdown approach. Blocking ?1 integrin, a known Sema7A receptor, alleviated the expression of ATF3, TGF-?2, and EndMT in Sema7A-overexpressed HUVECs, implying a role of ?1 integrin/ATF3/TGF-?2 axis in mediating Sema7A-induced EndMT. Using Sema7A-deficient mice and the partial carotid artery ligation (PCL) model, we showed that Sema7A deletion attenuated EndMT induced by blood flow disturbance in vivo. In conclusion, Sema7A promotes TGF-?2 secretion by upregulating transcription factor ATF3 in a ?1 integrin-dependent manner, and thus facilitates EndMT through TGF/Smad signaling, implying Sema7A as a potential therapeutic target for EndMT-related vascular diseases.
Project description:While emerging evidence suggests the link between endothelial activation of TGF-β signaling, induction of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the molecular underpinning of this connection remains enigmatic. Here, we report aberrant expression of H19 lncRNA and TET1 in endothelial cells (ECs) of human atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Using primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and aortic endothelial cells (HAoECs) we show that TNF-α, a known risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and CVD, induces H19 expression which in turn activates TGF-β signaling and EndMT via a TET1-dependent epigenetic mechanism. We also show that H19 regulates TET1 expression at the posttranscriptional level. Further, we provide evidence that this H19/TET1-mediated regulation of TGF-β signaling and EndMT occurs in mouse pulmonary microvascular ECs in vivo under hyperglycemic conditions. We propose that endothelial activation of the H19/TET1 axis may play an important role in EndMT and perhaps CVD.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an intense fibrotic reaction termed tumor desmoplasia, which is in part responsible for its aggressiveness. Endothelial cells have been shown to display cellular plasticity in the form of endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) that serves as an important source of fibroblasts in pathological disorders, including cancer. Angiogenic co-receptor, neuropilin-1 (NRP- 1) actively binds TGF?1, the primary mediator of EndMT and is involved in oncogenic processes like epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). NRP-1 and TGF?1 signaling have been shown to be aberrantly up-regulated in PDAC. We report herein a positive correlation between NRP-1 levels, EndMT and fibrosis in human PDAC xenografts. Loss of NRP-1 in HUVECs limited TGF?1-induced EndMT as demonstrated by gain of endothelial and loss of mesenchymal markers, while maintaining endothelial cell architecture. Knockdown of NRP-1 down-regulated TGF? canonical signaling (pSMAD2) and associated pro-fibrotic genes. Overexpression of NRP-1 exacerbated TGF?1-induced EndMT and up-regulated TGF? signaling and expression of pro-fibrotic genes. In vivo, loss of NRP-1 attenuated tumor perfusion and size, accompanied by reduction in EndMT and fibrosis. This study defines a previously unrecognized role of NRP-1 in regulating TGF?1-induced EndMT and fibrosis, and advocates NRP-1 as a therapeutic target to reduce tumor fibrosis and PDAC progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Puerarin is a kind of flavonoids and is extracted from Chinese herb Kudzu root. Puerarin is widely used as an adjuvant therapy in Chinese clinics. But little is known about its effects on regulating cardiac fibrosis. METHODS:Mice were subjected to transverse aorta constriction (TAC) for 8 weeks; meanwhile puerarin was given 1 week after TAC. Cardiac fibrosis was assessed by pathological staining. The mRNA and protein changes of CD31 and vimentin in both animal and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) models were detected. Immunofluorescence colocalization of CD31 and vimentin and scratch test were carried out to examine TGF-?1-induced changes in HUVECs. The agonist and antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) were used to explore the underlying mechanism. RESULTS:Puerarin mitigated TAC-induced cardiac fibrosis, accompanied with suppressed endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). The consistent results were achieved in HUVECs model. TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling pathway was blunted and PPAR-? expression was upregulated in puerarin-treated mice and HUVECs. Pioglitazone could reproduce the protective effect in HUVECs, while GW9662 reversed this effect imposed by puerarin. CONCLUSION:Puerarin protected against TAC-induced cardiac fibrosis, and this protective effect may be attributed to the upregulation of PPAR-? and the inhibition of TGF-?1/Smad2-mediated EndMT.
Project description:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a complication of diabetes mellitus, which is associated with fibrosis and microRNAs (miRs). This study estimated the mechanism of miR-195-5p in endothelial mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and myocardial fibrosis in DCM. After the establishment of DCM rat models, miR-195-5p was silenced by miR-195-5p antagomir. The cardiac function-related indexes diastolic left ventricular anterior wall (LVAW, d), systolic LVAW (d), diastolic left ventricular posterior wall (LVPW, d), systolic LVPW (d), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and fractional shortening (FS) were measured and miR-195-5p expression in myocardial tissue was detected. Myocardial fibrosis, collagen deposition, and levels of fibrosis markers were detected. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to high glucose (HG) and miR-195-5p was silenced. The levels of fibrosis proteins, endothelial markers, fibrosis markers, EndMT markers, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)/Smads pathway-related proteins were measured in HUVECs. The interaction between miR-195-5p and Smad7 was verified. In vivo, miR-195-5p was highly expressed in the myocardium of DCM rats. Diastolic and systolic LVAW, diastolic and systolic LVPW were increased and LVEF and FS were decreased. Inhibition of miR-195-5p reduced cardiac dysfunction, myocardial fibrosis, collagen deposition, and EndMT, promoted CD31 and VE-cadehrin expressions, and inhibited α-SMA and vimentin expressions. In vitro, HG-induced high expression of miR-195-5p and the expression changes of endothelial markers CD31, VE-cadehrin and fibrosis markers α-SMA and vimentin were consistent with those in vivo after silencing miR-195-5p. In mechanism, miR-195-5p downregulation blocked EndMT by inhibiting TGF-β1-smads pathway. Smad7 was the direct target of miR-195-5p and silencing miR-195-5p inhibited EndMT by promoting Smad7 expression. Collectively, silencing miR-195-5p inhibits TGF-β1-smads-snail pathway by targeting Smad7, thus inhibiting EndMT and alleviating myocardial fibrosis in DCM.
Project description:Endothelial cells play an important role in maintenance of the vascular system and the repair after injury. Under pro-inflammatory conditions, endothelial cells can acquire a mesenchymal phenotype by a process named endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT), which affects the functional properties of endothelial cells. Here, we investigated the epigenetic control of EndMT. We show that the histone demethylase JMJD2B is induced by EndMT promoting pro-inflammatory and hypoxic conditions. Silencing of JMJD2B reduced TGF-β2-induced expression of mesenchymal genes and prevented the alterations in endothelial morphology and impaired endothelial barrier function. Endothelial-specific deletion of JMJD2B in vivo confirmed a reduction of EndMT after myocardial infarction. EndMT did not affect global H3K9me3 levels but induced a site-specific reduction of repressive H3K9me3 marks at promoters of mesenchymal genes, such as Calponin (CNN1), and genes involved in TGF-β signaling, such as AKT Serine/Threonine Kinase 3 (AKT3) and sulfatase 1 (SULF1). Silencing of JMJD2B prevented the EndMT-induced reduction of H3K9me3 marks at these promotors and further repressed these EndMT-related genes. Our study reveals that endothelial identity and function is critically controlled by the histone demethylase JMJD2B, which is induced by EndMT-promoting pro-inflammatory and hypoxic conditions and support the acquirement of a mesenchymal phenotype. Overall design: 1.) CHIP-SEQ of H3K9me3 in HUVECS in full-(FM) and differentiation medium (DM) 2.) Whole Transcriptome RNA-SEQ of HUVECS in full-(FM) and differentiation medium (DM) 3.) Single Cell RNA-SEQ of whole heart of Jmjd2b flox Cdh5-iCre and wildtype mice 3 days after AMI 4.) Single Cell RNA-SEQ of HUVECS full-(FM) and differentiation medium (DM) 5.) Single Cell RNA-SEQ of HUVECS in full medium (FM) under scrambled knockdown and differentiation medium (DM) under scrambled knockdown and JMJD2B knockdown
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chemotherapy used for patients with unresectable lung tumors remains largely palliative due to chemoresistance, which may be due to tumor heterogeneity. Recently, multiple studies on the crosstalk between lung cancer cells and their tumor microenvironment (TME) have been conducted to understand and overcome chemoresistance in lung cancer. METHODS:In this study, we investigated the effect of reciprocal crosstalk between lung cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells using multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTSs) containing lung cancer cells and HUVECs. RESULTS:Secretomes from lung cancer spheroids significantly triggered the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) process in HUVECs, compared to secretomes from monolayer-cultured lung cancer cells. Interestingly, expression of GSK-3?-targeted genes was altered in MCTSs and inhibition of this activity by a GSK-3? inhibitor induced reversion of EndMT in lung tumor microenvironments. Furthermore, we observed that HUVECs in MCTSs significantly increased the compactness of the spheroids and exhibited strong resistance against Gefitinib and Cisplatin, relative to fibroblasts, by facilitating the EndMT process in HUVECs. Subsequently, EndMT reversion contributed to control of chemoresistance, regardless of the levels of soluble transforming growth factor (TGF)-?. Using the MCTS xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that inhibition of GSK-3? reduces lung cancer volume, and in combination with Gefitinib, has a synergistic effect on lung cancer therapy. CONCLUSION:In summary, these findings suggest that targeting EndMT through GSK-3? inhibition in HUVECs might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for lung cancer therapy.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been extensively studied in different biomedical fields. Recently, the non-cytotoxic concentration of IONPs induced cell-specific response raised concern of their safety. Endothelial cell exposure was unavoidable in their applications, while whether IONPs affect the phenotype of vascular endothelial cells is largely unknown. In this work, the effect of IONPs on endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was investigated in vitro and in vivo.<h4>Results</h4>The incubation with ?-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> nanoparticles modified with polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyether (PSC-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>) at non-cytotoxic concentration induced morphological changes of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from cobblestone-like to spindle mesenchymal-like morphology, while PSC-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> mostly stay in the culture medium and intercellular space. At the same time, the endothelial marker CD31 and VE-cadherin was decreased along with the inhibitory of angiogenesis properties of HUVEC. Meanwhile, the mesenchymal marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and fibroblast specific protein (FSP) was up regulated significantly, and the migration ability of the cells was enhanced. When ROS scavenger mannitol or AA was supplemented, the EndMT was rescued. Results from the in vivo study showed that, expression of CD31 was decreased and ?-SMA increased in the liver, spleen and kidney of mice given PSC-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, and the density of collagen fibers in the liver sinusoid of mice was increased. The supplementary mannitol or AA could reverse the degree of EndMT in the tissues. Mechanistic study in vitro indicated that the level of extracellular hydroxyl radicals (·OH) was up regulated significantly by PSC-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>, which induced the response of intracellular ROS and resulted in the EndMT effect on HUVECs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The PSC-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> was capable of inducing EndMT in the endothelial cells at acutely non-cytotoxic dose due to its intrinsic peroxidase-like activity, though they were few taken up by endothelial cell. The EndMT effect on HUVEC can be rescued by ROS scavenger in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) was first reported in heart development. Recent studies have shown that EndMT also occurs in the progression of cardiac fibrosis. Herein, we demonstrated a critical role of the Forkhead Box M1 (Foxm1) transcription factor in transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?)-induced EndMT in endothelial cells (ECs) and a possible underlying molecular mechanism. Foxm1 was induced in ECs following TGF-? stimulation. Using both pharmacological and molecular approaches to inhibit Foxm1 function can attenuate the TGF-?-induced EndMT and cell migration. In contrast, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of Foxm1 allowed EndMT to proceed despite the absence of TGF-? in ECs. Moreover, we found that the activation of the Smad2/3 signaling pathway and EndMT-related transcription factors played important roles in the pathogenesis of Foxm1-mediated EndMT. Further analysis revealed that Foxm1 bound to and increased the promoter activity of the Snail gene encoding a critical transcriptional regulator of EndMT. In conclusion, our results identify FOXM1 as a driver of TGF-?-induced EndMT and underscore the therapeutic potential of targeting FOXM1 for cardiac fibrosis.
Project description:Objective: The endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays a major role in cancer metastasis by regulating the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here, we investigated whether 27-hydroxycholesterol (27HC) induces EndMT in endothelial cells (ECs). Methods: EndMT markers in the human microvascular endothelial cell-1 (HMEC-1) cell line and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated with 27HC were evaluated with Western blot. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in breast cancer (BC) cells cultured in conditioned medium were investigated with quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The MMP-2 and MMP-9 mRNA expression and activity were detected with qRT-PCR and gelatin zymography assays, respectively. The effect of activated STAT3 on 27HC-induced EndMT was validated by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, and cell transfection assays. The migration ability of BC cells was evaluated with Transwell assays. Results: We found that 27HC induced EndMT in HMEC-1 and HUVECs, and 27HC-induced EndMT facilitated EMT and BC cell migration. The 27HC-induced EMT of BC cells also promoted EndMT and HUVEC migration. Investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that STAT3 knockdown repressed EndMT in HUVECs as well as migration in BC cells induced with 27HC. In addition, C646 and resveratrol, inhibitors of STAT3 acetylation, repressed the expression of Ac-STAT3, p-STAT3, and EndMT markers in HUVECs exposed to 27HC; these HUVECs in turn attenuated the migration ability of BC cells in 27HC-induced EndMT. Conclusions: Cross-talk between 27HC-induced EndMT and EMT was observed in the TME. Moreover, activation of STAT3 signaling was found to be involved in 27HC-induced EndMT.