A gene encoding a DnaK/hsp70 homolog in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic organisms have been shown to have multiple forms of hsp70-class stress-related proteins, but only a single family member, DnaK, has been found in prokaryotes. We report here the identification of a heat shock cognate gene, designated hsc, in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence deduced from hsc predicts a 65,647-Da polypeptide having 41% sequence identity with DnaK from E. coli, and overexpression produces a protein (Hsc66) with properties similar to DnaK. In contrast to dnaK, however, the hsc gene lacks a consensus heat shock promoter sequence, and expression is not induced by elevated temperature. The hsc gene is located near 54 min on the physical map, immediately upstream of the fdx gene, which encodes a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin; evidence is presented that the hsc and fdx genes make up a bicistronic operon in which expression of the ferredoxin is coupled to that of Hsc66. The function of Hsc66 is not known, but the coregulation of its expression with that of ferredoxin suggests the possibility of a specific role in association with the ferredoxin protein.
Project description:The dnaK gene of an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, was cloned and sequenced. It was found that the dnaK gene product was highly homologous to previously analyzed dnaK gene products from other organisms at the amino acid level. Two partial open reading frames located upstream and downstream of the dnaK gene were also found and identified as grpE and dnaJ genes, respectively, by the predicted amino acid homology of their gene products to other bacterial GrpE and DnaJ proteins. Transcription of the dnaK gene was strongly induced by a heat shock from 30 to 37 degrees C. An analysis of the expression of the dnaK gene fused to the lacZ translational reporter gene also showed eightfold increase in beta-galactosidase activity after the heat shock induction. Heat-inducible transcription start sites of the dnaK gene, revealed by primer extension analysis, were located 16 and 17 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon of the dnaK gene, and the predicted promoter sequence showed a homology to the consensus sequence of sigma 32-dependent heat shock promoters of gram-negative bacteria. The upstream region of the dnaK gene did not contain the inverted repeat structure that was involved in the regulation of the heat shock gene of several gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Therefore, we conclude that the heat shock regulatory mechanism of the N. europaea dnaK gene may be similar to the sigma 32-dependent mechanism observed in other gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:The transcriptional organization and regulation of the dnaK and groE heat shock operons of Chlamydia trachomatis were studied and found to resemble those of the cognate operons of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium acetobutylicum. The gene order is conserved (hrcA-grpE-dnaK), but no dnaJ homolog could be identified in this region. The dnaK operon was transcribed as a low-abundance polycistronic mRNA whose levels did not increase upon exposure to heat shock. In contrast, a more abundant 2.3-kb mRNA encoding only the dnaK sequence was detectable, and its steady-state level increased upon heat shock. The transcription initiation sites of the dnaK and groE operons were found to be preceded by sequences that resemble an Escherichia coli sigma70 consensus promoter. Upstream of each putative promoter is an inverted repeat sequence which resembles a similar element (CIRCE [controlling inverted repeat of chaperone expression]) found upstream of the dnaK and groE operons in at least 27 eubacterial species. In vitro transcription studies utilizing partially purified C. trachomatis RNA polymerase demonstrated that the regions containing the putative promoter elements of the dnaK and groE operons are functional, although heat shock-regulated expression could not be demonstrated.
Project description:The dnaK operon of Streptomyces coelicolor contains four genes (5'-dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-hspR). The fourth gene encodes a novel heat shock protein, HspR, which appears so far to be unique to the high-G+C actinomycete group of bacteria. HspR binds with high specificity to three inverted repeat sequences in the promoter region of the S. coelicolor dnaK operon, strongly suggesting a direct role for HspR in heat shock gene regulation. Here we present genetic and biochemical evidence that HspR is the repressor of the dnaK operon. Disruption of hspR leads to high-level constitutive transcription of the dnaK operon. Parallel transcriptional analyses of groESL1 and groEL2 expression demonstrated that heat shock regulation of the groE genes was essentially unaffected in an hspR null mutant, although the basal (uninduced) level of groEL2 transcription was slightly elevated compared with the wild type. The results of HspR titration experiments, where the dnaK operon promoter region was cloned at ca. 50 copies per chromosome, were consistent with the prediction that HspR functions as a negative autoregulator. His-tagged HspR, overproduced and purified from Escherichia coli, was shown to repress transcription from the dnaK operon promoter in vitro, providing additional evidence for the proposal that HspR directly regulates transcription of the dnaK operon. These studies indicate that there are at least two transcriptional mechanisms for controlling heat shock genes in S. coelicolor--one controlling the dnaK operon and another controlling the groE genes.
Project description:The dnaK gene of Vibrio cholerae was cloned, sequenced, and used to construct a dnaK insertion mutant which was then used to examine the role of DnaK in expression of the major virulence factors of this important human pathogen. The central regulator of several virulence genes of V. cholerae is ToxR, a transmembrane DNA binding protein. The V. cholerae dnaK mutant grown in standard laboratory medium exhibited phenotypes characteristic of cells deficient in ToxR activity. Using Northern blot analysis and toxR transcriptional fusions, we demonstrated a reduction in expression of the toxR gene in the dnaK mutant strain together with a concomitant increase in expression of a htpG-like heat shock gene that is located immediately upstream and is divergently transcribed from toxR. This may be due to increased heat shock induction in the dnaK mutant. In vivo, however, although expression from heat shock promoters in the dnaK mutant was similar to that observed in vitro, expression of both toxR and htpG was comparable to that by the parental strain. In both strains, in vivo expression of toxR was significantly higher than that observed in vitro, but no reciprocal decrease in htpG expression was observed. These results suggest that the modulation of toxR expression in vivo may be different from that observed in vitro.
Project description:The complete dnaK operon of Listeria monocytogenes was isolated by chromosome walking using the previously cloned dnaK gene as a probe. Molecular analysis of the locus identified 6 genes in the order hrcA, grpE, dnaK, dnaJ, orf35, and orf29. Primer extension analysis revealed 3 transcription start sites-S1, S2, and S3-upstream of the hrcA, grpE, and dnaJ, respectively. The transcription from S1 was heat inducible. Analysis of the sequences revealed the consensus promoter sequences of gram-positive bacteria, P1 and P2 upstream of the hrcA and dnaJ, respectively. The hrcA gene and a regulatory sequence, designated CIRCE (controlling inverted repeat of chaperone expression), play a role in the regulation of expression of the dnaK locus in response to heat shock in several gram-positive bacteria. Their presence upstream of the dnaK locus in L. monocytogenes suggested a similar regulatory mechanism for the transcription initiated at the promoter, P1. Northern blot analysis led to the detection of 4 mRNA species of 4.9 kb, 3.6 kb, 3.6 kb, and 1.2 kb; the first 2 species were heat inducible. The current results indicate that 4 distinct transcripts directed by 3 promoters are involved in the expression of the dnaK operon of L. monocytogenes.
Project description:In 1992, we described the cloning and sequencing of the dnaK locus of Bacillus subtilis which, together with transcriptional studies, implied a tetracistronic structure of the operon consisting of the genes hrcA, grpE, dnaK, and dnaJ. We have repeated the Northern blot analysis, this time using riboprobes instead of oligonucleotides, and have detected a heat-inducible 8-kb transcript, suggesting the existence of additional heat shock genes downstream of dnaJ. Cloning and sequencing of that region revealed the existence of three novel heat shock genes named orf35, orf28, and orf50, extending the tetra- into a heptacistronic operon. This is now the largest dnaK operon to be described to date. The three new genes are transcribed as a part of the entire dnaK operon (8.0-kb heptacistronic heat-inducible transcript) and as part of a suboperon starting at an internal vegetative promoter immediately upstream of dnaJ (4.3-kb tetracistronic non-heat-inducible transcript). In addition, the Northern blot analysis detected several processing products of these two primary transcripts. To demonstrate the existence of the internal promoter, a DNA fragment containing this putative promoter structure was inserted upstream of a promoterless bgaB gene, resulting in the synthesis of beta-galactosidase. Challenging this transcriptional fusion with various stress factors did not result in the activation of this promoter. To assign a biological function to the three novel genes, they have each been inactivated by the insertion of a cat cassette. All of the mutants were viable, and furthermore, these genes are (i) not essential for growth at high temperatures, (ii) not involved in the regulation of the heat shock response, and (iii) sporulation proficient. Blocking transcription of the suboperon from the upstream heat-inducible promoter did not impair growth and viability at high temperatures.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea throughout the world. In addition, there is growing evidence that Guillain-Barré syndrome, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, is frequently preceded by C. jejuni infection. In the present study, the hrcA-grpE-dnaK gene cluster of C. jejuni was cloned and sequenced. The dnaK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,869 bp and encodes a protein with a high degree of homology to other bacterial 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs). The overall percentages of identity to the HSP70 proteins of Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Bacillus subtilis were calculated to be 78.1, 60.5, 57.2, and 53. 8%, respectively. Regions similar to the Escherichia coli sigma70 promoter consensus sequence and to a cis-acting regulatory element (CIRCE) are located upstream of the hrcA gene. Following heat shock, a rapid increase of dnaK mRNA was detectable, which reached its maximum after 20 to 30 min. A 6-His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein (rCjDnaK-His) was generated in E. coli, after cloning of the dnaK coding region into pET-22b(+), and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Antibody responses to rCjDnaK-His were significantly elevated, compared to those of healthy individuals, in about one-third of the serum specimens obtained from C. jejuni enteritis patients.
Project description:The incorporation and delivery of bifidobacterial strains as probiotic components in many food preparations expose these microorganisms to a multitude of environmental insults, including heat and osmotic stresses. We characterized the dnaK gene region of Bifidobacterium breve UCC 2003. Sequence analysis of the dnaK locus revealed four genes with the organization dnaK-grpE-dnaJ-ORF1, whose deduced protein products display significant similarity to corresponding chaperones found in other bacteria. Northern hybridization and real-time LightCycler PCR analysis revealed that the transcription of the dnaK operon was strongly induced by osmotic shock but was not induced significantly by heat stress. A 4.4-kb polycistronic mRNA, which represented the transcript of the complete dnaK gene region, was detected. Many other small transcripts, which were assumed to have resulted from intensive processing or degradation of this polycistronic mRNA, were identified. The transcription start site of the dnaK operon was determined by primer extension. Phylogenetic analysis of the available bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK genes suggested that the evolutionary development of these genes has been similar. The phylogeny derived from the various bifidobacterial grpE and dnaK sequences is consistent with that derived from 16S rRNA. The use of these genes in bifidobacterial species as an alternative or complement to the 16S rRNA gene marker provides sequence signatures that allow a high level of discrimination between closely related species of this genus.
Project description:Sequences of the dnaK gene, coding for the 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), were determined for six members of the order Planctomycetales, including representatives of three genera, and for the only cultivated member of the order Verrucomicrobiales, Verrucomicrobium spinosum. A fragment of the dnaK gene was amplified from these strains by PCR with oligonucleotide primers targeting regions of the dnaK gene that are conserved at the amino acid level, and the resulting PCR products were cloned into a plasmid vector. Sequence analysis of the cloned dnaK fragments revealed the presence of two different types of dnaK sequence in one of the planctomycete strains, Planctomyces maris, and in V. spinosum. Only one type of dnaK sequence was found for each of the remaining strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial sequence data suggested that the majority of planctomycete strains, including one of the Planctomyces maris sequences, form a coherent phylogenetic group branching adjacent to other main lines of descent within the domain Bacteria, as has been shown previously by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. One of the two V. spinosum dnaK sequences also appears to constitute a separate lineage within the gram-negative bacteria. Each of the remaining sequences from P. maris and V. spinosum, together with the single sequence obtained from Planctomyces limnophilus, appeared to be unrelated to the other planctomycete sequences and to occupy a position distant from that of other gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic diversity of dnaK sequences exhibited by P. maris and V. spinosum was comparable to that found in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942 and Escherichia coli, the only other prokaryotes for which a dnaK multigene family has been demonstrated.
Project description:By using an internal part of the dnaK gene from Bacillus megaterium as a probe, a 5.2-kb HindIII fragment of chromosomal DNA of Bacillus subtilis was cloned. Downstream sequences were isolated by in vivo chromosome walking. Sequencing of 5,085 bp revealed four open reading frames in the order orf39-grpE-dnaK-dnaJ. orf39 encodes a 39-kDa polypeptide of unknown biological function with no noticeable homology to any other protein within the data bases. Alignment of the GrpE protein with those of three other bacterial species revealed a low overall homology, but a higher homology restricted to two regions which might be involved in interactions with other proteins. Alignment of the DnaK protein with six bacterial DnaK polypeptides revealed that a contiguous region of 24 amino acids is absent from the DnaK proteins of all known gram-positive species. Primer extension studies revealed three potential transcription start sites, two preceding orf39 (S1 and S2) and a third one in front of grpE (S3). S2 and S3 were activated at a high temperature. Northern (RNA) analysis led to the detection of three mRNA species of 4.9, 2.6, and 1.5 kb. RNA dot blot experiments revealed an at-least-fivefold increase in the amount of specific mRNA from 0 to 5 min postinduction and then a rapid decrease. A transcriptional fusion between dnaK and the amyL reporter gene exhibited a slight increase in alpha-amylase activity after heat induction. A 9-bp inverted repeat was detected in front of the coding region of orf39. This inverted repeat is present in a number of other heat shock operons in other microorganisms ranging from cyanobacteria to mycobacteria. The biological property of this inverted repeat as a putative key element in the induction of heat shock genes is discussed. The dnaK locus was mapped at about 223 degrees on the B. subtilis genetic map.