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Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: long-term trends and associations.
ABSTRACT: Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational age (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in exposure, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO(2), CO, NO(2), O(3) and PM(10) exposures were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant's sex and gestational age, the mother's race, age group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term exposure trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.27) and NO(2) exceeding 6.8ppb (1.11, 1.03-1.21) exposures in the first month, and with PM(10) exceeding 35?g/m(3) (1.22, 1.03-1.46) and O(3) (1.11, 1.02-1.20) exposure in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO(2) (1.07, 1.01-1.14) exposure in the last month, and with (hourly) O(3) exceeding 92ppb (1.08, 1.02-1.14) exposure in the first month. Exposure to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO(2), and between O(3) with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O(3) and PM(10), and between SO(2) with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for individual risk factors such as maternal smoking, maternal race, and long-term trends in air pollutant levels and adverse birth outcomes in evaluating relationships between pollutant exposures and adverse birth outcomes.
Project description:To determine if exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) during gestation increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes, specifically term small for gestational age (SGA) birth, preterm birth (PTB), and very PTB (<32 weeks' gestation).We used weekly measurements total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), five haloacetic acids (HAA5), and total organic halides (TOX) collected from two distribution systems to evaluate the associations between DBP concentrations and term SGA, PTB, and very PTB using logistic regression.We found no associations between DBPs and term-SGA. In the site with higher concentrations of bromine-containing DBPs, we found an association between TOX and PTB; this association was larger, though less precise, for very PTB.Our results do not support an association between TTHMs or HAA5 and the birth outcomes investigated, but an association was found between increased TOX and PTB.
Project description:Objective To investigate the relation between exposure to both air and noise pollution from road traffic and birth weight outcomes.Design Retrospective population based cohort study.Setting Greater London and surrounding counties up to the M25 motorway (2317 km2), UK, from 2006 to 2010.Participants 540?365 singleton term live births.Main outcome measures Term low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) at term, and term birth weight.Results Average air pollutant exposures across pregnancy were 41 ?g/m3 nitrogen dioxide (NO2), 73 ?g/m3 nitrogen oxides (NOx), 14 ?g/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 23 ?g/m3 particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <10 ?m (PM10), and 32 ?g/m3 ozone (O3). Average daytime (LAeq,16hr) and night-time (Lnight) road traffic A-weighted noise levels were 58 dB and 53 dB respectively. Interquartile range increases in NO2, NOx, PM2.5, PM10, and source specific PM2.5 from traffic exhaust (PM2.5 traffic exhaust) and traffic non-exhaust (brake or tyre wear and resuspension) (PM2.5 traffic non-exhaust) were associated with 2% to 6% increased odds of term LBW, and 1% to 3% increased odds of term SGA. Air pollutant associations were robust to adjustment for road traffic noise. Trends of decreasing birth weight across increasing road traffic noise categories were observed, but were strongly attenuated when adjusted for primary traffic related air pollutants. Only PM2.5 traffic exhaust and PM2.5 were consistently associated with increased risk of term LBW after adjustment for each of the other air pollutants. It was estimated that 3% of term LBW cases in London are directly attributable to residential exposure to PM2.5>13.8 ?g/m3during pregnancy.Conclusions The findings suggest that air pollution from road traffic in London is adversely affecting fetal growth. The results suggest little evidence for an independent exposure-response effect of traffic related noise on birth weight outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fetal growth has been known to be associated with particulate matter (PM) air pollution during gestation. Given that regular working may deviate outdoor air pollution exposure, the association between air pollution and fetal growth restriction can be different across maternal working status. This study was to assess possible effect modification by maternal employment in the association between exposure to PM during pregnancy and fetal growth restriction. METHODS:Using hourly PM less than or equal to 10 and 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10 and PM2.5) regulatory monitoring data for 2001-2012 and 2008-2012, respectively, and birth certificate data for 2002-2012, we computed maternal exposures with district-level averages of PM10 and PM2.5 during one year before birth, entire pregnancy, and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimesters. The outcomes of fetal growth restriction were assessed by small for gestational age (SGA, weighted <10th percentile in the same gestational age) as well as low birth weight (LBW, < 2.5 kg) at term. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between PM and each of fetal growth restriction outcomes adjusting for individual risk factors. For effect modification by maternal employment, we estimated adjusted odds ratio (OR) of SGA or LBW for interquartile (IQR) increases in PM10 or PM2.5 stratified by employed and non-employed mothers. We also computed relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) to investigate additive interaction. RESULTS:Among 824,011 singleton term births, 34.0% (279,856) were employed and 66.0% (544,155) were non-employed mothers. Proportions of LBW were 1.5% in employed and 1.6% in non-employed (P < 0.001). SGA occurred in 12.7% of employed and 12.8% of non- employed (P = 0.124) mothers. For non-employed mothers, we observed increased odds of SGA per IQR increase in PM10 for one year before birth (OR = 1.02, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00-1.04, P = 0.028). ORs of SGA for full pregnancy period and the 3rd trimester were also positive but did not reach statistical significance. We did not observe positive association for PM2.5. RERI was not significant both for PM10 and PM2.5. CONCLUSIONS:We did not observe evidence of effect modification by maternal employment in the association between ambient PM and fetal growth restriction. Future studies using more refined exposure measures should confirm this finding.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The prolonged effects of disasters on reproductive outcomes among the survivors are less studied, and the findings are inconsistent. We examined the associations of maternal exposure to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake years before conception with adverse birth outcomes. METHODS:We included 73,493 women who delivered in 96 hospitals in 24 provinces and autonomous regions from the 2015/16 China Labor and Delivery Survey. We weighted the multivariable logistic models based on the combination of coarsened exact matching (CEM) weight and survey weight, and performed sex-stratified analysis to test whether associations of maternal earthquake exposure with adverse birth outcomes (Stillbirth, preterm birth [PTB], low birthweight [LBW], and small for gestational age [SGA]) varied by sex. RESULTS:The bivariate models showed that the weighted incidence of each adverse birth outcome was higher in exposed group than unexposed group: stillbirth (2.00% vs. 1.33%), PTB (14.14% vs. 7.32%), LBW (10.82% vs. 5.76%), and SGA (11.32% vs. 9.52%). The multivariable models showed maternal earthquake exposure was only associated significantly with a higher risk of PTB in offspring among all births (adjusted risk ratio [aRR](95%CI):1.25(1.06-1.48), P?=?0.010). The sex-stratified analysis showed the association was significant among male births (aRR (95%CI): 1.40(1.12-1.75),P?=?0.002),but unsignificant among female births. The sensitivity analysis reported similar findings. CONCLUSIONS:The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake exposure has a long-term effect on PTB. Maternal acute exposure to disasters could be a major monitor for long-term reproductive outcomes. More attention should be paid to the underlining reasons for disaster-related adverse birth outcomes.
Project description:Several reviews have assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes during pregnancy, but the results remain controversial. The objective of this study was to assess this correlation quantitatively and to explore sources of heterogeneity. We included all published case-control or cohort studies that evaluated the correlation between ambient air pollution and low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), and small for gestational age (SGA). Analytical methods and inclusion criteria were provided on the PROSPERO website (CRD42018085816). We evaluated pooled effects and heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses (grouped by exposure period, study settings, study design, exposure types, data source, Newcastle-Ottawa quality score (NOS), and adjustment for smoking or meteorological factors) were also conducted and publication bias was examined. The risk of bias in systematic reviews (ROBIS) tool was used to evaluate the overall risk of bias in this review. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria. We observed pooled odds ratios (ORs) of 1.03-1.21 for LBW and 0.97-1.06 for PTB when mothers were exposed to CO, NO2, NOx, O3, PM2.5, PM10, or SO2 throughout their pregnancy. For SGA, the pooled estimate was 1.02 in relation to NO2 concentrations. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis decreased the heterogeneity to some extent, such as the subgroups of continuous measures (OR=0.98 (0.97-0.99), I2=0.0%) and NOS>7 (OR=0.98 (0.97-0.99), I2=0.0%) in evaluating the association between PTB and NO2. This review was completed with a low risk of bias. High concentrations of air pollution were significantly related to the higher risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, the sources of heterogeneity among studies should be further explored.
Project description:Exposure to high levels of air pollution during the pregnancy is associated with increased probability of preterm birth (PTB), a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality. New statistical methodology is required to specifically determine when a particular pollutant impacts the PTB outcome, to determine the role of different pollutants, and to characterize the spatial variability in these results. We develop a new Bayesian spatial model for PTB which identifies susceptible windows throughout the pregnancy jointly for multiple pollutants (PM(2.5) , ozone) while allowing these windows to vary continuously across space and time. We geo-code vital record birth data from Texas (2002-2004) and link them with standard pollution monitoring data and a newly introduced EPA product of calibrated air pollution model output. We apply the fully spatial model to a region of 13 counties in eastern Texas consisting of highly urban as well as rural areas. Our results indicate significant signal in the first two trimesters of pregnancy with different pollutants leading to different critical windows. Introducing the spatial aspect uncovers critical windows previously unidentified when space is ignored. A proper inference procedure is introduced to correctly analyze these windows.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preterm birth (PTB) has been associated with exposure to air pollution, but it is unclear whether effects might vary among air pollution sources and components. OBJECTIVES:We studied the relationships between PTB and exposure to different components of air pollution, including gases and particulate matter (PM) by size fraction, chemical composition, and sources. METHODS:Fine and ultrafine PM (respectively, PM2.5 and PM0.1) by source and composition were modeled across California over 2000-2008. Measured PM2.5, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone concentrations were spatially interpolated using empirical Bayesian kriging. Primary traffic emissions at fine scale were modeled using CALINE4 and traffic indices. Data on maternal characteristics, pregnancies, and birth outcomes were obtained from birth certificates. Associations between PTB (n = 442,314) and air pollution exposures defined according to the maternal residence at birth were examined using a nested matched case-control approach. Analyses were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, education and neighborhood income. RESULTS:Adjusted odds ratios for PTB in association with interquartile range (IQR) increases in average exposure during pregnancy were 1.133 (95% CI: 1.118, 1.148) for total PM2.5, 1.096 (95% CI: 1.085, 1.108) for ozone, and 1.079 (95% CI: 1.065, 1.093) for nitrogen dioxide. For primary PM, the strongest associations per IQR by source were estimated for onroad gasoline (9-11% increase), followed by onroad diesel (6-8%) and commercial meat cooking (4-7%). For PM2.5 composition, the strongest positive associations per IQR were estimated for nitrate, ammonium, and secondary organic aerosols (11-14%), followed by elemental and organic carbon (2-4%). Associations with local traffic emissions were positive only when analyses were restricted to births with residences geocoded at the tax parcel level. CONCLUSIONS:In our statewide nested case-control study population, exposures to both primary and secondary pollutants were associated with an increase in PTB. CITATION:Laurent O, Hu J, Li L, Kleeman MJ, Bartell SM, Cockburn M, Escobedo L, Wu J. 2016. A statewide nested case-control study of preterm birth and air pollution by source and composition: California, 2001-2008. Environ Health Perspect 124:1479-1486;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1510133.
Project description:From 1985 to 2013, the mean birth weight of infants in Japan decreased from 3120 g to 3000 g, and the low-birth-weight rate among live births increased from 6.3% to 9.6%. No prospective study has elucidated the risk factors for poor fetal growth and preterm birth in recent Japanese parents, such as increased parental age, maternal body figure, assisted reproductive technology (ART), and socioeconomic status. Participants were mother-infant pairs (n = 18,059) enrolled in a prospective birth cohort in Hokkaido, Japan from 2002 to 2013. Parental characteristics were obtained via self-reported questionnaires during pregnancy. Medical records helped identify very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <1500g), term-small-for-gestational-age (term-SGA), and preterm-birth (PTB; <37 weeks) infants. We calculated relative risks (RRs) for PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA birth based on parental characteristics. The prevalence of PTB, VLBW, and term-SGA was 4.5%, 0.4%, and 6.5%, respectively. Aged parents and ART were risk factors for PTB and VLBW. Maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy increased the risk; a parental educational level of ?16 years reduced risk of term-SGA. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI of <18.5 kg/m² increased the risk of PTB and term-SGA. The RR for low BMI was highest among mothers who have low educational level. Among various factors, appropriate nutritional education to maintain normal BMI is important to prevent PTB and term-SGA in Japan.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic status (SES) is adversely associated with perinatal outcomes. This association is likely to be mediated by tobacco exposure. However, previous studies were limited to single perinatal outcomes and devoted no attention to environmental tobacco exposure. Therefore, this study aimed firstly to explain the role of maternal smoking in the association between maternal education and preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA), and secondly to explain whether environmental tobacco smoke mediates these associations further. STUDY DESIGN: This study was nested in a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. Analyses were done in a sample of 3821 pregnant women of Dutch origin, using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Least educated women, who were more often smoking and exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, had a significantly higher risk of PTB (OR 1.95 [95% CI: 1.19-3.20]), LBW (OR 2.41 [95% CI: 1.36-4.27]) and SGA (OR 1.90 [95% CI 1.32-2.74]) than highly educated women. The mediating effect of smoking in the least educated women was 43% for PTB, 55% for LBW and 66% for SGA. Environmental tobacco smoke did not explain these associations further. After adjustment for maternal smoking, the association between lower maternal education and pregnancy outcomes was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking explains to a considerable extent the association between lower maternal education and adverse perinatal outcomes. Therefore, tobacco-interventions in lower educated women should be primarily focussed on maternal smoking to reduce PTB, LBW, and SGA. Additional attention to environmental tobacco exposure does not seem to reduce educational inequalities in perinatal outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposures to extreme ambient temperature and air pollution are linked to adverse birth outcomes, but the associations with small for gestational age (SGA) and term low birthweight (tLBW) are unclear. We aimed to investigate exposures to site-specific temperature extremes and selected criteria air pollutants in relation to SGA and tLBW. METHODS:We linked medical records of 220,572 singleton births (2002-2008) from 12 US sites to local temperature estimated by the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and air pollution estimated by modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models. Exposures to hot (>95th percentile) and cold (<5th percentile) were defined using site-specific distributions of daily temperature over three-month preconception, each trimester, and whole-pregnancy. Average concentrations of five criteria air pollutants and six fine particulate matter constituents were also calculated for these pregnancy windows. Poisson regression with generalized estimating equations calculated the relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for SGA (weight <10th percentile conditional on gestational age and sex) and tLBW (?37 weeks and <2500g) associated with an interquartile range increment of air pollutants, and cold or hot compared to mild (5-95th percentile) temperature. Models were adjusted for maternal demographics, lifestyle, and clinical factors, season, and site. RESULTS:Compared to mild temperature, cold exposure during trimester 2 [RR: 1.21 (1.05-1.38)], trimester 3 [RR: 1.18 (1.03-1.36)], and whole-pregnancy [RR: 2.57 (2.27-2.91)]; and hot exposure during trimester 3 [RR: 1.31 (1.15-1.50)] and whole-pregnancy [RR: 2.49 (2.20-2.83)] increased tLBW risk. No consistent association was observed between temperature and SGA. Air pollutant analyses were generally null but preconception elemental carbon was associated with a 4% increase in SGA while dust particles increased tLBW by 10%. Particulate matter ?10µm in the second trimester and whole pregnancy also appeared related to tLBW. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings suggest prenatal exposures to extreme ambient temperature relative to usual environment may increase tLBW risk. Given concerns related to climate change, these findings merit further investigation.