Regulation of the transcription factor EB-PGC1? axis by beclin-1 controls mitochondrial quality and cardiomyocyte death under stress.
ABSTRACT: In cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and upregulation of the hypoxia-inducible protein BNIP3 result in mitochondrial permeabilization, but impairment in autophagic removal of damaged mitochondria provokes programmed cardiomyocyte death. BNIP3 expression and ROS generation result in upregulation of beclin-1, a protein associated with transcriptional suppression of autophagy-lysosome proteins and reduced activation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosome machinery. Partial beclin-1 knockdown transcriptionally stimulates lysosome biogenesis and autophagy via mTOR inhibition and activation of TFEB, enhancing removal of depolarized mitochondria. TFEB activation concomitantly stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC1? induction to restore normally polarized mitochondria and attenuate BNIP3- and hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced cell death. Conversely, overexpression of beclin-1 activates mTOR to inhibit TFEB, resulting in declines in lysosome numbers and suppression of PGC1? transcription. Importantly, knockdown of endogenous TFEB or PGC1? results in a complete or partial loss, respectively, of the cytoprotective effects of partial beclin-1 knockdown, indicating a critical role for both mitochondrial autophagy and biogenesis in ensuring cellular viability. These studies uncover a transcriptional feedback loop for beclin-1-mediated regulation of TFEB activation and implicate a central role for TFEB in coordinating mitochondrial autophagy with biogenesis to restore normally polarized mitochondria and prevent ischemia-reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte death.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible pro-death protein BNIP3 (BCL-2/adenovirus E1B 19-kDa interacting protein 3), provokes mitochondrial permeabilization causing cardiomyocyte death in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Inhibition of autophagy accelerates BNIP3-induced cell death, by preventing removal of damaged mitochondria. We tested the hypothesis that stimulating autophagy will attenuate BNIP3-induced cardiomyocyte death. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were adenovirally transduced with BNIP3 (or LacZ as control; at multiplicity of infection = 100); and autophagy was stimulated with rapamycin (100 nM). Cell death was assessed at 48 h. BNIP3 expression increased autophagosome abundance 8-fold and caused a 3.6-fold increase in cardiomyocyte death as compared with control. Rapamycin treatment of BNIP3-expressing cells led to further increase in autophagosome number without affecting cell death. BNIP3 expression led to accumulation of autophagosome-bound LC3-II and p62, and an increase in autophagosomes, but not autolysosomes (assessed with dual fluorescent mCherry-GFP-LC3 expression). BNIP3, but not the transmembrane deletion variant, interacted with LC3 and colocalized with mitochondria and lysosomes. However, BNIP3 did not target to lysosomes by subcellular fractionation, provoke lysosome permeabilization or alter lysosome pH. Rather, BNIP3-induced autophagy caused a decline in lysosome numbers with decreased expression of the lysosomal protein LAMP-1, indicating lysosome consumption and consequent autophagosome accumulation. Forced expression of transcription factor EB (TFEB) in BNIP3-expressing cells increased lysosome numbers, decreased autophagosomes and increased autolysosomes, prevented p62 accumulation, removed depolarized mitochondria and attenuated BNIP3-induced death. We conclude that BNIP3 expression induced autophagosome accumulation with lysosome consumption in cardiomyocytes. Forced expression of TFEB, a lysosomal biogenesis factor, restored autophagosome processing and attenuated BNIP3-induced cell death.
Project description:Overactive mitochondrial fission was shown to promote cell transformation and tumor growth. It remains elusive how mitochondrial quality is regulated in such conditions. Here, we show that upregulation of mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin related protein-1 (Drp1), was accompanied with increased mitochondrial biogenesis markers (PGC1?, NRF1, and Tfam) in breast cancer cells. However, mitochondrial number was reduced, which was associated with lower mitochondrial oxidative capacity in breast cancer cells. This contrast might be owing to enhanced mitochondrial turnover through autophagy, because an increased population of autophagic vacuoles engulfing mitochondria was observed in the cancer cells. Consistently, BNIP3 (a mitochondrial autophagy marker) and autophagic flux were significantly upregulated, indicative of augmented mitochondrial autophagy (mitophagy). The upregulation of Drp1 and BNIP3 was also observed in vivo (human breast carcinomas). Importantly, inhibition of Drp1 significantly suppressed mitochondrial autophagy, metabolic reprogramming, and cancer cell viability. Together, this study reveals coordinated increase of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy in which Drp1 plays a central role regulating breast cancer cell metabolism and survival. Given the emerging evidence of PGC1? contributing to tumor growth, it will be of critical importance to target both mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy for effective cancer therapeutics.
Project description:Cellular stresses trigger autophagy to remove damaged macromolecules and organelles. Lysosomes 'host' multiple stress-sensing mechanisms that trigger the coordinated biogenesis of autophagosomes and lysosomes. For example, transcription factor (TF)EB, which regulates autophagy and lysosome biogenesis, is activated following the inhibition of mTOR, a lysosome-localized nutrient sensor. Here we show that reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate TFEB via a lysosomal Ca(2+)-dependent mechanism independent of mTOR. Exogenous oxidants or increasing mitochondrial ROS levels directly and specifically activate lysosomal TRPML1 channels, inducing lysosomal Ca(2+) release. This activation triggers calcineurin-dependent TFEB-nuclear translocation, autophagy induction and lysosome biogenesis. When TRPML1 is genetically inactivated or pharmacologically inhibited, clearance of damaged mitochondria and removal of excess ROS are blocked. Furthermore, TRPML1's ROS sensitivity is specifically required for lysosome adaptation to mitochondrial damage. Hence, TRPML1 is a ROS sensor localized on the lysosomal membrane that orchestrates an autophagy-dependent negative-feedback programme to mitigate oxidative stress in the cell.
Project description:Because injured mitochondria can accelerate cell death through the elaboration of oxidative free radicals and other mediators, it is striking that proliferator gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), a stimulator of increased mitochondrial abundance, protects stressed renal cells instead of potentiating injury. Here we report that PGC1?'s induction of lysosomes via transcription factor EB (TFEB) may be pivotal for kidney protection. CRISPR and stable gene transfer showed that PGC1? knockout tubular cells were sensitized to the genotoxic stressor cisplatin whereas transgenic cells were protected. The biosensor mtKeima unexpectedly revealed that cisplatin blunts mitophagy both in cells and mice. PGC1? not only counteracted this effect but also raised basal mitophagy, as did the downstream mediator nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). PGC1? did not consistently affect known autophagy pathways modulated by cisplatin. Instead RNA sequencing identified coordinated regulation of lysosomal biogenesis via TFEB. This effector pathway was sufficiently important that inhibition of TFEB or lysosomes unveiled a striking harmful effect of excess PGC1? in cells and conditional mice. These results uncover an unexpected effect of cisplatin on mitophagy and PGC1?'s exquisite reliance on lysosomes for kidney protection. Finally, the data illuminate TFEB as a novel target for renal tubular stress resistance.
Project description:Carbon monoxide (CO) can confer protection against cellular stress, whereas the potential involvement of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis remains incompletely understood. We demonstrate here that the activation of protein kinase R (PKR)-like endoplasmic reticulum (ER) kinase (PERK) with CO increased the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB). PERK activation by CO increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration and the phosphatase activity of calcineurin against TFEB. Moreover, we found that in the deficiency of TFEB, CO not only failed to recruit Parkin to the mitochondria but also failed to increase expression of lysosomal genes such as Lamp1, CathB, and TPP1. Therefore, we suggest that CO increases mitophagy through TFEB nuclear translocation by PERK-calcinuerin activation. In addition, the inhibition of TFEB with siRNA against TFEB abrogated the increase of mtDNA with CO, markers of mitochondrial biogenesis such as PGC1?, NRF1, and TFAM, and the mitochondrial proteins COX II, COX IV, and cytochrome c. To investigate the effects of CO on mitochondrial homeostasis in vivo, mice were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-GalN). CO inhalation reduced liver injury after challenge with LPS/GalN. Furthermore, CO inhalation increased TFEB activation, mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in mice treated with LPS/GalN. Our findings describe novel mechanisms underlying CO-dependent cytoprotection in hepatocytes and liver tissue via activation of TFEB-dependent mitophagy and associated induction of both lysosomal and mitochondrial biogenesis.
Project description:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes loss of lean body mass by multiple mechanisms. This study examines whether autophagy-mediated proteolysis contributes to CKD-induced muscle wasting. We tested autophagy in the muscle of CKD mice with plantaris muscle overloading to mimic resistance exercise or with acupuncture plus low-frequency electrical stimulation (Acu/LFES) treatment. In CKD muscle, Bnip3, Beclin-1, and LC3II mRNAs and proteins were increased compared with those in control muscle, indicating autophagosome-lysosome formation induction. Acu/LFES suppressed the CKD-induced upregulation of autophagy. However, overloading increased autophagy-related proteins in normal and CKD muscle. Serum from uremic mice induces autophagy formation but did not increase the myosin degradation or actin break down in cultured muscle satellite cells. We examined mitochondrial biogenesis, copy number, and ATP production in cultured myotubes, and found all three aspects to be decreased by uremic serum. Inhibition of autophagy partially reversed this decline in cultured myotubes. In CKD mice, the mitochondrial copy number, biogenesis marker peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1?), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and mitochondrial fusion marker Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) are decreased. Both muscle overloading and Acu/LFES increased mitochondrial copy number, and reversed the CKD-induced decreases in PGC-1?, TFAM, and Mfn2. We conclude that the autophagy is activated in the muscle of CKD mice. However, myofibrillar protein is not directly broken down through autophagy. Instead, CKD-induced upregulation of autophagy leads to dysfunction of mitochondria and decrease of ATP production.
Project description:Kidney injuries provoke considerable adjustment of renal physiology, metabolism, and architecture to nephron loss. Despite remarkable regenerative capacity of the renal tissue, these adaptations often lead to tubular atrophy, interstial and glomerular scaring, and development of chronic kidney disease. The therapeutic strategies for prevention of the transition from acute kidney damage to a chronic condition are limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate large-scale alterations of the renal cortex proteome in partially nephrecromized rats at an early stage of chronic kidney disease.Sprague-Dawley 5/6 nephrectomized rats and sham-operated controls were sacrificed at day 28 post-surgery. To identify proteins with notable alteration of expression we applied a 2D-proteomics approach followed by mass-spectrometry. Altered expression of identified and related proteins was validated by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Proteins with increased levels of expression after partial nephrectomy were albumin and vimentin. Proteins with decreased expression were metabolic or mitochondrial. Western blotting analysis showed that the renal cortex of nephrectomized rats expressed decreased amount (by ~50%) of proteins from the inner mitochondrial compartment - the beta-oxidation enzyme MCAD, the structural protein GRP-75, and the oxidative phosphorylation protein COXIV. Mitochondrial DNA copy number was decreased by 30% in the cortex of PNx rats. In contrast, the levels of an outer mitochondrial membrane protein, VDAC1, remained unchanged in remnant kidneys. Mitochondrial biogenesis was not altered after renal mass ablation as was indicated by unchanged levels of PPAR? and PGC1? proteins. Autophagy related protein Beclin 1 was up-regulated in remnant kidneys, however the level of LC3-II protein was unchanged. BNIP3 protein, which can initiate both mitochondrial autophagy and cell death, was up-regulated considerably in kidneys of nephrecomized rats.The results of the study demonstrated that notable alterations in the renal cortex of 5/6 nephrectomized rats were associated with mitochondrial damage, however mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy for replacement of damaged mitochondria were not stimulated. Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria after 5/6 nephrectomy may cause multiple adjustments in biosynthetic pathways, energy production, ROS signaling, and activation of pro-cell death regulatory pathways thus contributing to the development of chronic kidney disease.
Project description:AIM:To study the effects of exercise on lysosomal functions. METHODS:Mouse exercise model was established and wheel running was scheduled as 18 rpm (14:00-17:00), 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks. Mice were injected EX527 to inhibit SIRT1 activity. The protein level was assayed with Western blot and immunofluorescence histochemistry. The transmission electron microscopic examination was used to show the structure of lysosome and mitochondria. RESULTS:Exercise promoted the nuclear translocation of TFEB in the cortex which upregulated the transcription of genes associated with autophagy and lysosome. Exercise directly activated autophagy/lysosome system via up-regulating of AMPK-SIRT1 signaling. The SIRT1 inhibitor EX527 decreased TFEB regulated gene transcription but had little effect on the nuclear translocation of TFEB. In addition, long-term exercise showed more significant effects on activation of lysosomes biogenesis compared with the short-term exercise and trehalose, a classical autophagy activator in the mTOR-independent pathway. CONCLUSION:Running exercise activates lysosomal function in the brain through AMPK-SIRT1-TFEB pathway.
Project description:The transcription factor EB (TFEB) is an essential component of lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy for the adaptive response to food deprivation. To address the physiological function of TFEB in skeletal muscle, we have used muscle-specific gain- and loss-of-function approaches. Here, we show that TFEB controls metabolic flexibility in muscle during exercise and that this action is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? coactivator1? (PGC1?). Indeed, TFEB translocates into the myonuclei during physical activity and regulates glucose uptake and glycogen content by controlling expression of glucose transporters, glycolytic enzymes, and pathways related to glucose homeostasis. In addition, TFEB induces the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. This coordinated action optimizes mitochondrial substrate utilization, thus enhancing ATP production and exercise capacity. These findings identify TFEB as a critical mediator of the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism.
Project description:TFEB is a master regulator for transcription of genes involved in autophagy and lysosome biogenesis. Activity of TFEB is inhibited upon its serine phosphorylation by mTOR The overall mechanisms by which TFEB activity in the cell is regulated are not well elucidated. Specifically, the mechanisms of TFEB turnover and how they might influence its activity remain unknown. Here, we show that STUB1, a chaperone-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase, modulates TFEB activity by preferentially targeting inactive phosphorylated TFEB for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Phosphorylated TFEB accumulated in STUB1-deficient cells and in tissues of STUB1-deficient mice resulting in reduced TFEB activity. Conversely, cellular overexpression of STUB1 resulted in reduced phosphorylated TFEB and increased TFEB activity. STUB1 preferentially interacted with and ubiqutinated phosphorylated TFEB, targeting it to proteasomal degradation. Consistent with reduced TFEB activity, accumulation of phosphorylated TFEB in STUB1-deficient cells resulted in reduced autophagy and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis. These studies reveal that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway participates in regulating autophagy and lysosomal functions by regulating the activity of TFEB.