SETDB1 accelerates tumourigenesis by regulating the WNT signalling pathway.
ABSTRACT: We investigated the oncogenic role of SETDB1, focusing on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which has high expression of this protein. A total of 387 lung cancer cases were examined by immunohistochemistry; 72% of NSCLC samples were positive for SETDB1 staining, compared to 46% samples of normal bronchial epithelium (106 cases) (p <0.0001). The percentage of positive cells and the intensity of staining increased significantly with increased grade of disease. Forced expression of SETDB1 in NSCLC cell lines enhanced their clonogenic growth in vitro and markedly increased tumour size in a murine xenograft model, while silencing (shRNA) SETDB1 in NSCLC cells slowed their proliferation. SETDB1 positively stimulated activity of the WNT-?-catenin pathway and diminished P53 expression, resulting in enhanced NSCLC growth in vitro and in vivo. Our finding suggests that therapeutic targeting of SETDB1 may benefit patients whose tumours express high levels of SETDB1.
Project description:SETDB1 is a key histone lysine methyltransferase involved in gene silencing. The SETDB1 gene is amplified in human lung cancer, where the protein plays a driver role. Here, we investigated the clinical significance of SETDB1 expression in the two major forms of human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), i.e., adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), by combining a meta-analysis of transcriptomic datasets and a systematic review of the literature. A total of 1140 NSCLC patients and 952 controls were included in the association analyses. Our data revealed higher levels of SETDB1 mRNA in ADC (standardized mean difference, SMD: 0.88; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.73-1.02; p < 0.001) and SCC (SMD: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.13-0.66; p = 0.003) compared to non-cancerous tissues. For clinicopathological analyses, 2533 ADC and 903 SCC patients were included. Interestingly, SETDB1 mRNA level was increased in NSCLC patients who were current smokers compared to non-smokers (SMD: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08-0.44; p = 0.004), and when comparing former smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.009). Furthermore, the area under the curve (AUC) given by the summary receiver operator characteristic curve (sROC) was 0.774 (Q = 0.713). Together, our findings suggest a strong foundation for further research to evaluate SETDB1 as a diagnostic biomarker and/or its potential use as a therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Project description:Lung cancer is a malignant tumor with high fatality rate and causes great harm to human economic life. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer. With the rapid development of epigenetic study in the last decade, the understanding of the pathogenesis of lung cancer and the development of personalized treatment of lung cancer are picking up pace. Previous studies showed that miR-29 family members (miR-29s; miR-29a, -29b, and -29c) are down-regulated in most human cancers, including NSCLC, but their biological roles in tumorigenesis and their regulation mechanism are still not fully elucidated. Herein, we reported that the miR-29a, -29b and, -29c were coincidently down-regulated in NSCLC, and the histone H3K9 methyltransferase SET domain, bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) was directly targetted by miR-29s Moreover, SETDB1 negatively regulated the expression of TP53 and overexpression of SETDB1 down-regulating the expression of miR-29s, while TP53 positively regulated the expression of miR-29s and overexpression of TP53 down-regulated the expression of SETDB1. On the other side, as a downstream target of TP53, the H3K9 methyltransferase Suv39h1 was also down-regulated by miR-29s via up-regulating TP53 expression. The further detection of H3K9 methylation status after changes in miR-29s expression revealed that they negatively regulated the levels of H3K9 di- and trimethylation in NSCLC. Collectively, our findings highlight a TP53/miR-29s/SETDB1 regulatory circuitry and assign a role of H3K9 methylation regulator to miR-29s, which may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:The serine/threonine kinase Akt plays a central role in cell proliferation, survival and metabolism, and its hyperactivation is linked to cancer progression. Here we report that Akt undergoes K64 methylation by SETDB1, which is crucial for cell membrane recruitment, phosphorylation and activation of Akt following growth factor stimulation. Furthermore, we reveal an adaptor function of histone demethylase JMJD2A, which is important for recognizing Akt K64 methylation and recruits E3 ligase TRAF6 and Skp2-SCF to the Akt complex, independently of its demethylase activity, thereby initiating K63-linked ubiquitination, cell membrane recruitment and activation of Akt. Notably, the cancer-associated Akt mutant E17K displays enhanced K64 methylation, leading to its hyper-phosphorylation and activation. SETDB1-mediated Akt K64 methylation is upregulated and correlated with Akt hyperactivation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), promotes tumour development and predicts poor outcome. Collectively, these findings reveal complicated layers of Akt activation regulation coordinated by SETDB1-mediated Akt K64 methylation to drive tumorigenesis.
Project description:Disruption of the histone modification patterns is one of the most common features of human tumors. However, few genetic alterations in the histone modifier genes have been described in tumorigenesis. Herein we show that the histone methyltransferase SETDB1 undergoes gene amplification in non-small and small lung cancer cell lines and primary tumors. The existence of additional copies of the SETDB1 gene in these transformed cells is associated with higher levels of the corresponding mRNA and protein. From a functional standpoint, the depletion of SETDB1 expression in amplified cells reduces cancer growth in cell culture and nude mice models, whereas its overexpression increases the tumor invasiveness. The increased gene dosage of SETDB1 is also associated with enhanced sensitivity to the growth inhibitory effect mediated by the SETDB1-interfering drug mithramycin. Overall, the findings identify SETDB1 as a bona fide oncogene undergoing gene amplification-associated activation in lung cancer and suggest its potential for new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Superoxide dismutase 1(SOD1) is a major antioxidant with oncogenic effects in many human cancers. Although SOD1 is overexpressed in various cancers, the clinical significance and functions of SOD1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly the epigenetic regulation of SOD1 in NSCLC carcinogenesis and progression have been less well investigated. In this study, we found that SOD1 expression was upregulated in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. Further, elevated SOD1 expression could promote NSCLC cell proliferation, invasion and migration. While inhibition of SOD1 expression induced NSCLC G1-phase cell cycle arrest and promoted apoptosis. In addition, miR-409-3p could repress SOD1 expression and significantly counteract its oncogenic activities. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that SET domain bifurcated histone lysine methyltransferase1 (SETDB1) was involved in the epigenetic regulation of miR-409-3p and SOD1 expression and functions in NSCLC cells. Identification of this miR-409-3p/SOD1/SETDB1 epigenetic regulatory feedforward loop may provide new insights into further understanding of NSCLC tumorigenesis and progression. Additionally, our results incicate that SOD1 may be a potential new therapeutic target for NSCLC treatment.
Project description:The most common mutation in human melanoma, BRAF(V600E), activates the serine/threonine kinase BRAF and causes excessive activity in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. BRAF(V600E) mutations are also present in benign melanocytic naevi, highlighting the importance of additional genetic alterations in the genesis of malignant tumours. Such changes include recurrent copy number variations that result in the amplification of oncogenes. For certain amplifications, the large number of genes in the interval has precluded an understanding of the cooperating oncogenic events. Here we have used a zebrafish melanoma model to test genes in a recurrently amplified region of chromosome 1 for the ability to cooperate with BRAF(V600E) and accelerate melanoma. SETDB1, an enzyme that methylates histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), was found to accelerate melanoma formation significantly in zebrafish. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel DNA sequencing and gene expression analyses uncovered genes, including HOX genes, that are transcriptionally dysregulated in response to increased levels of SETDB1. Our studies establish SETDB1 as an oncogene in melanoma and underscore the role of chromatin factors in regulating tumorigenesis.
Project description:The most common mutation in human melanoma, BRAF(V600E), activates the serine/threonine kinase BRAF and causes excessive activity in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. BRAF(V600E) mutations are also present in benign melanocytic naevi, highlighting the importance of additional genetic alterations in the genesis of malignant tumours. Such changes include recurrent copy number variations that result in the amplification of oncogenes. For certain amplifications, the large number of genes in the interval has precluded an understanding of the cooperating oncogenic events. Here we have used a zebrafish melanoma model to test genes in a recurrently amplified region of chromosome 1 for the ability to cooperate with BRAF(V600E) and accelerate melanoma. SETDB1, an enzyme that methylates histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9), was found to accelerate melanoma formation significantly in zebrafish. Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massively parallel DNA sequencing and gene expression analyses uncovered genes, including HOX genes, that are transcriptionally dysregulated in response to increased levels of SETDB1. Our studies establish SETDB1 as an oncogene in melanoma and underscore the role of chromatin factors in regulating tumorigenesis. ChIP was performed from short-term cultures of WM262 and WM451Lu cells.
Project description:An increasing volume of evidence suggests that SETDB1 plays a role in the tumorigenesis of various cancers, classifying SETDB1 as an oncoprotein. However, owing to its numerous protein partners and their global-scale effects, the molecular mechanism underlying SETDB1-involved oncogenesis remains ambiguous. In this study, using public transcriptome data of lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), we compared tumors with high-level SETDB1 (SH) and those with low-level SETDB1 (comparable with normal samples; SL). The results of principal component analysis revealed a transcriptomic distinction and divergence between the SH and SL samples in both ADCs and SCCs. The results of gene set enrichment analysis indicated that genes involved in the "epithelial-mesenchymal transition," "innate immune response," and "autoimmunity" collections were significantly depleted in SH tumors, whereas those involved in "RNA interference" collections were enriched. Chromatin-modifying genes were highly expressed in SH tumors, and the variance in their expression was incomparably high in SCC-SH, which suggested greater heterogeneity within SCC tumors. DNA methyltransferase genes were also overrepresented in SH samples, and most differentially methylated CpGs (SH/SL) were undermethylated in a highly biased manner in ADCs. We identified interesting molecular signatures associated with the possible roles of SETDB1 in lung cancer. We expect these SETDB1-associated molecular signatures to facilitate the development of biologically relevant targeted therapies for particular types of lung cancer.
Project description:SETDB1, a histone H3K9 methyltransferase, has been reported to be upregulated in a variety of tumors and promotes cancer development. However, the exact pathogenesis of SETDB1 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) is hitherto unknown. Here, we showed that SETDB1 expression was highly amplified in CRC. Functionally, SETDB1 downregulation in SW480 and HCT116 cells reduced cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and increased CRC cells apoptosis. In contrast, SETDB1 overexpression promoted CRC cells proliferation, migration, and invasion. High expression of SETDB1 was associated with a more aggressive phenotype in vitro. Flow cytometry showed that cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase after SETDB1 silencing. Furthermore, depletion of SETDB1 in vivo suppressed CRC cells proliferation. Mechanistically, p21 was identified as the target of SETDB1. After transfected with siSETDB1, expression of p21 was distinctly increased. In contrast, expression of p21 was significantly decreased after overexpression SETDB1. We also showed that SETDB1 could be involved in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCT116 cells. Moreover, we confirmed that SETDB1 could regulate the activity of p21 promoter by dual-luciferase repoter assay, and proved that SETDB1 could bind to the promoter of p21 and regulate its H3K9me3 enrichment level by ChIP-PCR experiment. Finally, we verified that silencing of SETDB1 inhibited CRC tumorigenesis in vivo. In conclusion, our results indicate that SETDB1 is a major driver of CRC development and might provide a new therapeutic target for the clinical treatment of CRC.
Project description:Purpose:MiR-654-3p plays important roles in many types of malignant tumours. However, the biological function of miR-654-3p in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains unknown. In this study, the role of miR-654-3p in NSCLC was investigated. Methods:qRT-PCR was used to evaluate the level of miR-654-3p in NSCLC tissues and cell lines, while Cell Counting Kit-8, Annexin V/propidium iodide dual staining or TUNEL staining were used to investigate proliferation and apoptosis of NSCLC cells. Luciferase assays and Western blotting were performed to validate potential targets of miR-654-3p. Results:MiR-654-3p levels were significantly decreased in NSCLC patients and cell lines and were significantly correlated with the tumour size and tumour node metastasis stage of NSCLC patients. In A549 cells, miR-654-3p overexpression significantly increased apoptosis and inhibited growth both in vivo and in vitro, while downregulation of miR-654-3p had the opposite effects. In addition, polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) was shown to be a target gene of miR-654-3p that is negatively regulated by miR-654-3p in A549 cells. Furthermore, PLK4 was observed to be highly expressed in NSCLC tissues and cells, and PLK4 overexpression abolished the inhibitory effects of miR-654-3p overexpression on NSCLC cell proliferation. Finally, the animal experiment results further demonstrated that miR-654-3p inhibits tumour growth and regulates PLK4 expression. Conclusion:Our results demonstrate that miR-654-3p functions as a growth-suppressing miRNA by targeting PLK4 in NSCLC.