DNA ligase III acts as a DNA strand break sensor in the cellular orchestration of DNA strand break repair.
ABSTRACT: In the current model of DNA SSBR, PARP1 is regarded as the sensor of single-strand breaks (SSBs). However, biochemical studies have implicated LIG3 as another possible SSB sensor. Using a laser micro-irradiation protocol that predominantly generates SSBs, we were able to demonstrate that PARP1 is dispensable for the accumulation of different single-strand break repair (SSBR) proteins at sites of DNA damage in live cells. Furthermore, we show in live cells for the first time that LIG3 plays a role in mediating the accumulation of the SSBR proteins XRCC1 and PNKP at sites of DNA damage. Importantly, the accumulation of LIG3 at sites of DNA damage did not require the BRCT domain-mediated interaction with XRCC1. We were able to show that the N-terminal ZnF domain of LIG3 plays a key role in the enzyme's SSB sensing function. Finally, we provide cellular evidence that LIG3 and not PARP1 acts as the sensor for DNA damage caused by the topoisomerase I inhibitor, irinotecan. Our results support the existence of a second damage-sensing mechanism in SSBR involving the detection of nicks in the genome by LIG3.
Project description:The main characteristic of senescence is its stability which relies on the persistence of DNA damage. We show that unlike fibroblasts, senescent epithelial cells do not activate an ATM-or ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR), but accumulate oxidative-stress-induced DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs). These breaks remain unrepaired because of a decrease in PARP1 expression and activity. This leads to the formation of abnormally large and persistent XRCC1 foci that engage a signalling cascade involving the p38MAPK and leading to p16 upregulation and cell cycle arrest. Importantly, the default in SSB repair also leads to the emergence of post-senescent transformed and mutated precancerous cells. In human-aged skin, XRCC1 foci accumulate in the epidermal cells in correlation with a decline of PARP1, whereas DDR foci accumulate mainly in dermal fibroblasts. These findings point SSBs as a DNA damage encountered by epithelial cells with aging which could fuel the very first steps of carcinogenesis.
Project description:Base excision repair (BER) represents the most important repair pathway of endogenous DNA lesions. Initially, a base damage is recognized, excised and a DNA single-strand break (SSB) intermediate forms. The SSB is then ligated, a process that employs proteins also involved in SSB repair, e.g. XRCC1, Ligase III and possibly PARP1. Here, we confirm the role of XRCC1 and PARP in direct SSB repair. Interestingly, we uncover a synthetic lethality between XRCC1 deficiency and PARP inhibition. We also treated cells with alkylating agent dimethyl sulfate (DMS) and monitored the SSB intermediates formed during BER. DMS-induced SSBs were quickly repaired in wild-type cells; while a rapid accumulation of SSBs was observed in cells where post-incision repair was blocked by a PARP inhibitor or by XRCC1 deficiency (EM9 cells). Interestingly, DMS-induced SSBs did not accumulate in PARP1 siRNA depleted cells, demonstrating that PARP1 is not required for efficient completion of BER. Based on these results we suggest no immediate role for PARP1 in BER, but that PARP inhibitors trap PARP on the SSB intermediate formed during BER. Unexpectedly, addition of PARP inhibitor 2 h after DMS treatment still increased SSB levels indicating ongoing repair even at this late time point.
Project description:DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) represent the most abundant type of DNA damage. Unrepaired SSBs impair DNA replication and transcription, leading to cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Although PARP1 and XRCC1 are implicated in the SSB repair pathway, it remains unclear how SSB repair and SSB signaling pathways are coordinated and regulated. Using Xenopus egg extract and in vitro reconstitution systems, here we show that SSBs are first sensed by APE1 to initiate 3'-5' SSB end resection, followed by APE2 recruitment to continue SSB end resection. Notably, APE1's exonuclease activity is critical for SSB repair and SSB signaling pathways. An APE1 exonuclease-deficient mutant identified in somatic tissue from a cancer patient highlighted the significance of APE1 exonuclease activity in cancer etiology. In addition, APE1 interacts with APE2 and PCNA, although PCNA is dispensable for APE1's exonuclease activity. Taken together, we propose a two-step APE1/APE2-mediated mechanism for SSB end resection that couples DNA damage response with SSB repair in a eukaryotic system.
Project description:The repair of endogenously induced DNA damage is essential to maintain genomic integrity. It has been shown that XRCC1 and PARP1 are involved in the repair of base lesions and SSBs, although the exact mode of action has yet to be determined. Here we show that XRCC1 is involved in the repair of base lesions and SSBs independent of the cell cycle. However, the rate of repair of damage requiring XRCC1 does reflect the damage complexity. The repair of induced DNA damage occurs by PARP1-dependent and PARP1-independent sub-pathways of BER. It is suggested that the repair of SSBs and purine base damage is by a sub-pathway of BER that requires both XRCC1 and PARP1. Repair of pyrimidine base damage may require XRCC1 but does not require PARP1 activity. Therefore, although BER of simple lesions occurs rapidly, pathway choice and the involvement of PARP1 are highly dependent on the types of lesion induced.
Project description:Single-strand break repair (SSBR) and base excision repair (BER) of modified bases and abasic sites share several players. Among them is XRCC1, an essential scaffold protein with no enzymatic activity, required for the coordination of both pathways. XRCC1 is recruited to SSBR by PARP-1, responsible for the initial recognition of the break. The recruitment of XRCC1 to BER is still poorly understood. Here we show by using both local and global induction of oxidative DNA base damage that XRCC1 participation in BER complexes can be distinguished from that in SSBR by several criteria. We show first that XRCC1 recruitment to BER is independent of PARP. Second, unlike SSBR complexes that are assembled within minutes after global damage induction, XRCC1 is detected later in BER patches, with kinetics consistent with the repair of oxidized bases. Third, while XRCC1-containing foci associated with SSBR are formed both in eu- and heterochromatin domains, BER complexes are assembled in patches that are essentially excluded from heterochromatin and where the oxidized bases are detected.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors can generate synthetic lethality in cancer cells defective in homologous recombination. However, the mechanism(s) by which they affect DNA repair has not been established. Here we directly determined the effects of PARP inhibition and PARP1 depletion on the repair of ionizing radiation-induced single- and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) in human lymphoid cell lines. To do this, we developed an in vivo repair assay based on large endogenous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) circular episomes. The EBV break assay provides the opportunity to assess quantitatively and simultaneously the induction and repair of SSBs and DSBs in human cells. Repair was efficient in G1 and G2 cells and was not dependent on functional p53. shRNA-mediated knockdown of PARP1 demonstrated that the PARP1 protein was not essential for SSB repair. Among 10 widely used PARP inhibitors, none affected DSB repair, although an inhibitor of DNA-dependent protein kinase was highly effective at reducing DSB repair. Only Olaparib and Iniparib, which are in clinical cancer therapy trials, as well as 4-AN inhibited SSB repair. However, a decrease in PARP1 expression reversed the ability of Iniparib to reduce SSB repair. Because Iniparib disrupts PARP1-DNA binding, the mechanism of inhibition does not appear to involve trapping PARP at SSBs.
Project description:DNA breaks recruit and activate PARP1/2, which deposit poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) to recruit XRCC1-Ligase3 and other repair factors to promote DNA repair. Clinical PARP inhibitors (PARPi) extend the lifetime of damage-induced PARP1/2 foci, referred to as 'trapping'. To understand the molecular nature of 'trapping' in cells, we employed quantitative live-cell imaging and fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching. Unexpectedly, we found that PARP1 exchanges rapidly at DNA damage sites even in the presence of clinical PARPi, suggesting the persistent foci are not caused by physical stalling. Loss of Xrcc1, a major downstream effector of PAR, also caused persistent PARP1 foci without affecting PARP1 exchange. Thus, we propose that the persistent PARP1 foci are formed by different PARP1 molecules that are continuously recruited to and exchanging at DNA lesions due to attenuated XRCC1-LIG3 recruitment and delayed DNA repair. Moreover, mutation analyses of the NAD+ interacting residues of PARP1 showed that PARP1 can be physically trapped at DNA damage sites, and identified H862 as a potential regulator for PARP1 exchange. PARP1-H862D, but not PARylation-deficient PARP1-E988K, formed stable PARP1 foci upon activation. Together, these findings uncovered the nature of persistent PARP1 foci and identified NAD+ interacting residues involved in the PARP1 exchange.
Project description:Condensins are essential protein complexes critical for mitotic chromosome organization. Little is known about the function of condensins during interphase, particularly in mammalian cells. Here we report the interphase-specific interaction between condensin I and the DNA nick-sensor poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1). We show that the association between condensin I, PARP-1, and the base excision repair (BER) factor XRCC1 increases dramatically upon single-strand break damage (SSB) induction. Damage-specific association of condensin I with the BER factors flap endonuclease 1 (FEN-1) and DNA polymerase delta/epsilon was also observed, suggesting that condensin I is recruited to interact with BER factors at damage sites. Consistent with this, DNA damage rapidly stimulates the chromatin association of PARP-1, condensin I, and XRCC1. Furthermore, depletion of condensin in vivo compromises SSB but not double-strand break (DSB) repair. Our results identify a SSB-specific response of condensin I through PARP-1 and demonstrate a role for condensin in SSB repair.
Project description:Oxidative stress is a major source of chromosome single-strand breaks (SSBs), and the repair of these lesions is retarded in neurodegenerative disease. The rate of the repair of oxidative SSBs is accelerated by XRCC1, a scaffold protein that is essential for embryonic viability and that interacts with multiple DNA repair proteins. However, the relative importance of the interactions mediated by XRCC1 during oxidative stress in vivo is unknown. We show that mutations that disrupt the XRCC1 interaction with DNA polymerase beta or DNA ligase III fail to slow SSB repair in proliferating CHO cells following oxidative stress. In contrast, mutation of the domain that interacts with polynucleotide kinase/phosphatase (PNK) and Aprataxin retards repair, and truncated XRCC1 encoding this domain fully supports this process. Importantly, the impact of mutating the protein domain in XRCC1 that binds these end-processing factors is circumvented by the overexpression of wild-type PNK but not by the overexpression of PNK harboring a mutated DNA 3'-phosphatase domain. These data suggest that DNA 3'-phosphatase activity is critical for rapid rates of chromosomal SSB repair following oxidative stress, and that the XRCC1-PNK interaction ensures that this activity is not rate limiting in vivo.
Project description:A critical step of DNA single-strand break repair is the rapid recruitment of the scaffold protein XRCC1 that interacts with, stabilizes and stimulates multiple enzymatic components of the repair process. XRCC1 recruitment is promoted by PARP1, an enzyme that is activated following DNA damage and synthesizes ADP-ribose polymers that XRCC1 binds directly. However, cells possess two other DNA strand break-induced PARP enzymes, PARP2 and PARP3, for which the roles are unclear. To address their involvement in the recruitment of endogenous XRCC1 into oxidized chromatin we have established 'isogenic' human diploid cells in which PARP1 and/or PARP2, or PARP3 are deleted. Surprisingly, we show that either PARP1 or PARP2 are sufficient for near-normal XRCC1 recruitment at oxidative single-strand breaks (SSBs) as indicated by the requirement for loss of both proteins to greatly reduce or ablate XRCC1 chromatin binding following H2O2 treatment. Similar results were observed for PNKP; an XRCC1 protein partner important for repair of oxidative SSBs. Notably, concentrations of PARP inhibitor >1000-fold higher than the IC50 were required to ablate both ADP-ribosylation and XRCC1 chromatin binding following H2O2 treatment. These results demonstrate that very low levels of ADP-ribosylation, synthesized by either PARP1 or PARP2, are sufficient for XRCC1 recruitment following oxidative stress.