Recognition of duplex RNA by the deaminase domain of the RNA editing enzyme ADAR2.
ABSTRACT: Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) hydrolytically deaminate adenosines (A) in a wide variety of duplex RNAs and misregulation of editing is correlated with human disease. However, our understanding of reaction selectivity is limited. ADARs are modular enzymes with multiple double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBDs) and a catalytic domain. While dsRBD binding is understood, little is known about ADAR catalytic domain/RNA interactions. Here we use a recently discovered RNA substrate that is rapidly deaminated by the isolated human ADAR2 deaminase domain (hADAR2-D) to probe these interactions. We introduced the nucleoside analog 8-azanebularine (8-azaN) into this RNA (and derived constructs) to mechanistically trap the protein-RNA complex without catalytic turnover for EMSA and ribonuclease footprinting analyses. EMSA showed that hADAR2-D requires duplex RNA and is sensitive to 2'-deoxy substitution at nucleotides opposite the editing site, the local sequence and 8-azaN nucleotide positioning on the duplex. Ribonuclease V1 footprinting shows that hADAR2-D protects ? 23 nt on the edited strand around the editing site in an asymmetric fashion (? 18 nt on the 5' side and ? 5 nt on the 3' side). These studies provide a deeper understanding of the ADAR catalytic domain-RNA interaction and new tools for biophysical analysis of ADAR-RNA complexes.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in duplex RNA, a modification that exhibits a multitude of effects on RNA structure and function. Recent studies have identified ADAR1 as a potential cancer therapeutic target. ADARs are also important in the development of directed RNA editing therapeutics. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanism of the ADAR reaction will advance efforts to develop ADAR inhibitors and new tools for directed RNA editing. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure of a fragment of human ADAR2 comprising its deaminase domain and double stranded RNA binding domain 2 (dsRBD2) bound to an RNA duplex as an asymmetric homodimer. We identified a highly conserved ADAR dimerization interface and validated the importance of these sequence elements on dimer formation via gel mobility shift assays and size exclusion chromatography. We also show that mutation in the dimerization interface inhibits editing in an RNA substrate-dependent manner for both ADAR1 and ADAR2.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) carry out adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing reactions with a known requirement for duplex RNA. Here, we show that ADARs also react with DNA/RNA hybrid duplexes. Hybrid substrates are deaminated efficiently by ADAR deaminase domains at dA-C mismatches and with E to Q mutations in the base flipping loop of the enzyme. For a long, perfectly matched hybrid, deamination is more efficient with full length ADAR2 than its isolated deaminase domain. Guide RNA strands for directed DNA editing by ADAR were used to target six different 2?-deoxyadenosines in the M13 bacteriophage ssDNA genome. DNA editing efficiencies varied depending on the sequence context of the editing site consistent with known sequence preferences for ADARs. These observations suggest the reaction within DNA/RNA hybrids may be a natural function of human ADARs. In addition, this work sets the stage for development of a new class of genome editing tools based on directed deamination of 2?-deoxyadenosines in DNA/RNA hybrids.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in duplex RNA, a modification reaction with wide-ranging consequences in RNA function. Understanding of the ADAR reaction mechanism, the origin of editing-site selectivity, and the effect of mutations is limited by the lack of high-resolution structural data for complexes of ADARs bound to substrate RNAs. Here we describe four crystal structures of the human ADAR2 deaminase domain bound to RNA duplexes bearing a mimic of the deamination reaction intermediate. These structures, together with structure-guided mutagenesis and RNA-modification experiments, explain the basis of the ADAR deaminase domain's dsRNA specificity, its base-flipping mechanism, and its nearest-neighbor preferences. In addition, we identified an ADAR2-specific RNA-binding loop near the enzyme active site, thus rationalizing differences in selectivity observed between different ADARs. Finally, our results provide a structural framework for understanding the effects of ADAR mutations associated with human disease.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are best known for altering the coding sequences of mRNA through RNA editing, as in the GluR-B Q/R site. ADARs have also been shown to affect RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA processing by deamination of specific adenosines to inosine. Here, we show that ADAR proteins can affect RNA processing independently of their enzymatic activity. We show that ADAR2 can modulate the processing of mir-376a2 independently of catalytic RNA editing activity. In addition, in a Drosophila assay for RNAi deaminase-inactive ADAR1 inhibits RNAi through the siRNA pathway. These results imply that ADAR1 and ADAR2 have biological functions as RNA-binding proteins that extend beyond editing per se and that even genomically encoded ADARs that are catalytically inactive may have such functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A-to-I RNA editing is a co-/post-transcriptional modification catalyzed by ADAR enzymes, that deaminates Adenosines (A) into Inosines (I). Most of known editing events are located within inverted ALU repeats, but they also occur in coding sequences and may alter the function of encoded proteins. RNA editing contributes to generate transcriptomic diversity and it is found altered in cancer, autoimmune and neurological disorders. Emerging evidences indicate that editing process could be influenced by genetic variations, biological and environmental variables. RESULTS:We analyzed RNA editing levels in human blood using RNA-seq data from 459 healthy individuals and identified 2079 sites consistently edited in this tissue. As expected, analysis of gene expression revealed that ADAR is the major contributor to editing on these sites, explaining ~?13% of observed variability. After removing ADAR effect, we found significant associations for 1122 genes, mainly involved in RNA processing. These genes were significantly enriched in genes encoding proteins interacting with ADARs, including 276 potential ADARs interactors and 9 ADARs direct partners. In addition, our analysis revealed several factors potentially influencing RNA editing in blood, including cell composition, age, Body Mass Index, smoke and alcohol consumption. Finally, we identified genetic loci associated with editing levels, including known ADAR eQTLs and a small region on chromosome 7, containing LOC730338, a lincRNA gene that appears to modulate ADARs mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS:Our data provides a detailed picture of the most relevant RNA editing events and their variability in human blood, giving interesting insights on potential mechanisms behind this post-transcriptional modification and its regulation in this tissue.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, catalyzed by Adenosine DeAminases acting on double-stranded RNA(dsRNA) (ADAR), occurs predominantly in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of spliced mRNA. Here we uncover an unanticipated link between ADARs (ADAR1 and ADAR2) and the expression of target genes undergoing extensive 3'UTR editing. Using METTL7A (Methyltransferase Like 7A), a novel tumor suppressor gene with multiple editing sites at its 3'UTR, we demonstrate that its expression could be repressed by ADARs beyond their RNA editing and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding functions. ADARs interact with Dicer to augment the processing of pre-miR-27a to mature miR-27a. Consequently, mature miR-27a targets the METTL7A 3'UTR to repress its expression level. In sum, our study unveils that the extensive 3'UTR editing of METTL7A is merely a footprint of ADAR binding, and there are a subset of target genes that are equivalently regulated by ADAR1 and ADAR2 through their non-canonical RNA editing and dsRNA binding-independent functions, albeit maybe less common. The functional significance of ADARs is much more diverse than previously appreciated and this gene regulatory function of ADARs is most likely to be of high biological importance beyond the best-studied editing function. This non-editing side of ADARs opens another door to target cancer.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine to inosine, which is then recognized as guanosine. To study the role of ADAR proteins in RNA editing and gene regulation, we sequenced and compared the DNA and RNA of human B cells. Then, we followed up the findings experimentally with siRNA knockdown and RNA and protein immunoprecipitations. The results uncovered over 60,000 A-to-G editing sites and several thousand genes whose expression levels are influenced by ADARs. Of these ADAR targets, 90% were identified. Our results also reveal that ADAR regulates transcript stability and gene expression through interaction with HuR (ELAVL1). These findings extend the role of ADAR and show that it cooperates with other RNA-processing proteins to regulate the sequence and expression of transcripts in human cells.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze the deamination of adenosine (A) to inosine (I). A-to-I RNA editing targets double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and increases the complexity of gene regulation by modulating base pairing-dependent processes such as splicing, translation, and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene silencing. This study investigates the genome-wide binding preferences of the nuclear constitutive isoforms ADAR1-p110 and ADAR2 on human miRNA species by RNA immunoprecipitation of ADAR-bound small RNAs (RIP-seq). Our results suggest that secondary structure predicted by base-pairing probability in the mainly double-stranded region of a pre-miRNA or mature miRNA duplex may determine ADAR isoform preference for binding distinct subpopulations of miRNAs. Furthermore, we identify 31 unique editing sites with statistical significance, 19 sites of which are novel editing sites. Editing sites are enriched in the seed region responsible for target recognition by miRNAs, and isoform-specific nucleotide motifs in the immediate vicinity and opposite of editing sites are consistent with previous studies, and further reveal that ADAR2 may edit A/C bulges more frequently than ADAR1-p110 in the context of miRNA.
Project description:The ADAR proteins deaminate adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA which is one of the most abundant modifications present in mammalian RNA. Inosine can have a profound effect on the RNAs that are edited, not only changing the base-pairing properties, but can also result in recoding, as inosine behaves as if it were guanosine. In mammals there are three ADAR proteins and two ADAR-related proteins (ADAD) expressed. All have a very similar modular structure; however, both their expression and biological function differ significantly. Only two of the ADAR proteins have enzymatic activity. However, both ADAR and ADAD proteins possess the ability to bind double-strand RNA. Mutations in ADARs have been associated with many diseases ranging from cancer, innate immunity to neurological disorders. Here, we will discuss in detail the domain structure of mammalian ADARs, the effects of RNA editing, and the role of ADARs in human diseases.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing, catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) enzymes, alters RNA sequences from those encoded by DNA. These editing events are dynamically regulated, but few trans regulators of ADARs are known in vivo. Here, we screen RNA-binding proteins for roles in editing regulation with knockdown experiments in the Drosophila brain. We identify zinc-finger protein at 72D (Zn72D) as a regulator of editing levels at a majority of editing sites in the brain. Zn72D both regulates ADAR protein levels and interacts with ADAR in an RNA-dependent fashion, and similar to ADAR, Zn72D is necessary to maintain proper neuromuscular junction architecture and fly mobility. Furthermore, Zn72D's regulatory role in RNA editing is conserved because the mammalian homolog of Zn72D, Zfr, regulates editing in mouse primary neurons. The broad and conserved regulation of ADAR editing by Zn72D in neurons sustains critically important editing events.