A nuclear ubiquitin-proteasome pathway targets the inner nuclear membrane protein Asi2 for degradation.
ABSTRACT: The nuclear envelope consists of inner and outer nuclear membranes. Whereas the outer membrane is an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, the inner nuclear membrane (INM) represents a unique membranous environment containing specific proteins. The mechanisms of integral INM protein degradation are unknown. Here, we investigated the turnover of Asi2, an integral INM protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We report that Asi2 is degraded by the proteasome independently of the vacuole and that it exhibited a half-life of ?45?min. Asi2 exhibits enhanced stability in mutants lacking the E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes Ubc6 or Ubc7, or the E3 ubiquitin ligase Doa10. Consistent with these data, Asi2 is post-translationally modified by poly-ubiquitylation in a Ubc7- and Doa10-dependent manner. Importantly Asi2 degradation is significantly reduced in a sts1-2 mutant that fails to accumulate proteasomes in the nucleus, indicating that Asi2 is degraded in the nucleus. Our results reveal a molecular pathway that affects the stability of integral proteins of the inner nuclear membrane and indicate that Asi2 is subject to protein quality control in the nucleus.
Project description:The nuclear envelope is a double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. The inner nuclear membrane (INM) functions in essential nuclear processes including chromatin organization and regulation of gene expression. The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and is the site of membrane protein synthesis. Protein homeostasis in this compartment is ensured by endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathways that in yeast involve the integral membrane E3 ubiquitin ligases Hrd1 and Doa10 operating with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 (refs 2, 3). However, little is known about protein quality control at the INM. Here we describe a protein degradation pathway at the INM in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mediated by the Asi complex consisting of the RING domain proteins Asi1 and Asi3 (ref. 4). We report that the Asi complex functions together with the ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes Ubc6 and Ubc7 to degrade soluble and integral membrane proteins. Genetic evidence suggests that the Asi ubiquitin ligase defines a pathway distinct from, but complementary to, ERAD. Using unbiased screening with a novel genome-wide yeast library based on a tandem fluorescent protein timer, we identify more than 50 substrates of the Asi, Hrd1 and Doa10 E3 ubiquitin ligases. We show that the Asi ubiquitin ligase is involved in degradation of mislocalized integral membrane proteins, thus acting to maintain and safeguard the identity of the INM.
Project description:In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), nascent membrane and secreted proteins that are misfolded are retrotranslocated into the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome. For most ER-associated degradation (ERAD) substrates, ubiquitylation is essential for both their retrotranslocation and degradation. Yeast Doa10 is a polytopic membrane ubiquitin ligase (E3) that along with its cognate ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s), Ubc7 and the C-terminally membrane-anchored Ubc6, makes a major contribution to ER-associated degradation. Ubc6 is also a substrate of Doa10. One highly conserved Doa10 element, the uncharacterized ~130-residue TEB4-Doa10 domain, includes three transmembrane helices (TMs). We find that the first of these, TM5, includes an absolutely conserved ?P?XXG motif that is required for Doa10 function, as well as highly conserved negatively charged glutamate and aspartate residues. The conservative exchange of the TM5 glutamate to aspartate (doa10-E633D) results in complete stabilization of Ubc6 but has little if any effect on other substrates. Unexpectedly, mutating the glutamate to glutamine (doa10-E633Q) specifically accelerates Ubc6 degradation by ~5-fold. Other substrates are weakly stabilized in doa10-E633Q cells, consistent with reduced Ubc6 levels. Notably, catalytically inactive ubc6-C87A is degraded in doa10-E633Q but not wild-type cells, but an active version of Ubc6 is required in trans. Fusion of the Ubc6 TM to a soluble protein yields a protein that is degraded in a doa10-E633Q-dependent manner, whereas fusion of the C-terminal TM from an unrelated protein does not. These results suggest that the TEB4-Doa10 domain regulates Doa10 association with the Ubc6 membrane anchor, thereby controlling the degradation rate of the E2.
Project description:The nucleus is enclosed by the inner nuclear membrane (INM) and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). While the ONM is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the INM is independent and separates the nucleoplasm from the ER lumen. Turnover of ER proteins has been well characterized by the ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD) pathway, but very little is known about turnover of resident INM proteins. Here we show that the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulates the degradation of Mps3, a conserved integral protein of the INM. Turnover of Mps3 requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ubc7, but was independent of the known ERAD ubiquitin ligases Doa10 and Hrd1 as well as the recently discovered Asi1-Asi3 complex. Using a genetic approach, we have found that Cdh1, a coactivator of APC/C, modulates Mps3 stability. APC/C controls Mps3 degradation through Mps3's N terminus, which resides in the nucleoplasm and possesses two putative APC/C-dependent destruction motifs. Accumulation of Mps3 at the INM impairs nuclear morphological changes and cell division. Our findings therefore reveal an unexpected mechanism of APC/C-mediated protein degradation at the INM that coordinates nuclear morphogenesis and cell cycle progression.
Project description:The yeast Doa10 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear envelope (NE), where it functions in ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Doa10 substrates include non-ER proteins such as the transcription factor Mat alpha2. Here, we expand the range of Doa10 substrates to include a defective kinetochore component, a mutant NE membrane protein, and a substrate-regulated human ER enzyme. For all these substrates, Doa10 requires two Ub-conjugating enzymes, Ubc6 and Ubc7, as well as the Ubc7 cofactor Cue1. Based on a novel genomic screen of a comprehensive gene deletion library and other data, these four proteins appear to be the only nonessential and nonredundant factors generally required for Doa10-mediated ubiquitination. Notably, the Cdc48 ATPase facilitates degradation of membrane-embedded Doa10 substrates, but is not required for any tested soluble Doa10 substrates. This distinction is maintained even when comparing membrane and soluble proteins bearing the same degradation signal. Thus, while Doa10 ubiquitinates both membrane and soluble proteins, the mechanisms of subsequent proteasome targeting differ.
Project description:Substrate discrimination in the ubiquitin-proteasome system is believed to be dictated by specific combinations of ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s). Here we identify Doa10/Ssm4 as a yeast E3 that is embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/nuclear envelope yet can target the soluble transcription factor Matalpha2. Doa10 contains an unusual RING finger, which has ubiquitin-ligase activity in vitro and is essential in vivo for degradation of alpha2 via its Deg1 degradation signal. Doa10 functions with two E2s, Ubc6 and Ubc7, to ubiquitinate Deg1-bearing substrates, and it is also required for the degradation of at least one ER membrane protein. Interestingly, different short-lived ER proteins show distinct requirements for Doa10 and another ER-localized E3, Hrd1. Nevertheless, the two E3s overlap in function: A doa10Delta hrd1Delta mutant is far more sensitive to cadmium relative to either single mutant and displays strong constitutive induction of the unfolded protein response; this suggests a role for both E3s in eliminating aberrant ER proteins. The likely human ortholog of DOA10 is in the cri-du-chat syndrome critical region on chromosome 5p, suggesting that defective ubiquitin ligation might contribute to this common genetic disorder.
Project description:The evidence that nuclear proteins can be degraded by cytosolic proteasomes has received considerable experimental support. However, the presence of proteasome subunits in the nucleus also suggests that protein degradation could occur within this organelle. We determined that Sts1 can target proteasomes to the nucleus and facilitate the degradation of a nuclear protein. Specific sts1 mutants showed reduced nuclear proteasomes at the nonpermissive temperature. In contrast, high expression of Sts1 increased the levels of nuclear proteasomes. Sts1 targets proteasomes to the nucleus by interacting with Srp1, a nuclear import factor that binds nuclear localization signals. Deletion of the NLS in Sts1 prevented its interaction with Srp1 and caused proteasome mislocalization. In agreement with this observation, a mutation in Srp1 that weakened its interaction with Sts1 also reduced nuclear targeting of proteasomes. We reported that Sts1 could suppress growth and proteolytic defects of rad23? rpn10?. We show here that Sts1 suppresses a previously undetected proteasome localization defect in this mutant. Taken together, these findings explain the suppression of rad23? rpn10? by Sts1 and suggest that the degradation of nuclear substrates requires efficient proteasome localization.
Project description:A significant portion of ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent cellular protein quality control takes place at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in a process termed "ER-associated degradation" (ERAD). Yeast ERAD employs two integral ER membrane E3 Ub ligases: Hrd1 (also termed "Der3") and Doa10, which recognize a distinct set of substrates. However, both E3s bind to and activate a common E2-conjugating enzyme, Ubc7. Here we describe a novel feature of the ERAD system that entails differential activation of Ubc7 by its cognate E3s. We found that residues within helix ?2 of Ubc7 that interact with donor Ub were essential for polyUb conjugation. Mutagenesis of these residues inhibited the in vitro activity of Ubc7 by preventing the conjugation of donor Ub to the acceptor. Unexpectedly, Ub chain formation by mutant Ubc7 was restored selectively by the Hrd1 RING domain but not by the Doa10 RING domain. In agreement with the in vitro data, Ubc7 ?2 helix mutations selectively impaired the in vivo degradation of Doa10 substrates but had no apparent effect on the degradation of Hrd1 substrates. To our knowledge, this is the first example of distinct activation requirements of a single E2 by two E3s. We propose a model in which the RING domain activates Ub transfer by stabilizing a transition state determined by noncovalent interactions between the ?2 helix of Ubc7 and Ub and that this transition state may be stabilized further by some E3 ligases, such as Hrd1, through additional interactions outside the RING domain.
Project description:Appropriate targeting of inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins is important for nuclear function and architecture. To gain new insights into the mechanism(s) for targeting and/or tethering peripherally associated proteins to the INM, we screened a collection of temperature sensitive S. cerevisiae yeast mutants for defects in INM location of the peripheral protein, Trm1-II-GFP. We uncovered numerous genes encoding components of the Spindle Pole Body (SPB), the yeast centrosome. SPB alterations affect the localization of both an integral (Heh2) and a peripheral INM protein (Trm1-II-GFP), but not a nucleoplasmic protein (Pus1). In wild-type cells Trm1-II-GFP is evenly distributed around the INM, but in SPB mutants, Trm1-II-GFP mislocalizes as a spot(s) near ER-nucleus junctions, perhaps its initial contact site with the nuclear envelope. Employing live cell imaging over time in a microfluidic perfusion system to study protein dynamics, we show that both Trm1-II-GFP INM targeting and maintenance depend upon the SPB. We propose a novel targeting and/or tethering model for a peripherally associated INM protein that combines mechanisms of both integral and soluble nuclear proteins, and describe a role of the SPB in nuclear envelope dynamics that affects this process.
Project description:Nuclear localization of multiple receptor-tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as EGF receptor (EGFR), ErbB-2, FGF receptor (FGFR), and many others, has been reported by several groups. We previously showed that cell surface EGFR is trafficked to the nucleus through a retrograde pathway from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that EGFR is then translocated to the inner nuclear membrane (INM) through the INTERNET (integral trafficking from the ER to the nuclear envelope transport) pathway. However, the nuclear trafficking mechanisms of other membrane RTKs, apart from EGFR, remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the nuclear transport of EGFR family proteins with that of FGFR-1. Interestingly, we found that digitonin permeabilization, which selectively releases soluble nuclear transporters from the cytoplasm and has been shown to inhibit nuclear transport of FGFR-1, had no effects on EGFR nuclear transport, raising the possibility that EGFR and FGFR-1 use different pathways to be translocated into the nucleus. Using the subnuclear fractionation assay, we further demonstrated that biotinylated cell surface ErbB-2, but not FGFR-1, is targeted to the INM, associating with Sec61? in the INM, similar to the nuclear trafficking of EGFR. Thus, ErbB-2, but not FGFR-1, shows a similar trafficking pathway to EGFR for translocation to the nucleus, indicating that at least two different pathways of nuclear transport exist for cell surface receptors. This finding provides a new direction for investigating the trafficking mechanisms of various nuclear RTKs.
Project description:Association of nuclear lamins with the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is mediated by lipid modifications: either by C-terminal isoprenylation or N-terminal myristoylation. Overexpression of lamins or other lipidated nuclear proteins induces the formation of intranuclear membrane-like arrays. Lamin-induced intranuclear array formation has been observed in Xenopus oocytes as well as in mammalian tissue culture cells. With the use of a membrane-specific fluorescence dye we show here that these arrays are made up of typical lipid membranes. While continuity between these intranuclear membranes and the INM has not been observed so far the presence of integral as well as luminal marker proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) indicates that these membranes are derived from the nuclear membrane/ER compartment. Earlier studies demonstrated that overexpression of integral membrane proteins of the INM can induce formation of intranuclear membranes, which bud from the INM. Integral membrane proteins reach the INM via the pore membranes while lipidated proteins are imported into the nucleoplasm via the classical NLS pathway where they interact with the INM via their lipid moieties. Together with the previously published data our results show that the formation of intranuclear membranes follows similar routes irrespective of whether the proteins triggering membrane formation are integral membrane or lipidated proteins.