In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity and resistance profile of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor ABT-450.
ABSTRACT: The development of direct-acting antiviral agents is a promising therapeutic advance in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, rapid emergence of drug resistance can limit efficacy and lead to cross-resistance among members of the same drug class. ABT-450 is an efficacious inhibitor of HCV NS3/4A protease, with 50% effective concentration values of 1.0, 0.21, 5.3, 19, 0.09, and 0.69 nM against stable HCV replicons with NS3 protease from genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 3a, 4a, and 6a, respectively. In vitro, the most common amino acid variants selected by ABT-450 in genotype 1 were located in NS3 at positions 155, 156, and 168, with the D168Y variant conferring the highest level of resistance to ABT-450 in both genotype 1a and 1b replicons (219- and 337-fold, respectively). In a 3-day monotherapy study with HCV genotype 1-infected patients, ABT-450 was coadministered with ritonavir, a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor shown previously to markedly increase peak, trough, and overall drug exposures of ABT-450. A mean maximum HCV RNA decline of 4.02 log10 was observed at the end of the 3-day dosing period across all doses. The most common variants selected in these patients were R155K and D168V in genotype 1a and D168V in genotype 1b. However, selection of resistant variants was significantly reduced at the highest ABT-450 dose compared to lower doses. These findings were informative for the subsequent evaluation of ABT-450 in combination with additional drug classes in clinical trials in HCV-infected patients. (Study M11-602 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01074008.).
Project description:Analysis of data pooled from multiple phase 2 (SILEN-C1 to 3) and phase 3 studies (STARTVerso1 to 4) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 3/4A (NS3/4A) protease inhibitor faldaprevir plus pegylated interferon alpha/ribavirin (PR) provides a comprehensive evaluation of baseline and treatment-emergent NS3/4A amino acid variants among HCV genotype-1 (GT-1)-infected patients. Pooled analyses of GT-1a and GT-1b NS3 population-based pretreatment sequences (n = 3,124) showed that faldaprevir resistance-associated variants (RAVs) at NS3 R155 and D168 were rare (<1%). No single, noncanonical NS3 protease or NS4A cofactor baseline polymorphism was associated with a reduced sustained virologic response (SVR) to faldaprevir plus PR, including Q80K. The GT-1b NS3 helicase polymorphism T344I was associated with reduced SVR to faldaprevir plus PR (P < 0.0001) but was not faldaprevir specific, as reduced SVR was also observed with placebo plus PR. Among patients who did not achieve SVR and had available NS3 population sequences (n = 507 GT-1a; n = 349 GT-1b), 94% of GT-1a and 83% of GT-1b encoded faldaprevir treatment-emergent RAVs. The predominant GT-1a RAV was R155K (88%), whereas GT-1b encoded D168 substitutions (78%) in which D168V was predominant (67%). The novel GT-1b NS3 S61L substitution emerged in 7% of virologic failures as a covariant with D168V, most often among the faldaprevir breakthroughs; S61L in combination with D168V had a minimal impact on faldaprevir susceptibility compared with that for D168V alone (1.5-fold difference in vitro). The median time to loss of D168 RAVs among GT-1b-infected patients who did not have a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment (non-SVR12) after virologic failure was 5 months, which was shorter than the 14 months for R155 RAVs among GT-1a-infected non-SVR12 patients, suggesting that D168V is less fit than R155K in the absence of faldaprevir selective pressure.
Project description:Glecaprevir (formerly ABT-493) is a novel hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI) with pangenotypic activity. It inhibited the enzymatic activity of purified NS3/4A proteases from HCV genotypes 1 to 6 in vitro (half-maximal [50%] inhibitory concentration = 3.5 to 11.3 nM) and the replication of stable HCV subgenomic replicons containing proteases from genotypes 1 to 6 (50% effective concentration [EC50] = 0.21 to 4.6 nM). Glecaprevir had a median EC50 of 0.30 nM (range, 0.05 to 3.8 nM) for HCV replicons containing proteases from 40 samples from patients infected with HCV genotypes 1 to 5. Importantly, glecaprevir was active against the protease from genotype 3, the most-difficult-to-treat HCV genotype, in both enzymatic and replicon assays demonstrating comparable activity against the other HCV genotypes. In drug-resistant colony selection studies, glecaprevir generally selected substitutions at NS3 amino acid position A156 in replicons containing proteases from genotypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, and 4a and substitutions at position D/Q168 in replicons containing proteases from genotypes 3a, 5a, and 6a. Although the substitutions A156T and A156V in NS3 of genotype 1 reduced susceptibility to glecaprevir, replicons with these substitutions demonstrated a low replication efficiency in vitro Glecaprevir is active against HCV with most of the common NS3 amino acid substitutions that are associated with reduced susceptibility to other currently approved HCV PIs, including those at positions 155 and 168. Combination of glecaprevir with HCV inhibitors with other mechanisms of action resulted in additive or synergistic antiviral activity. In summary, glecaprevir is a next-generation HCV PI with potent pangenotypic activity and a high barrier to the development of resistance.
Project description:Dasabuvir (ABT-333) is a nonnucleoside inhibitor of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase encoded by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B gene. Dasabuvir inhibited recombinant NS5B polymerases derived from HCV genotype 1a and 1b clinical isolates, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values between 2.2 and 10.7 nM, and was at least 7,000-fold selective for the inhibition of HCV genotype 1 polymerases over human/mammalian polymerases. In the HCV subgenomic replicon system, dasabuvir inhibited genotype 1a (strain H77) and 1b (strain Con1) replicons with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 7.7 and 1.8 nM, respectively, with a 13-fold decrease in inhibitory activity in the presence of 40% human plasma. This level of activity was retained against a panel of chimeric subgenomic replicons that contained HCV NS5B genes from 22 genotype 1 clinical isolates from treatment-naive patients, with EC50s ranging between 0.15 and 8.57 nM. Maintenance of replicon-containing cells in medium containing dasabuvir at concentrations 10-fold or 100-fold greater than the EC50 resulted in selection of resistant replicon clones. Sequencing of the NS5B coding regions from these clones revealed the presence of variants, including C316Y, M414T, Y448C, Y448H, and S556G, that are consistent with binding to the palm I site of HCV polymerase. Consequently, dasabuvir retained full activity against replicons known to confer resistance to other polymerase inhibitors, including the S282T variant in the nucleoside binding site and the M423T, P495A, P495S, and V499A single variants in the thumb domain. The use of dasabuvir in combination with inhibitors targeting HCV NS3/NS4A protease (ABT-450 with ritonavir) and NS5A (ombitasvir) is in development for the treatment of HCV genotype 1 infections.
Project description:NS3/4A serine protease is a prime target for direct-acting antiviral therapies against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Several NS3/4A inhibitors have been widely used in clinic, while new inhibitors with better characteristics are still urgently needed. GP205 is a new macrocyclic inhibitor of NS3/4A with low nanomolar activities against HCV replicons of genotypes 1b, 2a, 4a, and 5a, with EC50 values ranging from 1.5 to 12.8 nmol/L. In resistance selection study in vitro, we found resistance-associated substitutions on D168: The activity of GP205 was significantly attenuated against 1b replicon with D168V or D168A mutation, similar as simeprevir. No cross resistance of GP205 with NS5B or NS5A inhibitor was observed. Combination of GP205 with sofosbuvir or daclatasvir displayed additive or synergistic efficacy. The pharmacokinetic profile of GP205 was characterized in rats and dogs after oral administration, which revealed good drug exposure both in plasma and in liver and long plasma half-life. The in vitro stability test showed ideal microsomal and hepatic cells stability of GP205. The preclinical profiles of GP205 support further research on this NS3/4A inhibitor to expand the existing HCV infection therapies.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is genetically diverse and includes 7 genotypes and 67 confirmed subtypes, and the global distribution of each HCV genotype (GT) varies by geographic region. In this report, we utilized a large dataset of NS3/4A and NS5A sequences isolated from 2348 HCV GT1-6-infected patients treated with the regimen containing glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB) to assess genetic diversity within HCV subtypes by geographic region using phylogenetic analyses, and evaluated the prevalence of baseline amino acid polymorphisms in NS3 and NS5A by region/country and phylogenetic cluster. Among 2348 NS3/4A and NS5A sequences, phylogenetic analysis identified 6 genotypes and 44 subtypes, including 3 GT1, 8 GT2, 3 GT3, 13 GT4, 1 GT5, and 16 GT6 subtypes. Phylogenetic analysis of HCV subtype 1a confirmed the presence of two clades, which differed by geographic region distribution and NS3 Q80K prevalence. We detected phylogenetic clustering by country in HCV subtypes 1a, 1b, 2a, 2b, and 5a, suggesting that genetically distinct virus lineages are circulating in different countries. In addition, two clades were detected in HCV GT4a and GT6e, and NS5A amino acid polymorphisms were differentially distributed between the 2 clades in each subtype. The prevalence of NS3 and NS5A baseline polymorphisms varied substantially by genotype and subtype; therefore, we also determined the activity of GLE or PIB against replicons containing NS3/4A or NS5A from HCV GT1-6 clinical samples representing 6 genotypes and 21 subtypes overall. GLE and PIB retained activity against the majority of HCV replicons containing NS3/4A or NS5A from HCV GT1-6 clinical samples, with a median EC50 of 0.29 nM for GLE and 1.1 pM for PIB in a transient replicon assay. The data presented in this report expands the available data on HCV epidemiology, subtype diversity by geographic region, and NS3 and NS5A baseline polymorphism prevalence.
Project description:Despite recent successes in generating subgenomic RNA replicons derived from genotype 1b strains of hepatitis C virus (HCV) that replicate efficiently in cultured cells, it has proven difficult to generate efficiently replicating RNAs from any other genotype of HCV. This includes genotype 1a, even though it is closely related to genotype 1b. We show here that an important restriction to replication of the genotype 1a H77c strain RNA in normal Huh7 cells resides within the amino-terminal 75 residues of the NS3 protease. We identified adaptive mutations located within this NS3 domain and within NS4A, in close proximity to the essential protease cofactor sequence, that act cooperative to substantially enhance the replication of this genotype 1a RNA in Huh7 cells. These and additional adaptive mutations, identified through a series of iterative transfections and the selection of G418-resistant cell clones, form two groups associating with distinct nonstructural protein domains: the NS3/4A protease and NS5A. A combination of mutations from both groups led to robust replication of otherwise unmodified H77c genomic RNA that was readily detectable by northern analysis within 4 days of transfection into Huh7 cells. We speculate that these adaptive mutations favorably influence assembly of the replicase complex with host cell-specific proteins, or alternatively promote interactions of NS3/4A and/or NS5A with cellular proteins involved in host cell antiviral defenses.
Project description:Faldaprevir (BI 201335) is a selective NS3/4A protease inhibitor under development for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. NS3/4A genotyping and NS3 protease phenotyping analyses were performed to monitor the emergence of resistance in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection receiving faldaprevir alone or combined with pegylated interferon alfa 2a and ribavirin (PegIFN-RBV) during a phase 1b study. Among all baseline variants, a maximum 7-fold reduction in in vitro sensitivity to faldaprevir was observed for a rare NS3 (V/I)170T polymorphism. During faldaprevir monotherapy in treatment-naive patients, virologic breakthrough was common (77%, 20/26) and was associated with the emergence of resistance mutations predominantly carrying NS3 substitutions R155K in GT1a and D168V in GT1b. D168V conferred a greater reduction in faldaprevir sensitivity (1,800-fold) than R155K (330-fold); however, D168V was generally less fit than R155K in the absence of selective drug pressure. Treatment-experienced patients treated with faldaprevir-PegIFN-RBV triple therapy showed higher viral load reductions, lower rates of breakthrough (8%, 5/62), and less frequent emergence of resistance-associated variants compared with faldaprevir monotherapy. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00793793.).
Project description:Despite recent advances in the treatment of hepatitis C, the quest for pan-genotype, effective, and well-tolerated inhibitors continues. To facilitate these efforts, it is desirable to have in vitro replication systems for all major HCV genotypes. However, cell culture replication systems exist for only genotypes 1a, 1b, and 2a. In this study, we generated G418-selectable subgenomic replicons for prototype strains of genotypes 3a (S52) and 4a (ED43). Production of G418-resistant colonies by S52 and ED43 in Huh-7.5 cells required the amino acid substitutions S2210I and R2882G, respectively, cell culture adaptive mutations originally reported for genotype 1b replicons. RNA replication was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and detection of viral protein. Sequencing of multiple independent replicon clones revealed the presence of additional nonsynonymous mutations. Interestingly, all potentially adaptive mutations mapped to the NS3 protein. These mutations, when introduced back into original constructs, substantially increased colony formation efficiency. To make these replicons useful for high-throughput screening and evaluation of antiviral compounds, they were modified to express a chimeric fusion protein of firefly luciferase and neomycin phosphotransferase to yield stable replicon-expressing cells. Using these constructs, the inhibitory effects of beta interferon (IFN-?), an NS3 protease inhibitor, and an NS5B nucleoside polymerase inhibitor were readily detected by monitoring luciferase activity. In conclusion, we have established functional replicons for HCV genotypes 3a and 4a, important new additions to the armamentarium required to develop inhibitors with a pan-genotype activity.
Project description:Ombitasvir (ABT-267) is a hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5A inhibitor with picomolar potency, pan-genotypic activity, and 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) of 0.82 to 19.3 pM against HCV genotypes 1 to 5 and 366 pM against genotype 6a. Ombitasvir retained these levels of potency against a panel of 69 genotype 1 to 6 chimeric replicons containing the NS5A gene derived from HCV-infected patients, despite the existence of natural sequence diversity within NS5A. In vitro resistance selection identified variants that conferred resistance to ombitasvir in the HCV NS5A gene at amino acid positions 28, 30, 31, 58, and 93 in genotypes 1 to 6. Ombitasvir was evaluated in vivo in a 3-day monotherapy study in 12 HCV genotype 1-infected patients at 5, 25, 50, or 200 mg dosed once daily. All patients in the study were HCV genotype 1a infected and were without preexisting resistant variants at baseline as determined by clonal sequencing. Decreases in HCV RNA up to 3.1 log10 IU/ml were observed. Resistance-associated variants at position 28, 30, or 93 in NS5A were detected in patient samples 48 hours after the first dose. Clonal sequencing analysis indicated that wild-type virus was largely suppressed by ombitasvir during 3-day monotherapy, and at doses higher than 5 mg, resistant variant M28V was also suppressed. Ombitasvir was well tolerated at all doses, and there were no serious or severe adverse events. These data support clinical development of ombitasvir in combination with inhibitors targeting HCV NS3/4A protease (ABT-450 with ritonavir) and HCV NS5B polymerase (ABT-333, dasabuvir) for the treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. (Study M12-116 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01181427.).
Project description:Asunaprevir (BMS-650032) is a potent hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitor demonstrating efficacy in alfa interferon-sparing, direct-acting antiviral dual-combination regimens (together with the NS5A replication complex inhibitor daclatasvir) in patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1b. Here, we describe a comprehensive in vitro genotypic and phenotypic analysis of asunaprevir-associated resistance against genotypes 1a and 1b using HCV replicons and patient samples obtained from clinical studies of short-term asunaprevir monotherapy. During genotype 1a resistance selection using HCV replicons, the primary NS3 protease substitutions identified were R155K, D168G, and I170T, which conferred low- to moderate-level asunaprevir resistance (5- to 21-fold) in transient-transfection susceptibility assays. For genotype 1b, a higher level of asunaprevir-associated resistance was observed at the same selection pressures, ranging from 170- to 400-fold relative to the wild-type control. The primary NS3 protease substitutions identified occurred predominantly at amino acid residue D168 (D168A/G/H/V/Y) and were associated with high-level asunaprevir resistance (16- to 280-fold) and impaired replication capacity. In asunaprevir single-ascending-dose and 3-day multiple-ascending-dose studies in HCV genotype 1a- or 1b-infected patients, the predominant pre-existing NS3 baseline polymorphism was NS3-Q80K. This substitution impacted initial virologic response rates in a single-ascending-dose study, but its effects after multiple doses were more ambiguous. Interestingly, for patient NS3 protease sequences containing Q80 and those containing K80, susceptibilities to asunaprevir were comparable when tested in an enzyme assay. No resistance-associated variants emerged in these clinical studies that significantly impacted susceptibility to asunaprevir. Importantly, asunaprevir-resistant replicons remained susceptible to an NS5A replication complex inhibitor, consistent with a role for asunaprevir in combination therapies.