Lignocellulose depolymerization occurs via an environmentally adapted metabolic cascades in the wood-rotting basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
ABSTRACT: Plant biomass can be utilized by a lignocellulose-degrading fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, but the metabolic and regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. A polyomics-based analysis (metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics) of P. chrysosporium has been carried out using statistically optimized conditions for lignocellulolytic reaction. Thirty-nine metabolites and 123 genes (14 encoded proteins) that consistently exhibited altered regulation patterns were identified. These factors were then integrated into a comprehensive map that fully depicts all signaling cascades involved in P. chrysosporium. Despite the diversity of these cascades, they showed complementary interconnection among themselves, ensuring the efficiency of passive biosystem and thereby yielding energy expenditure for the cells. Particularly, many factors related to intracellular regulatory networks showed compensating activity in homeostatic lignocellulolysis. In the main platform of proactive biosystem, although several deconstruction-related targets (e.g., glycoside hydrolase, ureidoglycolate hydrolase, transporters, and peroxidases) were systematically utilized, well-known supporters (e.g., cellobiose dehydrogenase and ferroxidase) were rarely generated.
Project description:Cellobiohydrolases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 6 (CBH II, Cel6A) play key roles in the hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose. CBH II from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PcCel6A) consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a carbohydrate-binding module connected by a linker peptide, like other known fungal cellobiohydrolases. In the present study, the CD of PcCel6A was crystallized without ligands, and p-nitrophenyl ?-D-cellotrioside (pNPG3) was soaked into the crystals. The determined structures of the ligand-free and pNPG3-soaked crystals revealed that binding of cellobiose at substrate subsites +1 and +2 induces a conformational change of the N-terminal and C-terminal loops, switching the tunnel-shaped active site from the open to the closed form.
Project description:Exo-beta-1,3-galactanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A) consists of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 catalytic domain and a substrate-binding domain that belongs to carbohydrate-binding module family 35. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-1,3-galactan, which is the backbone of the arabinogalactan proteins; the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module family 35 domain increases the local concentration of the enzyme around beta-1,3-galactan by its high affinity for the substrate. To enable phase determination using the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method, selenomethionyl Pc1,3Gal43A was crystallized at 298 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The presence of selenium in the crystals was confirmed from the X-ray absorption spectrum. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1) and diffracted to 1.8 A resolution.
Project description:Thermal inactivation of saccharifying enzymes is a crucial issue for the efficient utilization of cellulosic biomass as a renewable resource. Cellobiohydrolases (CBHs) are a kind of cellulase. In general, CBHs belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 6 (Cel6) act synergistically with CBHs of GH family 7 (Cel7) and other carbohydrate-active enzymes during the degradation of cellulosic biomass. However, while the catalytic rate of enzymes generally becomes faster at higher temperatures, Cel6 CBHs are inactivated at lower temperatures than Cel7 CBHs, and this represents a limiting factor for industrial utilization. In this study, we produced a series of mutants of the glycoside hydrolase family 6 cellobiohydrolase <i>Pc</i> Cel6A from the fungus <i>Phanerochaete chrysosporium</i> , and compared their thermal stability. Eight mutants from a random mutagenesis library and one rationally designed mutant were selected as candidate thermostable mutants and produced by heterologous expression in the yeast <i>Pichia pastoris</i> . Comparison of the hydrolytic activities at 50 and 60 °C indicated that the thermal stability of <i>Pc</i> Cel6A is influenced by the number and position of cysteine residues that are not involved in disulfide bonds.
Project description:The white rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium completely degrades lignin and a variety of aromatic pollutants during the secondary metabolic phase of growth. Two families of secreted heme enzymes, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), are major components of the extracellular lignin degradative system of this organism. MnP and LiP both are encoded by families of genes, and the lip genes appear to be clustered. The lip genes contain eight or nine short introns; the mnp genes contain six or seven short introns. The sequences surrounding active-site residues are conserved among LiP, MnP, cytochrome c peroxidase, and plant peroxidases. The eight LiP cysteine residues align with 8 of the 10 cysteines in MnP. LiPs are synthesized as preproenzymes with a 21-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 6- or 7-amino-acid propeptide. MnPs have a 21- or 24-amino-acid signal sequence but apparently lack a propeptide. Both LiP and MnP are regulated at the mRNA level by nitrogen, and the various isozymes may be differentially regulated by carbon and nitrogen. MnP also is regulated at the level of gene transcription by Mn(II), the substrate for the enzyme, and by heat shock. The promoter regions of mnp genes contain multiple heat shock elements as well as sequences that are identical to the consensus metal regulatory elements found in mammalian metallothionein genes. DNA transformation systems have been developed for P. chrysosporium and are being used for studies on gene regulation and for gene replacement experiments.
Project description:Glycoside hydrolase family 55 consists of beta-1,3-glucanases mainly from filamentous fungi. A beta-1,3-glucanase (Lam55A) from the Basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium hydrolyzes beta-1,3-glucans in the exo-mode with inversion of anomeric configuration and produces gentiobiose in addition to glucose from beta-1,3/1,6-glucans. Here we report the crystal structure of Lam55A, establishing the three-dimensional structure of a member of glycoside hydrolase 55 for the first time. Lam55A has two beta-helical domains in a single polypeptide chain. These two domains are separated by a long linker region but are positioned side by side, and the overall structure resembles a rib cage. In the complex, a gluconolactone molecule is bound at the bottom of a pocket between the two beta-helical domains. Based on the position of the gluconolactone molecule, Glu-633 appears to be the catalytic acid, whereas the catalytic base residue could not be identified. The substrate binding pocket appears to be able to accept a gentiobiose unit near the cleavage site, and a long cleft runs from the pocket, in accordance with the activity of this enzyme toward various beta-1,3-glucan oligosaccharides. In conclusion, we provide important features of the substrate-binding site at the interface of the two beta-helical domains, demonstrating an unexpected variety of carbohydrate binding modes.
Project description:The wood decay basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium produces a variety of cellobiohydrolases belonging to glycoside hydrolase (GH) families 6 and 7 in the presence of cellulose. However, no inducer of the production of these enzymes has yet been identified. Here, we quantitatively compared the transcript levels of the genes encoding GH family 6 cellobiohydrolase (cel6A) and GH family 7 cellobiohydrolase isozymes (cel7A to cel7F/G) in cultures containing glucose, cellulose, and cellooligosaccharides by real-time quantitative PCR, in order to evaluate the transcription-inducing effect of soluble sugars. Upregulation of transcript levels in the presence of cellulose compared to glucose was observed for cel7B, cel7C, cel7D, cel7F/G, and cel6A at all time points during cultivation. In particular, the transcription of cel7C and cel7D was strongly induced by cellotriose or cellotetraose. The highest level of cel7C transcripts was observed in the presence of cellotetraose, whereas the highest level of cel7D transcripts was found in the presence of cellotriose, amounting to 2.7 x 10(6) and 1.7 x 10(6) copies per 10(5) actin gene transcripts, respectively. These numbers of cel7C and cel7D transcripts were higher than those in the presence of cellulose. In contrast, cellobiose had a weaker transcription-inducing effect than either cellotriose or cellotetraose for cel7C and had little effect in the case of cel7D. These results indicate that cellotriose and cellotetraose, but not cellobiose, are possible natural cellobiohydrolase gene transcription inducers derived from cellulose.
Project description:The model white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium contains a single integral membrane Delta(12)-desaturase FAD2 related to the endoplasmic reticular plant FAD2 enzymes. The fungal fad2-like gene was cloned and distinguished itself from plant homologs by the presence of four introns and a significantly larger coding region. The coding sequence exhibits ca. 35% sequence identity to plant homologs, with the highest sequence conservation found in the putative catalytic and major structural domains. In vivo activity of the heterologously expressed enzyme favors C(18) substrates with nu+3 regioselectivity, where the site of desaturation is three carbons carboxy-distal to the reference position of a preexisting double bond (nu). Linoleate accumulated to levels in excess of 12% of the total fatty acids upon heterologous expression of P. chrysosporium FAD2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the behavior of the plant FAD2 enzymes, this oleate desaturase does not 12-hydroxylate lipids and is the first example whose activity increases at higher temperatures (30 degrees C versus 15 degrees C). Thus, while maintaining the hallmark activity of the fatty acyl Delta(12)-desaturase family, the basidiomycete fad2 genes appear to have evolved substantially from an ancestral desaturase.
Project description:The wood decay fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has served as a model system for the study of lignocellulose conversions, but aspects of its cellulolytic system remain uncertain. Here, we report identifying the gene that encodes the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 45 endoglucanase (EG) from the fungus, cloning the cDNA, determining its heterologous expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and characterizing the recombinant protein. The cDNA consisted of 718 bp, including an open reading frame encoding a 19-amino-acid signal peptide, a 7-amino-acid presequence at the N-terminal region, and a 180-amino-acid mature protein, which has no cellulose binding domain. Analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed that the protein has a low similarity (<22%) to known fungal EGs belonging to the GH family 45 (EGVs). No conserved domain of this family was found by a BLAST search, suggesting that the protein should be classified into a new subdivision of this GH family. The recombinant protein has hydrolytic activity toward amorphous cellulose, carboxylmethyl cellulose, lichenan, barley beta-glucan, and glucomannan but not xylan. Moreover, a synergistic effect was observed with the recombinant GH family 6 cellobiohydrolase from the same fungus toward amorphous cellulose as a substrate, indicating that the enzyme may act in concert with other cellulolytic enzymes to hydrolyze cellulosic biomass in nature.
Project description:Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellulase genes were cloned and characterized. The cel61A product was structurally similar to fungal endoglucanases of glycoside hydrolase family 61, whereas the cel9A product revealed similarities to Thermobifida fusca Cel9A (E4), an enzyme with both endo- and exocellulase characteristics. The fungal Cel9A is apparently a membrane-bound protein, which is very unusual for microbial cellulases. Transcript levels of both genes were substantially higher in cellulose-grown cultures than in glucose-grown cultures. These results show that P. chrysosporium possesses a wide array of conventional and unconventional cellulase genes.
Project description:Transcript profiles of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown on different substrates were analyszed. Array design was based on the DoE's Joint Genome Institute's gene models for P. chrysosporium version s. The research goal is to identify genes essential for lignocellulose depolymerization. From a data set of 10004 unique gene models, each NimbleGen (Madison, WI) array targeted 9959 genes and featured 12 unique 60mers per gene, all in triplicate. RNA and protein were obtained from P. chrysosporium strain RP78 (Forest Mycology Center, Forest Products Lab) grown in HighleyM-bM-^@M-^Ys basal salt medium containing 0.5% (w/v) wiley milled (1 mm mesh) wood. For each of the three samples (hybrid line P717, transgenic line 82, transgenic line 64) multiple branches were harvested, debarked and dried. Each two-liter Erlenmeyer flask contained 250 ml medium and was inoculated with approximately 10e7 P. chrysosporium spores scraped from the surface of YMPG agar. Cultures were incubated for five days on a rotary shaker (150 RPM) at 37M-BM-0 C. For RNA, mycelium from triplicate cultures was collected by filtration through Miracloth (Calbiochem, EMD Biosciences, Gibbstown, NJ), squeeze dried and snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. Pellets were stored at -80 M-BM-0C until use. For mass spectroscopic analysis, culture filtrates were stored at -20 before use. P. chrysosporium Roche NimbleGen array design was similar to GPL8022, but repetitive elements were removed and 25 gene targets were added. The latter corresponded to open reading frames for which peptides had been detected in culture filtrates. Culture condition compariso: Total RNA was purified from frozen mycelial pellets, converted to Cy3 labeled cDNA, hybridized to microarrays, and scanned as described by Vanden Wymelenberg et al 2010 (Appl Enviro Microbiol 76:3599-3610). The 9 arrays used in these experiments were scanned on the Axon4000B Scanner (Molecular Dynamics) and data extracted using NimbleScan v2.4. Quantile normalization and robust multi-array averaging (RMA) were applied to the raw data using DNASTAR ArrayStar v4 (Madison, WI). Expression levels are based on log2 signals and significant differences in expression were determined using the Moderated t-Test with the FDR threshold set at P<0.05. triplicate cultures for each substrate (wood genotype); The three wood substrates are lines 64, 82 and P717; three different media, and each medium was represented by three flasks (reps).