Validation of a continuous infusion of low dose Iohexol to measure glomerular filtration rate: randomised clinical trial.
ABSTRACT: There is currently no accurate method of measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during acute kidney injury (AKI). Knowledge of how much GFR varies in stable subjects is necessary before changes in GFR can be attributed to AKI. We have designed a method of continuous measurement of GFR intended as a research tool to time effects of AKI. The aims of this crossover trial were to establish accuracy and precision of a continuous infusion of low dose Iohexol (CILDI) and variation in GFR in stable volunteers over a range of estimated GFR (23-138 mL/min/1.73 m(2)).We randomised 17 volunteers to GFR measurement by plasma clearance (PC) and renal clearance (RC) of either a single bolus of Iohexol (SBI; routine method), or of a continuous infusion of low dose Iohexol (CILDI; experimental method) at 0.5 mL/h for 12 h. GFR was measured by the alternative method after a washout period (4-28 days). Iohexol concentration was measured by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry and time to steady state concentration (Css) determined.Mean PC was 76.7?±?28.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (SBI), and 78.9?±?28.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (CILDI), p?=?0.82. No crossover effects occurred (p?=?0.85). Correlation (r) between the methods was 0.98 (p?10.3% depict evolving AKI. If this were applicable to AKI, this is less than the 50% change in serum creatinine currently required to define AKI. CILDI is now ready for testing in patients with AKI.This trial was registered with the European Union Clinical Trials Register ( https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ ), registration number: 2010-019933-89 .
Project description:Introduction:There is an increasing demand for accurately measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Iohexol serum clearance has become a new gold standard, but it is challenging when GFR is low and 24-hour sampling is required for accurate results. The primary aim of this study was to develop an iohexol pharmacokinetic population model for accurate determination of individual GFR using limited sampling for up to 5 hours also when renal function is <40 ml/min. Methods:A nonparametric iohexol population pharmacokinetic model was developed with rich data from 176 patients. In a validation cohort of 43 patients, a model-determined GFR (iohexol clearance) using different limited sampling strategies for up to 5 hours was compared with the strategy currently used in routine care, a log-linear 2-point method. In all, 1526 iohexol concentrations were used, from patients ranging in age from 1 to 82 years and GFR from 14 to 149 ml/min. Results:The clinical 2-point method showed insufficient agreement compared with reference values; 15% of GFR values had an error of greater than ±10% even when sampling for 24 hours when estimating GFR <40 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (standard procedure). Restricted sampling the first 5 hours with the population model required 4 samples to determine GFR accurately. This strategy showed excellent agreement with the reference; <3% of GFR values had an error greater than ±10 %. Conclusion:Using an iohexol population pharmacokinetic model allows for accurate determination of GFR within 5 hours when applying 4 optimally timed samples, even in patients with GFR <40 ml/min.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The non-ionic agent iohexol is increasingly used as the marker of choice for glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Estimates of GFR in children have low accuracy and limiting the number of blood-draws in this patient population is especially relevant. We have performed a study to evaluate different formulas for calculating measured GFR based on plasma iohexol clearance with blood sampling at only one time point (GFR1p) and to determine the optimal sampling time point. METHODS:Ninety-six children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1-5 (median age 9.2 years; range 3 months to 17.5 years) were examined in a cross-sectional study using iohexol clearance and blood sampling at seven time points within 5 h (GFR7p) as the reference method. Median GFR7p was 66 (range 6-153) mL/min/1.73 m2. The performances of six different single time-point formulas (Fleming, Ham and Piepsz, Groth and Aasted, Stake, Jacobsson- and Jacobsson-modified) were validated against the reference. The two-point GFR (GFR2p) was calculated according to the Jødal and Brøchner-Mortensen formula. RESULTS:The GFR1p calculated according to Fleming with sampling at 3 h (GFR1p3h-Fleming) had the best overall performance, with 82% of measures within 10% of the reference value (P10). In children with a GFR ? 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 78), the GFR1p3h-Fleming had a P10 of 92.3%, which is not significantly different (p = 0.29) from that of GFR2p (P10 = 96.2%). Considerable differences within and between the different formulas were found for different CKD stages and different time points for blood sampling. CONCLUSIONS:For determination of mGFR in children with CKD and an assumed GFR of ? 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 we recommend GFR1p3h-Fleming as the preferred single-point method as an alternative to GFR2p. For children with a GFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, we recommend the slope-GFR with at least two blood samples. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov , Identifier NCT01092260, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01092260?term=tondel&rank=2.
Project description:Plasma clearance of iohexol is a key tool to precisely determine glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinical research and clinical practice. Despite evidence that iohexol pharmacokinetics are described best by three-compartment models, two-compartment approaches (Schwartz approach) are customary, which might result in avoidable bias and imprecision. We aimed to provide a population pharmacokinetic (popPK) model of iohexol by re-evaluating data from the Berlin Initiative Study (BIS) to compare respective clearance estimates to the Schwartz approach and to assess the impact of revised clearance estimates on the BIS equations. A popPK model was developed based on iohexol plasma samples (8-10 per subject, iohexol dose 3235?mg) from 570 elderly patients. A three-compartment model appropriately described the pharmacokinetics of iohexol (clearance 57.4?mL/min, CV 33%). Compared to the three-compartment model, clearance values were overestimated by the Schwartz approach (bias 6.5?mL/min), resulting in limited effects on regression coefficients of the BIS equations (e.g., proportionality factor of BIS2 changed from 767 to 720). Predictions based on the BIS2 equation were biased (5.4?mL/min/1.73?m²) and the sensitivity to detect a GFR?<?60?mL/min/1.73?m² was low compared to the revised equation (72% versus 89%). Three-compartment models should be employed to assess iohexol pharmacokinetics.
Project description:Formal evaluation of kidney function before and after hematopoietic cell transplant is important to determine conditioning regimens, type of transplant, and medication dosing. Serum creatinine and estimating equations may not accurately assess kidney function.Existing estimating equations for GFR were compared with an iohexol measure of GFR in a prospective cohort study of 50 patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant and subsequent care at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Institute from 2009 to 2013. Patients underwent iohexol GFR, serum creatinine, and cystatin C determination at baseline and day 100 posthematopoietic cell transplant. Iohexol GFR measurements were compared with the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration, Inker CKD Epidemiology Collaboration cystatin C with and without serum creatinine, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, and Cockcroft-Gault estimating equations using Bland-Altman analysis and McNemar's test. The iohexol measurements were also compared with blood samples collected simultaneously on filter paper.Mean differences between iohexol GFR and eGFR on the basis of Bland-Altman analyses ranged from -20.6 to +15.4 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at baseline and -12.7 to +12.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at day 100. The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimating equations classified 64% of patients with a GFR<90 at baseline compared with 38% by iohexol GFR (P=0.003 and P<0.01, respectively). No statistically significant differences were seen at day 100. The filter paper GFR had a mean difference of 0 at baseline and 5.9 at day 100. Additionally, 21%-37% and 57%-89% of eGFRs were within 10% and 30%, respectively, of the iohexol GFR at baseline, and 16%-34% and 72%-84% were within 10% and 30%, respectively, of the iohexol GFR at day 100; 98% of the filter paper estimates at baseline were within 30%, and 46% were within 10% of iohexol GFR.The estimating equations are neither accurate nor precise in the hematopoietic cell transplant population, and clinical decision may require measurement of GFR.
Project description:Higher levels of inflammatory markers have been associated with renal outcomes in diabetic populations. We investigated whether soluble TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were associated with the age-related GFR decline in a nondiabetic population using measured GFR (mGFR).A representative sample of 1590 middle-aged people from the general population without prevalent kidney disease, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease were enrolled in the Renal Iohexol-Clearance Survey in Tromsø 6 (RENIS-T6) between 2007 and 2009. After a median of 5.6 years, 1296 persons were included in the Renal Iohexol-Clearance Survey Follow-Up Study. GFR was measured using iohexol clearance at baseline and follow-up.The mean decline of mGFR during the period was -0.84 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year. There were 133 participants with rapid mGFR decline, defined as an annual mGFR loss >3.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and 26 participants with incident CKD, defined as mGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 at follow-up. In multivariable adjusted mixed models, 1 mg/L higher levels of hsCRP were associated with an accelerated decline in mGFR of -0.03 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -0.05 to -0.01), and 1 SD higher TNFR2 was associated with a slower decline in mGFR (0.09 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.18). In logistic regression models adjusted for sex, age, weight, and height, 1 mg/L higher levels of hsCRP were associated with higher risk of rapid mGFR decline (odds ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06) and incident CKD (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.08).Higher baseline levels of hsCRP but not TNFR2 were associated with accelerated age-related mGFR decline and incident CKD in a general nondiabetic population.
Project description:Low birthweight is linked to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and even end-stage renal disease. We hypothesized that living kidney donors born with lower birthweight may be at increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria, or reduced GFR beyond what is typical following uninephrectomy. Two hundred fifty-seven living kidney donors who donated at the University of Minnesota between 1967 and 2005 underwent iohexol GFR and urinary albumin excretion measurements. Predictors of iohexol GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), albuminuria, and hypertension were examined using logistic regression. Predictors examined include age at GFR measurement, time since donation, BMI, gender, serum creatinine level (at donation and GFR measurement), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, and birthweight. The latter was obtained through self-report and verified through birth certificates and family members. Older age, higher BMI, and time from donation were associated with reduced GFR. Older age and higher BMI were also associated with hypertension. Birthweight was not associated with GFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2): OR=0.70, 95% CI (0.28, 1.74), p = 0.45 or hypertension: OR=0.92, 95% CI (0.46, 1.84), p = 0.82 but was associated with albuminuria: OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.15, 0.92), p = 0.03. These data further strengthen the link between low birthweight and potential adverse renal outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Estimation of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), is important for appropriate dosing of drugs and adjustment of therapeutic strategies, but challenging due to fluctuations in kidney function, creatinine metabolism and fluid balance. Data on the agreement between estimating and gold standard methods to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in early AKI are lacking. We evaluated the agreement of urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl) and three commonly used estimating equations, the Cockcroft Gault (CG), the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, in comparison to GFR measured by the infusion clearance of chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (51Cr-EDTA), in critically ill patients with early AKI after complicated cardiac surgery. METHODS: Thirty patients with early AKI were studied in the intensive care unit, 2 to 12 days after complicated cardiac surgery. The infusion clearance for 51Cr-EDTA obtained as a measure of GFR (GFR51Cr-EDTA) was calculated from the formula: GFR (mL/min/1.73m2)=(51Cr-EDTA infusion rate×1.73)/(arterial 51Cr-EDTA×body surface area) and compared with the urinary CrCl and the estimated GFR (eGFR) from the three estimating equations. Urine was collected in two 30-minute periods to measure urine flow and urine creatinine. Urinary CrCl was calculated from the formula: CrCl (mL/min/1.73m2)=(urine volume×urine creatinine×1.73)/(serum creatinine×30 min×body surface area). RESULTS: The within-group error was lower for GFR51Cr-EDTA than the urinary CrCl method, 7.2% versus 55.0%. The between-method bias was 2.6, 11.6, 11.1 and 7.39 ml/min for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. The error was 103%, 68.7%, 67.7% and 68.0% for eGFRCrCl, eGFRMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI and eGFRCG, respectively, when compared to GFR51Cr-EDTA. CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated poor precision of the commonly utilized urinary CrCl method for assessment of GFR in critically ill patients with early AKI, suggesting that this should not be used as a reference method when validating new methods for assessing kidney function in this patient population. The commonly used estimating equations perform poorly when estimating GFR, with high biases and unacceptably high errors.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Formulae used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) underestimate higher GFRs and have not been well-studied in HIV-infected (HIV(+)) people; we evaluated the relationships of HIV infection and known or potential risk factors for kidney disease with directly measured GFR and the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD).<h4>Design</h4>Cross-sectional measurement of iohexol-based GFR (iGFR) in HIV(+) men (n?=?455) receiving antiretroviral therapy, and HIV-uninfected (HIV(-)) men (n?=?258) in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.<h4>Methods</h4>iGFR was calculated from disappearance of infused iohexol from plasma. Determinants of GFR and the presence of CKD were compared using iGFR and GFR estimated by the CKD-Epi equation (eGFR).<h4>Results</h4>Median iGFR was higher among HIV(+) than HIV(-) men (109 vs. 106 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, p?=?.046), and was 7 ml/min higher than median eGFR. Mean iGFR was lower in men who were older, had chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or had a history of AIDS. Low iGFR (?90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) was associated with these factors and with black race. Other than age, factors associated with low iGFR were not observed with low eGFR. CKD was more common in HIV(+) than HIV(-) men; predictors of CKD were similar using iGFR and eGFR.<h4>Conclusions</h4>iGFR was higher than eGFR in this population of HIV-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men. Presence of CKD was predicted equally well by iGFR and eGFR, but associations of chronic HCV infection and history of clinically-defined AIDS with mildly decreased GFR were seen only with iGFR.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Higher serum urate levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetic kidney disease. Lowering of the serum urate level with allopurinol may slow the decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in persons with type 1 diabetes and early-to-moderate diabetic kidney disease.<h4>Methods</h4>In a double-blind trial, we randomly assigned participants with type 1 diabetes, a serum urate level of at least 4.5 mg per deciliter, an estimated GFR of 40.0 to 99.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> of body-surface area, and evidence of diabetic kidney disease to receive allopurinol or placebo. The primary outcome was the baseline-adjusted GFR, as measured with iohexol, after 3 years plus a 2-month washout period. Secondary outcomes included the decrease in the iohexol-based GFR per year and the urinary albumin excretion rate after washout. Safety was also assessed.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 267 patients were assigned to receive allopurinol and 263 to receive placebo. The mean age was 51.1 years, the mean duration of diabetes 34.6 years, and the mean glycated hemoglobin level 8.2%. The mean baseline iohexol-based GFR was 68.7 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> in the allopurinol group and 67.3 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> in the placebo group. During the intervention period, the mean serum urate level decreased from 6.1 to 3.9 mg per deciliter with allopurinol and remained at 6.1 mg per deciliter with placebo. After washout, the between-group difference in the mean iohexol-based GFR was 0.001 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.9 to 1.9; P?=?0.99). The mean decrease in the iohexol-based GFR was -3.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> per year with allopurinol and -2.5 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> per year with placebo (between-group difference, -0.6 ml per minute per 1.73 m<sup>2</sup> per year; 95% CI, -1.5 to 0.4). The mean urinary albumin excretion rate after washout was 40% (95% CI, 0 to 80) higher with allopurinol than with placebo. The frequency of serious adverse events was similar in the two groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We found no evidence of clinically meaningful benefits of serum urate reduction with allopurinol on kidney outcomes among patients with type 1 diabetes and early-to-moderate diabetic kidney disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; PERL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02017171.).
Project description:In children with CKD, information is limited regarding the prevalence and determinants of fibroblast growth factor 23 excess and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D deficiency across the spectrum of predialysis CKD. This study characterized circulating concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23 and 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D, and investigated their interrelationships and associations with GFR and secondary hyperparathyroidism in children with CKD who were enrolled in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children observational cohort study.Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentrations and determinants of mineral metabolism were measured in 464 children ages 1-16 years with predialysis CKD. GFR was measured by plasma disappearance of iohexol in 70% of participants and estimated by the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children estimating equation using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations in the remainder of the participants. Participants were grouped according to CKD stage and by 10-ml/min categories of GFR.Median GFR for the cohort was 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (interquartile range=33-57; range=15-109). Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 concentration was above the normal range in 67% of participants (with higher levels observed among participants with lower GFR) before higher levels of serum parathyroid hormone and phosphorus were observed. Plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 levels were 34% higher in participants with glomerular disease than in participants with nonglomerular disease, despite similar GFR. Serum phosphorus levels, adjusted for age, were significantly lower at GFR of 60-69 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) than higher GFR, but thereafter they became higher in parallel with fibroblast growth factor 23 as GFR declined. Serum 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D concentrations were lower in those participants with low GFR values, high fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency, and proteinuria. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was present in 55% of participants with GFR<50 ml/min per 1.73 m(2).In children with predialysis CKD, high plasma fibroblast growth factor 23 is the earliest detectable abnormality in mineral metabolism, and levels are highest in glomerular diseases.