Kuwanon V inhibits proliferation, promotes cell survival and increases neurogenesis of neural stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Neural stem cells (NSCs) have the ability to proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glia. Regulation of NSC fate by small molecules is important for the generation of a certain type of cell. The identification of small molecules that can induce new neurons from NSCs could facilitate regenerative medicine and drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we screened natural compounds to identify molecules that are effective on NSC cell fate determination. We found that Kuwanon V (KWV), which was isolated from the mulberry tree (Morus bombycis) root, increased neurogenesis in rat NSCs. In addition, during NSC differentiation, KWV increased cell survival and inhibited cell proliferation as shown by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine pulse experiments, Ki67 immunostaining and neurosphere forming assays. Interestingly, KWV enhanced neuronal differentiation and decreased NSC proliferation even in the presence of mitogens such as epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor 2. KWV treatment of NSCs reduced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, increased mRNA expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, down-regulated Notch/Hairy expression levels and up-regulated microRNA miR-9, miR-29a and miR-181a. Taken together, our data suggest that KWV modulates NSC fate to induce neurogenesis, and it may be considered as a new drug candidate that can regenerate or protect neurons in neurodegenerative diseases.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult mouse hippocampus occur in a specific neurogenic niche, where a multitude of extracellular signaling molecules converges to regulate NSC proliferation as well as fate and functional integration. However, the underlying mechanisms how NSCs react to extrinsic signals and convert them to intracellular responses still remains elusive. NSCs contain a functional endocannabinoid system, including the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1). To decipher whether CB1 regulates adult neurogenesis directly or indirectly in vivo, we performed NSC-specific conditional inactivation of CB1 by using triple-transgenic mice. Here, we show that lack of CB1 in NSCs is sufficient to decrease proliferation of the stem cell pool, which consequently leads to a reduction in the number of newborn neurons. Furthermore, neuronal differentiation was compromised at the level of dendritic maturation pointing towards a postsynaptic role of CB1 in vivo. Deteriorated neurogenesis in NSC-specific CB1 knock-outs additionally resulted in reduced long-term potentiation in the hippocampal formation. The observed cellular and physiological alterations led to decreased short-term spatial memory and increased depression-like behavior. These results demonstrate that CB1 expressed in NSCs and their progeny controls neurogenesis in adult mice to regulate the NSC stem cell pool, dendritic morphology, activity-dependent plasticity, and behavior.
Project description:Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus involves activation of quiescent neural stem cells (NSCs) to yield transiently amplifying NSCs, progenitors, and, ultimately, neurons that affect learning and memory. This process is tightly controlled by microenvironmental cues, although a few endogenous factors are known to regulate neuronal differentiation. Astrocytes have been implicated, but their role in juxtacrine (that is, cell-cell contact dependent) signaling in NSC niches has not been investigated. We found that ephrin-B2 presented from rodent hippocampal astrocytes regulated neurogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, clonal analysis in NSC fate-mapping studies revealed a previously unknown role for ephrin-B2 in instructing neuronal differentiation. In addition, ephrin-B2 signaling, transduced by EphB4 receptors on NSCs, activated ?-catenin in vitro and in vivo independently of Wnt signaling and upregulated proneural transcription factors. Ephrin-B2(+) astrocytes therefore promote neuronal differentiation of adult NSCs through juxtacrine signaling, findings that advance our understanding of adult neurogenesis and may have future regenerative medicine implications.
Project description:Neural stem cells (NSCs) continuously produce new neurons within the adult mammalian hippocampus. NSCs are typically quiescent but activated to self-renew or differentiate into neural progenitor cells. The molecular mechanisms of NSC activation remain poorly understood. Here, we show that adult hippocampal NSCs express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. Hippocampal NSC activation and neurogenesis are impaired by conditional deletion of Vegfr3 in NSCs. Functionally, this is associated with compromised NSC activation in response to VEGF-C and physical activity. In NSCs derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), VEGF-C/VEGFR3 mediates intracellular activation of AKT and ERK pathways that control cell fate and proliferation. These findings identify VEGF-C/VEGFR3 signaling as a specific regulator of NSC activation and neurogenesis in mammals.
Project description:Exosomes, a key element of the central nervous system microenvironment, mediate intercellular communication via horizontally transferring bioactive molecules. Emerging evidence has implicated exosomes in the regulation of neurogenesis. Recently, we compared the neurogenic potential of exosomes released from primary mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and astrocyte-reprogrammed NSCs, and observed diverse neurogenic potential of those two exosome populations <i>in vitro</i>. However, the roles of NSC-derived exosomes on NSC differentiation and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, we firstly demonstrated that NSC-derived exosomes facilitate the differentiation of NSCs and the maturation of both neuronal and glial cells in defined conditions. We then identified miR-9, a pro-neural miRNA, as the most abundantly expressed miRNA in NSC-derived exosomes. The silencing of miR-9 in exosomes abrogates the positive effects of NSC-derived exosomes on the differentiation of NSCs. We further identified <i>Hes1</i> as miR-9 downstream target, as the transfection of Hes1 siRNA restored the differentiation promoting potential of NSC-derived exosomes after knocking down exosomal miR-9. Thus, our data indicate that NSC-derived exosomes facilitate the differentiation of NSCs via transferring miR-9, which sheds light on the development of cell-free therapeutic strategies for treating neurodegeneration.
Project description:The quiescence of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) is regulated by local parvalbumin (PV) interneurons within the dentate gyrus (DG). Little is known about how local PV interneurons communicate with distal brain regions to regulate NSCs and hippocampal neurogenesis. Here, we identify GABAergic projection neurons from the medial septum (MS) as the major afferents to dentate PV interneurons. Surprisingly, dentate PV interneurons are depolarized by GABA signaling, which is in sharp contrast to most mature neurons hyperpolarized by GABA. Functionally, these long-range GABAergic inputs are necessary and sufficient to maintain adult NSC quiescence and ablating them leads to NSC activation and subsequent depletion of the NSC pool. Taken together, these findings delineate a GABAergic network involving long-range GABAergic projection neurons and local PV interneurons that couples dynamic brain activity to the neurogenic niche in controlling NSC quiescence and hippocampal neurogenesis.
Project description:During embryonic and adult neurogenesis, neural stem cells (NSCs) generate the correct number and types of neurons in a temporospatial fashion. Control of NSC activity and fate is crucial for brain formation and homeostasis. Neurogenesis in the embryonic and adult brain differ considerably, but Notch signaling and inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) factors are pivotal in both. Notch and ID factors regulate NSC maintenance; however, it has been difficult to evaluate how these pathways potentially interact. Here, we combined mathematical modeling with analysis of single-cell transcriptomic data to elucidate unforeseen interactions between the Notch and ID factor pathways. During brain development, Notch signaling dominates and directly regulates Id4 expression, preventing other ID factors from inducing NSC quiescence. Conversely, during adult neurogenesis, Notch signaling and Id2/3 regulate neurogenesis in a complementary manner and ID factors can induce NSC maintenance and quiescence in the absence of Notch. Our analyses unveil key molecular interactions underlying NSC maintenance and mechanistic differences between embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Similar Notch and ID factor interactions may be crucial in other stem cell systems.
Project description:New neurons are continuously produced by neural stem cells (NSCs) within the adult hippocampus. Numerous diseases, including major depressive disorder and HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorder, are associated with decreased rates of adult neurogenesis. A hallmark of these conditions is a chronic release of neuroinflammatory mediators by activated resident glia. Recent studies have shown a neuroprotective role on NSCs of cannabinoid receptor activation. Yet, little is known about the effects of GPR55, a candidate cannabinoid receptor, activation on reductions of neurogenesis in response to inflammatory insult. In the present study, we examined NSCs exposed to IL-1? in vitro to assess inflammation-caused effects on NSC differentiation and the ability of GPR55 agonists to attenuate NSC injury. NSC differentiation and neurogenesis was determined via immunofluorescence and flow cytometric analysis of NSC markers (Nestin, Sox2, DCX, S100?, ?III Tubulin, GFAP). GPR55 agonist treatment protected against IL-1? induced reductions in neurogenesis rates. Moreover, inflammatory cytokine receptor mRNA expression was down regulated by GPR55 activation in a neuroprotective manner. To determine inflammatory responses in vivo, we treated C57BL/6 and GPR55-/- mice with LPS (0.2?mg/kg/day) continuously for 14?days via osmotic mini-pump. Reductions in NSC survival (as determined by BrdU incorporation), immature neurons, and neuroblast formation due to LPS were attenuated by concurrent direct intrahippocampal administration of the GPR55 agonist, O-1602 (4?µg/kg/day). Molecular analysis of the hippocampal region showed a suppressed ability to regulate immune responses by GPR55-/- animals manifesting in a prolonged inflammatory response (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF?) after chronic, systemic inflammation as compared to C57BL/6 animals. Taken together, these results suggest a neuroprotective role of GPR55 activation on NSCs in vitro and in vivo and that GPR55 provides a novel therapeutic target against negative regulation of hippocampal neurogenesis by inflammatory insult.
Project description:Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) play important roles in learning and memory and are negatively impacted by neurological disease. It is known that biochemical and genetic factors regulate self-renewal and differentiation, and it has recently been suggested that mechanical and solid-state cues, such as extracellular matrix (ECM) stiffness, can also regulate the functions of NSCs and other stem cell types. However, relatively little is known of the molecular mechanisms through which stem cells transduce mechanical inputs into fate decisions, the extent to which mechanical inputs instruct fate decisions versus select for or against lineage-committed blast populations, or the in vivo relevance of mechanotransductive signaling molecules in native stem cell niches. Here we demonstrate that ECM-derived mechanical signals act through Rho GTPases to activate the cellular contractility machinery in a key early window during differentiation to regulate NSC lineage commitment. Furthermore, culturing NSCs on increasingly stiff ECMs enhances RhoA and Cdc42 activation, increases NSC stiffness, and suppresses neurogenesis. Likewise, inhibiting RhoA and Cdc42 or downstream regulators of cellular contractility rescues NSCs from stiff matrix- and Rho GTPase-induced neurosuppression. Importantly, Rho GTPase expression and ECM stiffness do not alter proliferation or apoptosis rates indicating that an instructive rather than selective mechanism modulates lineage distributions. Finally, in the adult brain, RhoA activation in hippocampal progenitors suppresses neurogenesis, analogous to its effect in vitro. These results establish Rho GTPase-based mechanotransduction and cellular stiffness as biophysical regulators of NSC fate in vitro and RhoA as an important regulatory protein in the hippocampal stem cell niche.
Project description:Adult neurogenesis, i.e., the generation of neurons from neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult brain, contributes to brain plasticity in all vertebrates. It varies, however, greatly in extent, location and physiological characteristics between species. During the last decade, the teleost zebrafish (D. rerio) was increasingly used to study the molecular and cellular properties of adult NSCs, in particular as a prominent NSC population was discovered at the ventricular surface of the dorsal telencephalon (pallium), in territories homologous to the adult neurogenic niches of rodents. This model, for its specific features (large NSC population, amenability to intravital imaging, high regenerative capacity) allowed rapid progress in the characterization of basic adult NSC features. We review here these findings, with specific comparisons with the situation in rodents. We specifically discuss the cellular nature of NSCs (astroglial or neuroepithelial cells), their heterogeneities and their neurogenic lineages, and the mechanisms controlling NSC quiescence and fate choices, which all impact the neurogenic output. We further discuss the regulation of NSC activity in response to physiological triggers and non-physiological conditions such as regenerative contexts.
Project description:Background:Neural stem cells (NSCs) are able to differentiate into neurons and astroglia. miRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in NSC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation. However, the exact role of miR-124 in the development of NSCs and its underlying mechanism remain to be explored. Methods:Primary NSCs were isolated from embryos of Wistar rats. Immunocytochemistry was used to stain purified NSCs. miR-124, Delta-like 4 (DLL4), ki-67, Nestin, ?-tubulin III, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), HES1, HEY2, and cyclin D1 (CCND1) expressions were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. The interaction between miR-124 and DLL4 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay. Results:NSCs could self-proliferate and differentiate into neurons and astrocyte. miR-124 was up-regulated and DLL4 was down-regulated during NSC differentiation. DLL4 was identified as a target of miR-124 in NSCs. Ectopic expression of miR-124 or knockdown of DLL4 promoted the proliferation and the formation of NSCs to neurospheres. Moreover, miR-124 overexpression or DLL4 down-regulation improved ?-tubulin III expression but decreased GFAP expression in NSCs. Furthermore, enforced expression of DLL4 partially reversed the effects of miR-124 on NSCs proliferation and differentiation. Elevated expression of miR-124 suppressed the expressions of HES1, HEY2, and CCND1 in NSCs, while these effects were attenuated following the enhancement of DLL4 expression. Conclusion:miR-124 promoted proliferation and differentiation of NSCs through inactivating Notch pathway.