Bony healing of unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures in the elderly using percutaneously applied titanium mesh cages and a transpedicular fixation system with expandable screws.
ABSTRACT: There is a high incidence of vertebral burst fractures following low velocity trauma in the elderly. Treatment of unstable vertebral burst fractures using the same principles like in stable vertebral burst fractures may show less favourable results in terms of fracture reduction, maintenance of reduction and cement leakage. In order to address these shortcomings this study introduces cementless fixation of unstable vertebral burst fractures using internal fixators and expandable intravertebral titanium mesh cages in a one-stage procedure via minimum-invasive techniques.A total of 16 consecutive patients (median age 76 years, range 58-94) with unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures and concomitant osteoporosis were treated by an internal fixator inserted via minimum invasive technique one level above and below the fractured vertebra. Fracture reduction was achieved and maintained by transpedicular placement of two titanium mesh cages into the fractured vertebral body during the same procedure. Intra- and postoperative safety of the procedure as well as analysis of reduction quality was analysed by 3D C-arm imaging or CT, respectively. Clinical and radiographic follow-up averaged 10.4 months (range 4.5-24.5).Stabilization of the collapsed vertebral body was achieved in all 16 cases without any intraoperative complication. Surgical time averaged 102 ± 6.6 minutes (71-194). The postoperative kyphotic angle (KA) and Cobb angle revealed significant improvements (KA 13.7° to 7.4°, p < 0.001; Cobb 9.6° to 6.0°, p < 0.002) with partial loss of reduction at final follow-up (KA 8.3°, Cobb 8.7°). VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) improved from 7.6 to 2.6 (p < 0.001). Adjacent fractures were not observed. One minor (malposition of pedicle screw) complication was encountered.Cementless fixation of osteoporotic burst fractures revealed substantial pain relief, adequate maintenance of reduction and a low complication rate. Bony healing after unstable osteoporotic burst fractures is possible.www.germanctr.de DRKS00005657.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The optimal treatment for burst fractures of the thoracolumbar spine is controversial. The addition of screws in the fractured segment has been shown to improve construct stiffness, but can aggravate the trauma to the fractured vertebra. Therefore, optimised placement of two pedicle screws at the fracture level is required for the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures. This randomised controlled study is the first to examine the efficacy of diverse orders of pedicle screw placement and will provide recommendations for the treatment of patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:A randomised controlled trial with blinding of patients and the statistician, but not the clinicians and researchers, will be conducted. A total of 70 patients with single AO type A3 or A4 thoracolumbar fractures who are candidates for application of short-segment pedicle screws at the fractured vertebral level will be allocated randomly to the distraction-screw and screw-distraction groups at a ratio of 1:1. The primary clinical outcome measures will be the percentage loss of vertebral body height, screw depth in the injured vertebrae and kyphosis (Cobb angle). Secondary clinical outcome measures will be complications, Visual Analogue Scale scores for back and leg pain, neurological function, operation time, intraoperative blood loss, Japanese Orthopaedic Association score and Oswestry Disability Index. These parameters will be evaluated preoperatively, intraoperatively, on postoperative day 3, and at 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The Institutional Review Board of the Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University have reviewed and approved this study (batch: LCKY2018-05). The results will be presented in peer-reviewed journals and at an international spine-related meeting after completion of the study. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03384368; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Internal fixation of unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures requires correction of the lacking anterior column support. This usually entails insertion of a vertebral body replacement strut through an anterior approach, or a long posterior construct spanning at least two vertebrae above and two vertebrae below the fracture. Posterior short-segment pedicle instrumentation (SSPI)--one vertebra above and below--is suitable for approximately 40% of fractures, but not for all. METHODS: A total of 52 patients with unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures meeting our inclusion criteria were instrumented using a novel approach, combining percutaneous SSPI, pedicle screw augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and fractured vertebra kyphoplasty. We retrospectively reviewed patient and fracture data, operative results and 1 year radiographic follow-up postoperatively in 40 of the patients. We reviewed operative complications of all 52 patients. RESULTS: Most fractures were AO/Magerl type A3.1, A3.2 and A3.3. They were instrumented within 72 h and ambulated without additional external bracing. Operative time averaged 2 h and blood loss was less than 50 cc in most cases. Complications were mostly related to PMMA leakage. On average, 3.3° (0-13) of correction was lost after 3 months, but remained constant afterward. CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous augmented short-segment pedicle instrumentation of unstable thoracolumbar fractures can be done with short operative times, minimal blood loss and a low complication rate. The radiographical results at 1 year are equal to anterior stabilization and are better than other posterior-only techniques.
Project description:We retrospectively evaluated single-level compression fractures (T12-L3) scheduled for a short-segment POS (posterior-only stabilization) using polyaxial screws. Patients averaged 55.7 years (range, 19-65). Patients received either POS or, concomitantly, BK (balloon kyphoplasty) of the fractured vertebrae as well. Primary endpoint was the radiological outcome at the last radiographic follow-up prior to implant removal. POS together with BK of the fractured vertebrae resulted in a significant improvement of the local kyphosis angle and vertebral body compression rates immediately post-OP. During the further course of FU, a considerable loss of correction was observed post-OP in both groups. (Local KA: pre-OP/ post-OP/ FU: 12.6±4.8/ 3.35±4.8/ 11.6±6.0; anterior vertebral body compression%: pre-OP/post-OP/ FU: 71.94±12.3/ 94.78±19.95/ 78.17±14.74). VAS was significantly improved from 7.2±1.3 pre-OP to 2.7±1.3 (P<0.001) at FU. We found a significant restoration of the vertebral body height by BK. Nevertheless, follow-up revealed a noticeable loss of reduction. Given the fact that BK used together with polyaxial screws did not maintain intra-operative reduction, our data do not support this additional maneuver when used together with bi-segmental polyaxial pedicle screw fixation.
Project description:Background:For thoracolumbar burst fractures, traditional four-screw (one above and one below) short-segment instrumentation is popular and has a high failure rate. Additional augmentation at the fractured vertebrae is believed to reduce surgical failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical and radiographic results of patients who underwent short-segment posterior instrumentation with augmentation by screws and bone substitutes at the fractured vertebrae and to compare these data to those of patients who underwent long-segment instrumentation for thoracolumbar burst fractures. Methods:The study group had twenty patients who underwent short-segment instrumentation with additional augmentation by two screws and bone substitutes at the fractured vertebrae. The control group contained twenty-two patients who underwent eight-screw long instrumentation without vertebra augmentation. Local kyphosis and the anterior body height of the fractured vertebrae were measured. The severity of the fractured vertebrae was evaluated with the load sharing classification (LSC). Any implant failure or loss of correction >10° at the final follow-up was defined as surgical failure. Results:Both groups had similar distributions in terms of age, sex, the injured level, and the mechanism of injury before operation. During the operation, the study group had significantly less blood loss (136.0 vs. 363.6?ml, p=0.001) and required shorter operating times (146.8 vs. 157.5 minutes, p=0.112) than the control group. Immediately after surgery, the study group had better correction of the local kyphosis angle (13.4° vs. 11.9°, p=0.212) and restoration of the anterior height (34.7% vs. 31.0%, p=0.326) than the control group. At the final follow-up, no patients in the study group and only one patient in the control group experienced surgical failure. Conclusions:Patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures who received six-screw short-segment posterior fixators with augmentation at the level of the fractured vertebrae via injectable artificial bone substitute achieved satisfactory clinical and radiographic results, and this method could replace long-segment instrumentation methods used in unstable thoracolumbar burst fractures.
Project description:Study Design In vitro biomechanical study. Objective To investigate the biomechanics of thoracolumbar burst and Chance-type fractures during fall from height. Methods Our model consisted of a three-vertebra human thoracolumbar specimen (n = 4) stabilized with muscle force replication and mounted within an impact dummy. Each specimen was subjected to a single fall from an average height of 2.1 m with average velocity at impact of 6.4 m/s. Biomechanical responses were determined using impact load data combined with high-speed movie analyses. Injuries to the middle vertebra of each spinal segment were evaluated using imaging and dissection. Results Average peak compressive forces occurred within 10 milliseconds of impact and reached 40.3 kN at the ground, 7.1 kN at the lower vertebra, and 3.6 kN at the upper vertebra. Subsequently, average peak flexion (55.0 degrees) and tensile forces (0.7 kN upper vertebra, 0.3 kN lower vertebra) occurred between 43.0 and 60.0 milliseconds. The middle vertebra of all specimens sustained pedicle and endplate fractures with comminution, bursting, and reduced height of its vertebral body. Chance-type fractures were observed consisting of a horizontal split fracture through the laminae and pedicles extending anteriorly through the vertebral body. Conclusions We hypothesize that the compression fractures of the pedicles and vertebral body together with burst fracture occurred at the time of peak spinal compression, 10 milliseconds. Subsequently, the onset of Chance-type fracture occurred at 20 milliseconds through the already fractured and weakened pedicles and vertebral body due to flexion-distraction and a forward shifting spinal axis of rotation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>understanding the determinants of health burden after a fracture in ageing populations is important.<h4>Objective</h4>assess the effect of clinical vertebral and other osteoporotic fractures on function and the subsequent risk of hospitalisation.<h4>Design</h4>individuals from the prospective population-based cohort study Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik study were examined between 2002 and 2006 and followed up for 5.4 years.<h4>Subjects</h4>a total of 5,764 individuals, 57.7% women, born 1907-35, mean age 77.<h4>Method</h4>four groups with a verified fracture status were used; vertebral fractures, other osteoporotic fractures excluding vertebral, non-osteoporotic fractures and not-fractured were compared and analysed for the effect on mobility, strength, QoL, ADL, co-morbidity and hospitalisation.<h4>Results</h4>worst performance on functional tests was in the vertebral fracture group for women (P < 0.0001) and the other osteoporotic fractures group for men (P < 0.05). Both vertebral and other osteoporotic fractures, showed an increased risk of hospitalisation, HR = 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.2) respectively (P < 0.0001). Individuals with vertebral fractures had 50% (P < 0.0001) longer hospitalisation than not-fractured and 33% (P < 0.002) longer than the other osteoporotic fractures group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>individuals with a history of clinical vertebral fracture seem to carry the greatest health burden compared with other fracture groups, emphasising the attention which should be given to those individuals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Little empirical research has examined the multiple consequences of osteoporosis on quality of life. METHODS:Health related quality of life (HRQL) was examined in relationship to incident fractures in 2009 postmenopausal women 50 years and older who were seen in consultation at our tertiary care, university teaching hospital-affiliated office and who were registered in the Canadian Database of Osteoporosis and Osteopenia (CANDOO) patients. Patients were divided into three study groups according to incident fracture status: vertebral fractures, non-vertebral fractures and no fractures. Baseline assessments of anthropometric data, medical history, therapeutic drug use, and prevalent fracture status were obtained from all participants. The disease-targeted mini-Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (mini-OQLQ) was used to measure HRQL. RESULTS:Multiple regression analyses revealed that subjects who had experienced an incident vertebral fracture had lower HRQL difference scores as compared with non-fractured participants in total score (-0.86; 95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.30, -0.43) and the symptoms (-0.76; 95% CI: -1.23, -0.30), physical functioning (-1.12; 95% CI: -1.57, -0.67), emotional functioning (-1.06; 95% CI: -1.44, -0.68), activities of daily living (-1.47; 95% CI: -1.97, -0.96), and leisure (-0.92; 95% CI: -1.37, -0.47) domains of the mini-OQLQ. Patients who experienced an incident non-vertebral fracture had lower HRQL difference scores as compared with non-fractured participants in total score (-0.47; 95% CI: -0.70, -0.25), and the symptoms (-0.25; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.01), physical functioning (-0.39; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.14), emotional functioning (-0.97; 95% CI: -1.20, -0.75) and the activities of daily living (-0.47; 95% CI: -0.73, -0.21) domains. CONCLUSION:Quality of life decreased in patients who sustained incident vertebral and non-vertebral fractures.
Project description:We investigated the feasibility of applying polymethylmethacrylate bone cement composited with biomimetic bone-mineralizsed collagen to percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP). We performed PKP in 95 patients diagnosed with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. All patients had fractures of a single vertebral body, and they were divided randomly into control (group A, 47 patients) and experimental (group B, 48 patients) groups. Patients in group A were treated with acrylic cement, and those in group B were treated with acrylic cement composited with the bone graft material. All patients were evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI), Cobb angle and anterior vertebral body height preoperatively, and 3 days and 3 months postoperatively. All patients successfully completed surgery and were followed up thereafter. The VAS score, ODI index, Cobb angle and anterior vertebral body height compression rate in both groups had significant changes (P < 0.05) preoperatively, and at 3 days and 3 months postoperatively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at different times (P > 0.05). The analgesic effects of bone cement composited with bone-mineralized collagen are similar to those of bone cement only. Mineralized collagen has excellent promotion prospects by inducing new bone formation and reducing the incidence of adverse reactions caused by bone cement.
Project description:Our study proposed an automatic pipeline for opportunistic osteoporosis screening using 3D texture features and regional vBMD using multi-detector CT images. A combination of different local and global texture features outperformed the global vBMD and showed high discriminative power to identify patients with vertebral fractures. INTRODUCTION:Many patients at risk for osteoporosis undergo computed tomography (CT) scans, usable for opportunistic (non-dedicated) screening. We compared the performance of global volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) with a random forest classifier based on regional vBMD and 3D texture features to separate patients with and without osteoporotic fractures. METHODS:In total, 154 patients (mean age 64?±?8.5, male; n?=?103) were included in this retrospective single-center analysis, who underwent contrast-enhanced CT for other reasons than osteoporosis screening. Patients were dichotomized regarding prevalent vertebral osteoporotic fractures (noFX, n?=?101; FX, n?=?53). Vertebral bodies were automatically segmented, and trabecular vBMD was calculated with a dedicated phantom. For 3D texture analysis, we extracted gray-level co-occurrence matrix Haralick features (HAR), histogram of gradients (HoG), local binary patterns (LBP), and wavelets (WL). Fractured vertebrae were excluded for texture-feature and vBMD data extraction. The performance to identify patients with prevalent osteoporotic vertebral fractures was evaluated in a fourfold cross-validation. RESULTS:The random forest classifier showed a high discriminatory power (AUC =?0.88). Parameters of all vertebral levels significantly contributed to this classification. Importantly, the AUC of the proposed algorithm was significantly higher than that of volumetric global BMD alone (AUC =?0.64). CONCLUSION:The presented classifier combining 3D texture features and regional vBMD including the complete thoracolumbar spine showed high discriminatory power to identify patients with vertebral fractures and had a better diagnostic performance than vBMD alone.
Project description:Study Design Case report. Objective The objective of this study was to report a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture in the setting of a vertebral artery anomaly at the craniovertebral junction. Methods A 55-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with severe neck pain after falling approximately 15 feet and landing on his head. Computed tomography scan of the cervical spine revealed an unstable fracture of the C1 ring with magnetic resonance imaging evidence of a transverse ligament rupture as well as a congenital synchondrosis of the posterior arch of C1. He was neurologically intact. CT angiography (CTA) of the neck revealed an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery at the C1-C2 level. Results Surgical intervention consisted of occiput-C3 fusion, thus avoiding the placement of C1 lateral mass screws and risking vertebral artery injury. Conclusion We present a case of an unstable C1 burst fracture with an anomalous course of the right vertebral artery demonstrated by CTA. The presence of vertebral artery anomalies at the craniovertebral junction may prevent safe placement of C1 lateral mass screws and therefore influence the treatment options for upper cervical spine pathologies. To minimize the risk of vertebral artery injury, we elected to perform an occiput to C3 fusion. Thorough assessment of the vascular anatomy is recommended before operative intervention in the upper cervical spine to minimize the risk of complications.