Metabolic disturbances of the vitamin A pathway in human diaphragmatic hernia.
ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common life-threatening congenital anomaly resulting in high rates of perinatal death and neonatal respiratory distress. Some of the nonisolated forms are related to single-gene mutations or genomic rearrangements, but the genetics of the isolated forms (60% of cases) still remains a challenging issue. Retinoid signaling (RA) is critical for both diaphragm and lung development, and it has been hypothesized that subtle disruptions of this pathway could contribute to isolated CDH etiology. Here we used time series of normal and CDH lungs in humans, in nitrofen-exposed rats, and in surgically induced hernia in rabbits to perform a systematic transcriptional analysis of the RA pathway key components. The results point to CRPBP2, CY26B1, and ALDH1A2 as deregulated RA signaling genes in human CDH. Furthermore, the expression profile comparisons suggest that ALDH1A2 overexpression is not a primary event, but rather a consequence of the CDH-induced lung injury. Taken together, these data show that RA signaling disruption is part of CDH pathogenesis, and also that dysregulation of this pathway should be considered organ specifically.
Project description:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common congenital malformation associated with high mortality rates, mainly due to pulmonary hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension following birth. The present study aimed to investigate abnormal lung development in a rat CDH model, and examine temporal and spatial changes in the expression of ephrin type?B receptor 4 (EPHB4) and ephrin?B2 (EFNB2) during fetal lung development, to elucidate the role of these factors during lung morphogenesis. Pregnant rats received nitrofen on embryonic day (E) 8.5 to induce CDH, and fetal lungs were collected on E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, E19.5, and E21.5. The mean linear intercept (MLI) and mean alveolar number (MAN) were observed in fetal lung tissue at E21.5 following hematoxylin and eosin staining. E13.5 fetal lungs were cultured for 96 h in serum?free medium and branch development was observed under a microscope. The gene and protein expression levels of EPHB4 and EFNB2 were assessed by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The fetal rat lungs were treated with EFNB2 and the activity of key signaling pathways was assessed. The lung index (lung weight/body weight) at E21.5 was significantly lower in the CDH rats, compared with that in the control fetal rats. The MLI and MAN were also lower in the CDH group. The number of lung terminal buds at E13.5 (embryonic stage), and the lung?explant perimeter and surface were all smaller in the CDH group rats than in the control group at the same age. Pulmonary hypoplasia was observed following 96 h of in vitro culture. No significant differences were found in the expression levels of EFNB2 and EPHB4 between the CDH and control groups at E13.5 (embryonic stage) or E15.5 (pseudoglandular stage), however, EFNB2 and EPHB4 were significantly upregulated at E17.5 (canalicular stage), and at E19.5 and E21.5 (saccular/alveolar stages). EFNB2 stimulated pulmonary branching and EFNB2 supplementation decreased the activity of p38, c?Jun NH2?terminal kinase, extracellular signal?regulated kinase, and signal transducer and activator of transcription. The CDH fetal rats developed pulmonary dysplasia at an early stage of fetal pulmonary development. Upregulated expression of EFNB2 and EPHB4 was observed in the rat lung of nitrofen?induced CDH, and the increased expression of EFNB2 promoted rat lung development in the nitrofen?induced CDH model.
Project description:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a major life-threatening cause of respiratory failure in the newborn. Recent data reveal the role of a retinoid-signaling pathway disruption in the pathogenesis of CDH. We describe the epidemiology and pathophysiology of human CDH, the metabolism of retinoids and the implications of retinoids in the development of the diaphragm and lung. Finally, we describe the existing evidence of a disruption of the retinoid-signaling pathway in CDH.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary hypoplasia, characterized by incomplete alveolar development, remains a major cause of mortality and morbidity in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Recently demonstrated to differentiate from a common bipotent progenitor during development, the two cell types that line the alveoli type 1 and type 2 alveolar cells have shown to alter their relative ratio in congenital diaphragmatic hernia lungs. OBJECTIVE:We used the nitrofen/bisdiamine mouse model to induce congenital diaphragmatic hernia and accurately assess the status of alveolar epithelial cell differentiation in relation to the common bipotent progenitors. STUDY DESIGN:Pregnant Swiss mice were gavage-fed with nitrofen/bisdiamine or vehicle at embryonic day 8.5. The administered dose was optimized by assessing the survival, congenital diaphragmatic hernia and facial abnormality rates of the exposed mouse pups. NanoCT was performed on embryonic day 11.5 and 16.5 to assess the embryonic and early canalicular stages of lung development. At embryonic day 17.5 corresponding to late canalicular stage, congenital diaphragmatic hernia lungs were characterized by measuring the lung weight/body weight ratio, morphometry, epithelial cell marker gene expression levels and alveolar cell type quantification. RESULTS:Nitrofen/bisdiamine associated congenital diaphragmatic hernia lungs showed delayed development, hypoplasia with morphologic immaturity and thickened alveolar walls. Expression levels of distal epithelial progenitor marker Id2 increased, alveolar type 1 cell markers Pdpn and Hopx decreased, while type 2 cell markers pro-SPC and Muc1 remained constant during the canalicular stage. The number of Pdpn+ type 1 alveolar cells also decreased in congenital diaphragmatic hernia lungs. CONCLUSION:The mouse nitrofen/bisdiamine model is a potential model allowing the study of congenital diaphragmatic hernia lung development from early stages using a wide array of methods. Based on this model, the alveolar epithelium showed a decrease in the number of alveolar type 1 cell in congenital diaphragmatic hernia lungs while type 2 cell population remains unchanged.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Extensive vascular remodeling causing pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a major cause of mortality in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a biomarker for the severity of PH and its activation is accompanied by pulmonary influx of monocytes and extensive vascular remodeling. MCP-1 activation can be reversed by application of rosiglitazone (thiazolidinedione). We performed this study to evaluate the role of MCP-1 for the pathogenesis of PH in experimental CDH. We hypothesized that vascular remodeling and MCP-1 activation is accompanied by pulmonary influx of fetal monocytes and can be attenuated by prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone.<h4>Methods</h4>In a first set of experiments pregnant rats were treated with either nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetal lungs were harvested on D21 and divided into CDH and control. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate MCP-1 expression, activation, and localization. Quantification and localization of pulmonary monocytes/macrophages were carried out by IHC. In a second set of experiments nitrofen-exposed dams were randomly assigned to prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone or placebo on D18+D19. Fetal lungs were harvested on D21, divided into control, CDH+rosiglitazone, and CDH+placebo and evaluated by WB as well as IHC.<h4>Results</h4>Increased thickness of pulmonary arteries of CDH fetuses was accompanied by increased systemic and perivascular MCP-1 protein expression and significantly higher amounts of pulmonary monocytes/macrophages compared to controls (p<0.01). These effects were reversed by prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone (p<0.01 vs. CDH+P; control).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone has the potential to attenuate activation of pulmonary MCP-1, pulmonary monocyte influx, and vascular remodeling in experimental CDH. These results provide a basis for future research on prenatal immunomodulation as a novel treatment strategy to decrease secondary effects of PH in CDH.
Project description:ABSTRACT Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a relatively common developmental defect with considerable mortality and morbidity. Formation of the diaphragm is a complex process that involves several cell types, each with different developmental origins. Owing to this complexity, the aetiology of CDH is not well understood. The pleuroperitoneal folds (PPFs) and the posthepatic mesenchymal plate (PHMP) are transient structures that are essential during diaphragm development. Using several mouse models, including lineage tracing, we demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of the cells that make up the PPFs. The conditional deletion of Wilms tumor 1 homolog (Wt1) in the non-muscle mesenchyme of the PPFs results in CDH. We show that the fusion of the PPFs and the PHMP to form a continuous band of tissue involves movements of cells from both sources. The PPFs of mutant mice fail to fuse with the PHMP and exhibit increased RALDH2 (also known as ALDH1A2) expression. However, no changes in the expression of genes (including Snai1, Snai2, Cdh1 and Vim) implicated in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition are observed. Additionally, the mutant PPFs lack migrating myoblasts and muscle connective tissue fibroblasts (TCF4+/GATA4+), suggesting possible interactions between these cell types. Our study demonstrates the importance of the non-muscle mesenchyme in development of the diaphragm. Summary: We manipulated the expression of the developmental regulator Wt1 in mesenchymal cells in a tissue-specific manner using transgenic mouse models, showing that mutant embryos can survive in utero but die shortly after birth owing to diaphragmatic hernia.
Project description:Antenatal stimulation of lung growth is a reasonable approach to treat congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), a disease characterized by pulmonary hypoplasia and hypertension. Several evidences from the literature demonstrated a possible involvement of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during fetal lung development. Thus, the expression pattern of renin, angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensinogen, type 1 (AT?) and type 2 (AT?) receptors of angiotensin II (ANGII) was assessed by immunohisto-chemistry throughout gestation, whereas the function of RAS in the fetal lung was evaluated using fetal rat lung explants. These were morphometrically analyzed and intracellular pathway alterations assessed by Western blot. In nitrofen-induced CDH model, pregnant rats were treated with saline or PD-123319. In pups, lung growth, protein/DNA ratio, radial saccular count, epithelial differentiation and lung maturation, vascular morphometry, right ventricular hypertrophy and overload molecular markers, gasometry and survival time were evaluated. Results demonstrated that all RAS components were constitutively expressed in the lung during gestation and that ANGII had a stimulatory effect on lung branching, mediated by AT? receptor, through p44/42 and Akt phosphorylation. This stimulatory effect on lung growth was mimicked by AT?-antagonist (PD-123319) treatment. In vivo antenatal PD-123319 treatment increased lung growth, ameliorated indirect parameters of pulmonary hypertension, improved lung function and survival time in nonventilated CDH pups, without maternal or fetal deleterious effects. Therefore, this study demonstrated a local and physiologically active RAS during lung morphogenesis. Moreover, selective inhibition of AT? receptor is presented as a putative antenatal therapy for CDH.
Project description:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a common birth defect that results in a high degree of neonatal morbidity and mortality, but its pathological mechanisms are largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a forward genetic screen in mice to identify unique genes, models, and mechanisms of abnormal diaphragm development. We identified a mutant allele of kinesin family member 7 (Kif7), the disorganized diaphragm (dd). Embryos homozygous for the dd allele possess communicating diaphragmatic hernias, central tendon patterning defects, and increased cell proliferation with diaphragmatic tissue hyperplasia. Because the patterning of the central tendon is undescribed, we analyzed the expression of genes regulating tendonogenesis in dd/dd mutant embryos, and we determined that retinoic acid (RA) signaling was misregulautted. To further investigate the role of Kif7 and RA signaling in the development of the embryonic diaphragm, we established primary mesenchymal cultures of WT embryonic day 13.5 diaphragmatic cells. We determined that RA signaling is necessary for the expression of tendon markers as well as the expression of other CDH-associated genes. Knockdown of Kif7, and retinoic acid receptors alpha (Rara), beta (Rarb), and gamma (Rarg) indicated that RA signaling is dependent on these genes to promote tendonogenesis within the embryonic diaphragm. Taken together, our results provide evidence for a model in which inhibition of RA receptor signaling promotes CDH pathogenesis through a complex gene network.
Project description:Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) is defined by the presence of an orifice in the diaphragm, more often left and posterolateral that permits the herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax. The lungs are hypoplastic and have abnormal vessels that cause respiratory insufficiency and persistent pulmonary hypertension with high mortality. About one third of cases have cardiovascular malformations and lesser proportions have skeletal, neural, genitourinary, gastrointestinal or other defects. CDH can be a component of Pallister-Killian, Fryns, Ghersoni-Baruch, WAGR, Denys-Drash, Brachman-De Lange, Donnai-Barrow or Wolf-Hirschhorn syndromes. Some chromosomal anomalies involve CDH as well. The incidence is < 5 in 10,000 live-births. The etiology is unknown although clinical, genetic and experimental evidence points to disturbances in the retinoid-signaling pathway during organogenesis. Antenatal diagnosis is often made and this allows prenatal management (open correction of the hernia in the past and reversible fetoscopic tracheal obstruction nowadays) that may be indicated in cases with severe lung hypoplasia and grim prognosis. Treatment after birth requires all the refinements of critical care including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prior to surgical correction. The best hospital series report 80% survival but it remains around 50% in population-based studies. Chronic respiratory tract disease, neurodevelopmental problems, neurosensorial hearing loss and gastroesophageal reflux are common problems in survivors. Much more research on several aspects of this severe condition is warranted.
Project description:Investigation into the effects of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH) and subsequent treatment with tracheal occlusion (TO) on the pulmonary transcriptome. A diaphragm defect was created by surgical means in fetal rabbits. The surgical creation of diaphragmatic hernia (DH) allows for direct analysis of changes in pulmonary gene expression due to pulmonary hypoplasia, without the need for gene knockdown (as for KO mice) or use of teratogens (such as nitrofen). The subsequent treatment with tracheal occlusion (TO) was also investigated to determine the changes in gene expression due to forced lung growth in the prenatal phase. RNA-Seq analysis was performed on left lung samples from fetal rabbits. Samples were generated and analysed for DH (n=4), TO (n=6), and control lungs (n=4)
Project description:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a commonly occurring major congenital anomaly with a profound impact on neonatal mortality. The etiology of CDH is poorly understood and is complicated by multiple clinical presentations, reflecting the location and type of diaphragm defect. With the increased power of genetic screening, more genes are being associated with CDH, creating a knowledge gap between CDH-associated genes and their contribution to diaphragm embryogenesis. Our goal was to investigate CDH-associated genes and identify common pathways that may lead to abnormal diaphragm development. A comprehensive list of CDH-associated genes was identified from the literature and categorized according to multiple factors, including type of CDH. We undertook a large-scale gene function analysis using gene ontology to identify significantly enriched biological pathways and molecular functions associated with our gene set. We identified 218 CDH-associated genes. Our gene ontology analysis showed that genes representing distinct biological pathways are significantly enriched in relation to different clinical presentations of CDH. This includes retinoic acid signaling in Bochdalek CDH, myogenesis in diaphragm eventration, and angiogenesis in central tendon defects. We have identified unique genotype-phenotype relationships highlighting the major genetic drivers of the different types of CDH.