CYLD GeneticTesting for Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome, Familial Cylindromatosis and Multiple Familial Trichoepitheliomas.
ABSTRACT: The clinical presentation of multiple, rare, skin appendage tumours called cylindromas has been attributed to germline mutations in the tumour suppressor gene CYLD (OMIM 605018). Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome (BSS), familial cylindromatosis (FC) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT) (OMIM #605041, #132700, #601606 respectively) differ due to the types of other skin appendage tumour seen together with cylindroma, such as spiradenoma and trichoepithelioma. Previously thought to be separate entities, they are now viewed as allelic variants with overlapping phenotypes, supported by mutation analysis of CYLD . The conditions display autosomal dominant inheritance and affected individuals develop multiple benign skin tumours most commonly on the head and neck. CYLD testing can be performed using PCR and Sanger sequencing for patients with: 1. Multiple cylindromas, spiradenomas or trichoepitheliomas. 2. A single cylindroma, spiradenoma or trichoepithelioma and an affected first-degree relative with any of these tumours. 3. An asymptomatic family member at 50% risk with a known mutation in the family.
Project description:Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) is an inherited autosomal dominant disease characterized by the development of multiple adnexal cutaneous neoplasms most commonly spiradenoma, cylindroma, spiradenocylindroma, and trichoepithelioma. Multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT) is a phenotypic variant of the disease characterized by the development of numerous trichoepitheliomas (cribriform trichoblastoma) only. Malignant tumors arise in association with preexisting benign cutaneous neoplasms in about 5-10% of the patients . Apart from the skin, major and minor salivary glands have been rarely involved in BSS patients. Extremely rare is the occurrence of breast tumors (cylindroma). The gene implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease is the CYLD gene, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 16q12-q13. Germline CYLD mutations are detected in about 80-85% of patients with the classical BSS phenotype and in about 40-50% of the individuals with the MFT phenotype using a PCR based approach with analysis of exonic sequences and exon-intron junctions of the CYLD gene. There appears to be no genotype-phenotype correlations with respect to the severity of the disease, the possibility of malignant transformation, and development of extracutaneous lesions.
Project description:Spiradenoma and cylindroma are distinctive skin adnexal tumors with sweat gland differentiation and potential for malignant transformation and aggressive behaviour. We present the genomic analysis of 75 samples from 57 representative patients including 15 cylindromas, 17 spiradenomas, 2 cylindroma-spiradenoma hybrid tumors, and 24 low- and high-grade spiradenocarcinoma cases, together with morphologically benign precursor regions of these cancers. We reveal somatic or germline alterations of the CYLD gene in 15/15 cylindromas and 5/17 spiradenomas, yet only 2/24 spiradenocarcinomas. Notably, we find a recurrent missense mutation in the kinase domain of the ALPK1 gene in spiradenomas and spiradenocarcinomas, which is mutually exclusive from mutation of CYLD and can activate the NF-?B pathway in reporter assays. In addition, we show that high-grade spiradenocarcinomas carry loss-of-function TP53 mutations, while cylindromas may have disruptive mutations in DNMT3A. Thus, we reveal the genomic landscape of adnexal tumors and therapeutic targets.
Project description:Germline mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene have been described in families with cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and/or spiradenomas. Brooke-Spiegler syndrome (BSS) is the autosomal dominant predisposition to skin appendageal neoplasms including cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas, and/or spiradenomas. We review the clinical features, molecular genetics, and the animal models of BSS. To date, a total of 51 germline CYLD mutations have been reported, occurring in exons 9-20, in 73 families with diverse ethnic and racial backgrounds. Of 51 mutations, 86% are expected to lead to truncated proteins. The seven missense mutations reported to date occur only within the ubiquitin (Ub)-specific protease (USP) domain of the CYLD protein and most are associated exclusively with multiple familial trichoepithelioma (MFT). CYLD functions as a tumor suppressor gene. CYLD encodes a deubiquitinating (DUB) enzyme that negatively regulates the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways. CYLD DUB activity is highly specific for lysine 63 (K63)-linked Ub chains but has been shown to act on K48-linked Ub chains as well. In 2008, the CYLD USP domain was crystallized, revealing that the truncated Fingers subdomain confers CYLD's unique specificity for K63-linked Ub chains. Recent work using animal models revealed new roles for CYLD in immunity, lipid metabolism, spermatogenesis, osteoclastogenesis, antimicrobial defense, and inflammation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Clusters of rare cylindroma or spiradenoma tumors are a recurrent clinical presentation, yet conventional genetic testing results in individuals with these tumors are frequently normal.<h4>Objective</h4>To determine if genetic mosaicism accounts for such cases.<h4>Methods</h4>A study of 6 cases from a series of 55 patients who met criteria for diagnostic gene testing for pathogenic CYLD variants over a 5-year period (2012-2017) was performed. A novel genetic assay was used to study DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes and, where possible, matched skin and tumor tissue.<h4>Results</h4>Two patients had mosaic pathogenic CYLD variants in both the blood and skin. One of these patients transmitted a pathogenic variant to her daughter, and we report the novel phenotype of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving CYLD. Two patients had recurrent pathogenic variants in skin tumors from a single cluster but none detectable in the blood.<h4>Limitations</h4>The remaining 2 patients had clinical features of mosaicism, but these cases were not solved with the assays used because of a lack of access of fresh tumor tissue.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Genetic mosaicism should be considered in patients presenting with clustered cylindromas, because this may inform genetic testing and counseling of these patients.
Project description:Individuals with germline mutations in the tumour-suppressor gene CYLD are at high risk of developing disfiguring cutaneous appendageal tumours, the defining tumour being the highly organised cylindroma. Here, we analysed CYLD mutant tumour genomes by array comparative genomic hybridisation and gene expression microarray analysis. CYLD mutant tumours were characterised by an absence of copy-number aberrations apart from LOH chromosome 16q, the genomic location of the CYLD gene. Gene expression profiling of CYLD mutant tumours showed dysregulated tropomyosin kinase (TRK) signalling, with overexpression of TRKB and TRKC in tumours when compared with perilesional skin. Immunohistochemical analysis of a tumour microarray showed strong membranous TRKB and TRKC staining in cylindromas, as well as elevated levels of ERK phosphorylation and BCL2 expression. Membranous TRKC overexpression was also observed in 70% of sporadic BCCs. RNA interference-mediated silencing of TRKB and TRKC, as well as treatment with the small-molecule TRK inhibitor lestaurtinib, reduced colony formation and proliferation in 3D primary cell cultures established from CYLD mutant tumours. These results suggest that TRK inhibition could be used as a strategy to treat tumours with loss of functional CYLD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Brooke-Spiegler syndrome is a rare condition with a predisposition to develop cutaneous adnexal neoplasms, especially cylindromas, trichoepitheliomas and spiradenomas. Malignant transformation of cylindromas is rare. In such cases usually cylindrocarcinomas develop within these lesions. We present an unusual case of basal cell carcinoma developing within a preexisting cylindroma. MAIN OBSERVATIONS:58-year-old woman with a 30-year history of multiple dermal cylindromas extensively involving her scalp was referred for dermatological treatment. The patient reported that one of the long-lasting lesions, 5.5 cm in size, ulcerated within the foregoing few weeks. Histopathology confirmed cylindromas and basal cell carcinoma within the ulcerating tumor. Surgical excision of largest cylindroma tumors led to cosmetic and functional improvement. Magnetic resonance and computed tomography showed tumor infiltration into the skull lamina externa. Metastases were excluded by chest radiography and abdominal ultrasound examination. CONCLUSION:Patients with Brooke-Spiegler syndrome should be followed-up for malignant transformation of skin tumors to prevent deep penetration and possible metastases.
Project description:Brooke-Spiegler Syndrome (BSS) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by the progressive formation of adnexal skin tumors in the scalp and face, mainly trichoepitheliomas, cylindromas, and spiradenomas. It has also been associated with salivary glands neoplasms. It is due to mutations in the tumor suppressor gene cylindromatosis (CYLD gene) localized on chromosome 16q12-q13. Around 93 mutations have been described. The study of CYLD gene in patients and their relatives is of vital importance to establish the molecular diagnosis and offer appropriate genetic counseling. There is a low risk of malignancy and patients require long-term follow-up. A case of BSS in a family is described. The existence of the genetic mutation at the CYLD gene c. 1628_1629delCT in three of the women affected was demonstrated. This mutation has only been described once in a previous study.
Project description:Mutations in the cylindromatosis (CYLD) gene cause benign tumors of skin appendages, referred to as cylindromas. The CYLD gene encodes a deubiquitinating enzyme that removes Lys-63-linked ubiquitin chains from I kappa B kinase signaling components and thereby inhibits NF-kappaB pathway activation. The dysregulation of NF-kappaB activity has been proposed to promote cell transformation in part by increasing apoptosis resistance, but it is not clear whether this is CYLD's only or predominant tumor-suppressing function. Here, we show that CYLD is also required for timely entry into mitosis. Consistent with a cell-cycle regulatory function, CYLD localizes to microtubules in interphase and the midbody during telophase, and its protein levels decrease as cells exit from mitosis. We identified the protein kinase Plk1 as a potential target of CYLD in the regulation of mitotic entry, based on their physical interaction and similar loss-of-function and overexpression phenotypes. Our findings raise the possibility that, as with other genes regulating tumorigenesis, CYLD has not only tumor-suppressing (apoptosis regulation) but also tumor-promoting activities (enhancer of mitotic entry). We propose that this additional function of CYLD could provide an explanation for the benign nature of most cylindroma lesions.
Project description:Abstract CYLD cutaneous syndrome (CCS) is an inclusive label for the inherited skin adnexal tumour syndromes Brooke–Spiegler Syndrome (BSS-OMIM 605041), familial cylindromatosis (FC – OMIM 132700) and multiple familial trichoepitheliomas (MFT-OMIM 601606). All three syndromes arise due to germline pathogenic variants in CYLD, a tumour suppressor gene (OMIM 605018). CCS is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern, and has variable expressivity, both of the three syndromic phenotypes, and of the severity of tumour burden. Age-related penetrance figures are not precisely reported. The first tumours typically appear during puberty and progressively accumulate through adulthood. Penetrance is typically high, with equal numbers of males and females affected. Genetic testing is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis, genetic counselling and family planning, including preimplantation diagnosis. Additionally, identified CCS patients may be eligible for future clinical trials of non-surgical pre-emptive interventions that aim to prevent tumour growth. In this update, we review the clinical presentations of germline and mosaic CCS. An overview of the germline pathogenic variant spectrum of patients with CCS reveals more than 100 single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions in coding exons, most frequently resulting in predicted truncation. In addition, a minority of patients have large deletions involving the CYLD gene, intronic pathogenic variants that affect splicing, or inversions. We discuss germline and somatic testing approaches. Somatic testing of tumour tissue, relevant in mosaic CCS, can reveal recurrently detected pathogenic variants when two or more tumours are tested. This can influence genetic testing of children, who may inherit this as a germline variant, and inform genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis. Finally, we discuss testing technologies that are currently used, their benefits and limitations, and future directions for genetic testing in CCS.