Synthesis and DNA binding profile of N-mono- and N,N'-disubstituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles.
ABSTRACT: A series of N-monosubstituted and N,N'-disubstituted derivatives of the indolo[3,2-b]carbazole chromophore have been prepared, and their binding affinity for duplex DNA has been evaluated by ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopies. It has been found that indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles bearing basic N-alkyl substituents are intercalators that bind DNA with affinities in the micromolar and submicromolar range and a preference for associating with sequences of mixed composition and purine-pyrimidine steps.
Project description:A new general approach to double nitration of 6,12-di(hetero)aryl-substituted and 6,12-unsubstituted 5,11-dialkyl-5,11-dihydroindolo[3,2-b]carbazoles by acetyl nitrate has been developed to obtain their 2,8-dinitro and 6,12-dinitro derivatives, respectively. A formation of mono-nitro derivatives (at C-2 or C-6) from the same indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles has also been observed in several cases. Reduction of 2-nitro and 2,8-dinitro derivatives with zinc powder and hydrochloric acid has afforded 2-amino- and 2,8-diamino-substituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles, while reduction of 6,12-dinitro derivatives under similar reaction conditions has been accompanied by denitrohydrogenation of the latter compounds into 6,12-unsubstituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles. Formylation of 6,12-dinitro derivatives has proved to occur only at C-2, while bromination of these compounds has taken place at both C-2 and C-8 of indolo[3,2-b]carbazole scaffold. Moreover, 6,12-dinitro-substituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles have been modified by the reactions with S- and N-nucleophiles. Notably, the treatment of 6,12-dinitro compounds with potassium thiolates has resulted in the displacement of both nitro groups, unlike potassium salts of indole or carbazole, which have caused substitution of only one nitro group.
Project description:A rapid and efficient route has been developed for the synthesis of 9-methoxycarbonylindolo[3,2-a]carbazole derivatives. The key steps in this approach involved an aromatic amination and an oxidative biaryl coupling. Via the present route, indolo[3,2-a]carbazole derivatives are available in 3-4 steps based on commercially available starting materials.
Project description:Various diindolylmethanes were prepared from propargylic ethers and substituted indoles via a platinum-catalyzed tandem indole annulation/arylation cascade. The resulting diindolylmethanes could be converted to natural product malassezin by formylation or indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles by cyclization.
Project description:Two new indolo[3,2-a]carbazoles (1, 2) were isolated from a deep-water collection of a sponge of the genus Asteropus. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined through the analysis of spectroscopic data including mass spectrometry and 2D-NMR. Compound 1 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations of 25 ?g/mL against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and 50 ?g/mL against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Compounds 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxicity against the PANC1 human pancreatic carcinoma and NCI/ADR-RES ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines at our standard test concentration of 5 ?g/mL.
Project description:The facile preparation of three regioisomeric thienopyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles applying a convenient C-H activation approach is presented. The incorporation of thiophene into the triarylamine framework significantly impacted the molecular properties in comparison to the analogous indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole scaffold. Dependent on the exact substitution pattern, the absorption onsets of the new materials are shifted toward slightly higher wavelengths compared to the analogous indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole, whereas the emission maxima of the sulfur derivatives is shifted from 375 to 410 nm. In analogy, the HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the thienopyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles is reduced compared to indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole. Therefore, the developed thienopyrrolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles enrich the family of triarylamine donors and constitute a novel building block for functional organic materials.
Project description:The preparation and characterization of 12 azaindolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles is presented. Ring-closing C-H activation allowed for the convenient preparation of six singly and six doubly nitrogen-substituted indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole derivatives in which ten of the materials have not been described in the literature before. The detailed photophysical and electrochemical characterization of the developed materials revealed a significant impact of the incorporation of pyridine-like nitrogen into the fully planar indolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazole backbone. Furthermore, the nitrogen position decisively impacted intermolecular hydrogen bonding and thus the solid-state alignment. Ultimately, the versatility of the azaindolo[3,2,1-jk]carbazoles scaffold makes this class of materials an attractive new building block for the design of functional organic materials.
Project description:The synthesis of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) arene complexes with the closely related indolo[3,2-c]quinolines N-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 1 )) and N'-(11H-indolo[3,2-c]quinolin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 2 )) and indolo[3,2-d]benzazepines N-(7,12-dihydroindolo-[3,2-d]benzazepin-6-yl)-ethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 3 )) and N'-(7,12-dihydroindolo-[3,2-d]benzazepin-6-yl)-N,N-dimethylethane-1,2-diamine (L ( 4 )) of the general formulas [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 1 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (4) and Os (6), [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 2 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (5) and Os (7), [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 3 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (8) and Os (10), and [(eta(6)-p-cymene)M(II)(L ( 4 ))Cl]Cl, where M is Ru (9) and Os (11), is reported. The compounds have been comprehensively characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, spectroscopy (IR, UV-vis, and NMR), and X-ray crystallography (L ( 1 ).HCl, 4.H(2)O, 5, and 9.2.5H(2)O). Structure-activity relationships with regard to cytotoxicity and cell cycle effects in human cancer cells as well as cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibition and DNA intercalation in cell-free settings have been established. The metal-free indolo[3,2-c]quinolines inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro, with IC(50) values in the high nanomolar range, whereas those of the related indolo[3,2-d]benzazepines are in the low micromolar range. In cell-free experiments, these classes of compounds inhibit the activity of cdk2/cyclin E, but the much higher cytotoxicity and stronger cell cycle effects of indoloquinolines L ( 1 ) and 7 are not paralleled by a substantially higher kinase inhibition compared with indolobenzazepines L ( 4 ) and 11, arguing for additional targets and molecular effects, such as intercalation into DNA.
Project description:The gold-catalysed annulation of conjugated alkynes bearing an azido group with arenes gave annulated [c]carbazoles. Using benzene, pyrrole, and indole derivatives as the nucleophiles, benzo[c]-, pyrrolo[2,3-c]-, and indolo[2,3-c]carbazoles were produced, respectively. The reaction proceeded through pyrrole and benzene ring construction accompanied by the formation of two carbon-carbon and one carbon-nitrogen bond and the cleavage of two aromatic C-H bonds. The mechanism of the reaction with pyrrole was investigated by density functional theory calculations. N,N'-dimethylated indolo[2,3-c]carbazole showed dual ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared and fluorescence spectral changes upon electrolysis.
Project description:The title compound, C(28)H(30)N(2), is a symmetrical 2:2 product from the condensation of indole and cyclo-hexa-none. It is the only reported 5,11-dihydro-indolo[3,2-b]carbazole compound in which the spiro atoms are quaternary C atoms. Crystals were grown by vapor diffusion in a three-zone electric furnace. The mol-ecule resides on a crystallographic inversion center. The cyclo-hexyl rings are in a slightly distorted chair conformation, whereas the indole units and the spiro-carbons are coplanar within 0.014?Å.
Project description:Development of an efficient and scalable synthesis of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ), a naturally-occurring aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand, allowed its biological and physical properties to be studied. FICZ was shown to be the most potent among a series of 6-substituted indolo[3,2-b]carbazoles for activation of AhR in cells. Photostability studies of FICZ revealed a non-enzymatic mechanism for its conversion to a biologically active quinone. These results further support the hypothesis that FICZ is a light-dependent hormone that links sun exposure to regulation of biological pathways in peripheral tissues.