Arabidopsis response to low-phosphate conditions includes active changes in actin filaments and PIN2 polarization and is dependent on strigolactone signalling.
ABSTRACT: Strigolactones (SLs) are plant hormones that regulate the plant response to phosphate (Pi) growth conditions. At least part of SL-signalling execution in roots involves MAX2-dependent effects on PIN2 polar localization in the plasma membrane (PM) and actin bundling and dynamics. We examined PIN2 expression, PIN2 PM localization, endosome trafficking, and actin bundling under low-Pi conditions: a MAX2-dependent reduction in PIN2 trafficking and polarization in the PM, reduced endosome trafficking, and increased actin-filament bundling were detected in root cells. The intracellular protein trafficking that is related to PIN proteins but unassociated with AUX1 PM localization was selectively inhibited. Exogenous supplementation of the synthetic SL GR24 to a SL-deficient mutant (max4) led to depletion of PIN2 from the PM under low-Pi conditions. Accordingly, roots of mutants in MAX2, MAX4, PIN2, TIR3, and ACTIN2 showed a reduced low-Pi response compared with the wild type, which could be restored by auxin (for all mutants) or GR24 (for all mutants except max2-1). Changes in PIN2 polarity, actin bundling, and vesicle trafficking may be involved in the response to low Pi in roots, dependent on SL/MAX2 signalling.
Project description:Over the last years the role of fungal endophytes in plant biology has been extensively studied. A number of species were shown to positively affect plant growth and fitness, thus attempts have been made to utilize these microorganisms in agriculture and phytoremediation. Plant-fungi symbiosis requires multiple metabolic adjustments of both of the interacting organisms. The mechanisms of these adaptations are mostly unknown, however, plant hormones seem to play a central role in this process. The plant hormone strigolactone (SL) was previously shown to activate hyphae branching of mycorrhizal fungi and to negatively affect pathogenic fungi growth. Its role in the plant-endophytic fungi interaction is unknown. The effect of the synthetic SL analog GR24 on the endophytic fungi Mucor sp. growth, respiration, H2O2 production and the activity of antioxidant enzymes was evaluated. We found fungi colony growth rate was decreased in a GR24 concentration dependent manner. Additionally, the fungi accumulated more H2O2 what was accompanied by an altered activity of antioxidant enzymes. Symbiosis with Mucor sp. positively affected Arabidopsis thaliana growth, but SL was necessary for the establishment of the beneficial interaction. A. thaliana biosynthesis mutants max1 and max4, but not the SL signaling mutant max2 did not develop the beneficial phenotype. The negative growth response was correlated with alterations in SA homeostasis and a significant upregulation of genes encoding selected plant defensins. The fungi were also shown to be able to decompose SL in planta and to downregulate the expression of SL biosynthesis genes. Additionally, we have shown that GR24 treatment with a dose of 1 ?M activates the production of SA in A. thaliana. The results presented here provide evidence for a role of SL in the plant-endophyte cross-talk during the mutualistic interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and Mucor sp.
Project description:The biosynthesis and roles of strigolactones (SLs) have been investigated in herbaceous plants, but so far, their role in trees has received little attention. In this study, we analyzed the presence, spatial/temporal expression and role of SL pathway genes in Populus tremula ï¿½ Populus tremuloides. In this proleptic species, axillary buds (AXBs) become para-dormant at the bud maturation point, providing an unambiguous starting point to study AXB activation. We identified previously undescribed Populus homologs of DWARF27 (D27), LATERAL BRANCHING OXIDOREDUCTASE (LBO) and DWARF53-like (D53-like) and analyzed the relative expression of all SL pathway genes in root tips and shoot tissues. We found that, although AXBs expressed MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1) and LBO, they did not express MAX3 and MAX4, whereas nodal bark expressed high levels of all SL biosynthesis genes. By contrast, expression of the SL perception and signaling genes MAX2, D14 and D53 was high in AXBs relative to nodal bark and roots. This suggests that AXBs are reliant on the associated nodes for the import of SLs and SL precursors. Activation of AXBs was initiated by decapitation and single-node isolation. This rapidly downregulated SL pathway genes downstream of MAX4, although later these genes were upregulated coincidently with primordia formation. GR24-feeding counteracted all activation-related changes in SL gene expression but did not prevent AXB outgrowth showing that SL is ineffective once AXBs are activated. The results indicate that nodes rather than roots supply SLs and its precursors to AXBs, and that SLs may restrain embryonic shoot elongation during AXB formation and para-dormancy in intact plants.
Project description:Defects in the biosynthesis and/or deposition of secondary plant cell wall polymers result in the collapse of xylem vessels causing a dwarfed plant stature and an altered plant architecture termed irregular xylem (irx) syndrome. For example, reduced xylan O-acetylation causes strong developmental defects and increased freezing tolerance. Recently, we demonstrated that the irx syndrome in the trichome birefringence-like 29/eskimo1 (tbl29/esk1) mutant is dependent on MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 4 (MAX4), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the phytohormone strigolactone (SL). In this report, we show that other xylan- and cellulose-deficient secondary wall mutants exhibit increased freezing tolerance correlated with the irx syndrome. In addition, these phenotypes are also dependent on MAX4, suggesting a more general interaction between secondary wall defects and SL biosynthesis. In contrast, MAX4 does not play a role in developmental defects triggered by primary wall deficiencies, suggesting that the interaction is restricted to vascular tissue. Through a reverse genetics approach, the requirement of different components of the SL pathway impacting the irx syndrome in tbl29 was evaluated. Our results show that the tbl29-associated irx phenotypes are dependent on the MAX3 and MAX4 enzymes, involved in the early steps of SL biosynthesis. In contrast, this signaling is independent on downstream enzymes in the biosynthesis and perception of SL such as MAX1 and MAX2.
Project description:Smoke is an important abiotic cue for plant regeneration in postfire landscapes. Karrikins are a class of compounds discovered in smoke that promote seed germination and influence early development of many plants by an unknown mechanism. A genetic screen for karrikin-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that karrikin signaling requires the F-box protein MAX2, which also mediates responses to the structurally-related strigolactone family of phytohormones. Karrikins and the synthetic strigolactone GR24 trigger similar effects on seed germination, seedling photomorphogenesis, and expression of a small set of genes during these developmental stages. Karrikins also repress MAX4 and IAA1 transcripts, which show negative feedback regulation by strigolactone. We demonstrate that all of these common responses are abolished in max2 mutants. Unlike strigolactones, however, karrikins do not inhibit shoot branching in Arabidopsis or pea, indicating that plants can distinguish between these signals. These results suggest that a MAX2-dependent signal transduction mechanism was adapted to mediate responses to two chemical cues with distinct roles in plant ecology and development.
Project description:Strigolactone (SL) is a recently discovered class of phytohormone that inhibits shoot branching. The molecular mechanism underlying SL biosynthesis, perception, and signal transduction is vital to the plant branching phenotype. Some aspects of their biosynthesis, perception, and signaling include the role of four MORE AXILLARY GROWTH genes, MAX3, MAX4, MAX1, and MAX2. It is important to identify downstream genes that are involved in SL signaling. To achieve this, we studied the genomic aspects of the strigolactone biosynthesis pathway using microarray analysis of four max mutants. We identified SL signaling candidate genes that showed differential expression patterns in max mutants. More specifically, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE 4 (ACC4) and PROTEIN KINASE 3 (PKS3) displayed contrasting expression patterns, indicating a regulatory mechanism in SL signaling pathway to control different phenotypes apart from branching phenotype.
Project description:Strigolactones are a group of phytohormones that control developmental processes including shoot branching and various plant-environment interactions in plants. We previously showed that the strigolactone perception mutant more axillary branches 2 (max2) has increased susceptibility to plant pathogenic bacteria. Here we show that both strigolactone biosynthesis (max3 and max4) and perception mutants (max2 and dwarf14) are significantly more sensitive to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000. Moreover, in response to P. syringae infection, high levels of SA accumulated in max2 and this mutant was ozone sensitive. Further analysis of gene expression revealed no major role for strigolactone in regulation of defense gene expression. In contrast, guard cell function was clearly impaired in max2 and depending on the assay used, also in max3, max4, and d14 mutants. We analyzed stomatal responses to stimuli that cause stomatal closure. While the response to abscisic acid (ABA) was not impaired in any of the mutants, the response to darkness and high CO2 was impaired in max2 and d14-1 mutants, and to CO2 also in strigolactone synthesis (max3, max4) mutants. To position the role of MAX2 in the guard cell signaling network, max2 was crossed with mutants defective in ABA biosynthesis or signaling. This revealed that MAX2 acts in a signaling pathway that functions in parallel to the guard cell ABA signaling pathway. We propose that the impaired defense responses of max2 are related to higher stomatal conductance that allows increased entry of bacteria or air pollutants like ozone. Furthermore, as MAX2 appears to act in a specific branch of guard cell signaling (related to CO2 signaling), this protein could be one of the components that allow guard cells to distinguish between different environmental conditions.
Project description:Strigolactones (SLs) and related butenolides, originally identified as active seed germination stimulants of parasitic weeds, play important roles in many aspects of plant development. Two members of the D14 α/β hydrolase protein family, DWARF14 (D14) and KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) are essential for SL/butenolide signaling. The third member of the family in Arabidopsis, DWARF 14-LIKE2 (DLK2) is structurally very similar to D14 and KAI2, but its function is unknown. We demonstrated that DLK2 does not bind nor hydrolyze natural (+)5-deoxystrigol [(+)5DS], and weakly hydrolyzes non-natural strigolactone (-)5DS. A detailed genetic analysis revealed that DLK2 does not affect SL responses and can regulate seedling photomorphogenesis. DLK2 is upregulated in the dark dependent upon KAI2 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs), indicating that DLK2 might function in light signaling pathways. In addition, unlike its paralog proteins, DLK2 is not subject to rac-GR24-induced degradation, suggesting that DLK2 acts independently of MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2); however, regulation of DLK2 transcription is mostly accomplished through MAX2. In conclusion, these data suggest that DLK2 represents a divergent member of the DWARF14 family.
Project description:Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds presumed to mimic endogenous signalling molecules (KAI2-ligand, KL), whose signalling pathway is closely related to that of strigolactones (SLs), important regulators of plant development. Both karrikins/KLs and SLs are perceived by closely related α/β hydrolase receptors (KAI2 and D14 respectively), and signalling through both receptors requires the F-box protein MAX2. Furthermore, both pathways trigger proteasome-mediated degradation of related SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) proteins, to influence development. It has previously been suggested in multiple studies that SLs are important regulators of root and root hair development in Arabidopsis, but these conclusions are based on phenotypes observed in the non-specific max2 mutants and by use of racemic-GR24, a mixture of stereoisomers that activates both D14 and KAI2 signalling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the majority of the effects on Arabidopsis root development previously attributed to SL signalling are actually mediated by the KAI2 signalling pathway. Using mutants defective in SL or KL synthesis and/or perception, we show that KAI2-mediated signalling alone regulates root hair density and root hair length as well as root skewing, straightness and diameter, while both KAI2 and D14 pathways regulate lateral root density and epidermal cell length. We test the key hypothesis that KAI2 signals by a non-canonical receptor-target mechanism in the context of root development. Our results provide no evidence for this, and we instead show that all effects of KAI2 in the root can be explained by canonical SMAX1/SMXL2 activity. However, we do find evidence for non-canonical GR24 ligand-receptor interactions in D14/KAI2-mediated root hair development. Overall, our results demonstrate that the KAI2 signalling pathway is an important new regulator of root hair and root development in Arabidopsis and lay an important basis for research into a molecular understanding of how very similar and partially overlapping hormone signalling pathways regulate different phenotypic outputs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: PIN-FORMED (PIN) efflux carriers contribute to polar auxin transport and plant development by exhibiting dynamic and diverse asymmetrical localization patterns in the plasma membrane (PM). Phosphorylation of the central hydrophilic loop (HL) of PINs has been implicated in the regulation of PIN trafficking. Recently, we reported that a phosphorylatable motif (M3) in the PIN3-HL is necessary for the polarity, intracellular trafficking, and biological functions of PIN3. In this study, using the root hair system for PIN activity assay, we investigated whether this motif has been functionally conserved among long-HL PINs. RESULTS: Root hair-specific overexpression of wild-type PIN1, 2, or 7 greatly inhibited root hair growth by depleting auxin levels in the root hair cell, whereas overexpression of M3 phosphorylation-defective PIN mutants failed to inhibit root hair growth. Consistent with this root hair phenotype, the PM localization of M3 phosphorylation-defective PIN1 and PIN7 was partially disrupted, resulting in less auxin efflux and restoration of root hair growth. Partial formation of brefeldin A-compartments in these phosphorylation-mutant PIN lines also suggested that their PM targeting was partially disrupted. On the other hand, compared with the PIN1 and PIN7 mutant proteins, M3-phosphorylation-defective PIN2 proteins were almost undetectable. However, the mutant PIN2 protein levels were restored by wortmannin treatment almost to the wild-type PIN2 level, indicating that the M3 motif of PIN2, unlike that of other PINs, is implicated in PIN2 trafficking to the vacuolar lytic pathway. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the M3 phosphorylation motif has been functionally conserved to modulate the intracellular trafficking of long-HL PINs, but its specific function in trafficking has diverged among PIN members.
Project description:Leafy gall syndrome is the consequence of modified plant development in response to a mixture of cytokinins secreted by the biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians. The similarity of the induced symptoms with the phenotype of plant mutants defective in strigolactone biosynthesis and signalling prompted an evaluation of the involvement of strigolactones in this pathology. All tested strigolactone-related Arabidopsis thaliana mutants were hypersensitive to R. fascians. Moreover, treatment with the synthetic strigolactone mixture GR24 and with the carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase inhibitor D2 illustrated that strigolactones acted as antagonistic compounds that restricted the morphogenic activity of R. fascians. Transcript profiling of the MORE AXILLARY GROWTH1 (MAX1), MAX2, MAX3, MAX4, and BRANCHED1 (BRC1) genes in the wild-type Columbia-0 accession and in different mutant backgrounds revealed that upregulation of strigolactone biosynthesis genes was triggered indirectly by the bacterial cytokinins via host-derived auxin and led to the activation of BRC1 expression, inhibiting the outgrowth of the newly developing shoots, a typical hallmark of leafy gall syndrome. Taken together, these data support the emerging insight that balances are critical for optimal leafy gall development: the long-lasting biotrophic interaction is possible only because the host activates a set of countermeasures-including the strigolactone response-in reaction to bacterial cytokinins to constrain the activity of R. fascians.