Overexpression of cotton RAV1 gene in Arabidopsis confers transgenic plants high salinity and drought sensitivity.
ABSTRACT: RAV (related to ABI3/VP1) protein containing an AP2 domain in the N-terminal region and a B3 domain in the C-terminal region, which belongs to AP2 transcription factor family, is unique in higher plants. In this study, a gene (GhRAV1) encoding a RAV protein of 357 amino acids was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Transient expression analysis of the eGFP:GhRAV1 fusion genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells revealed that GhRAV1 protein was localized in the cell nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of GhRAV1 in cotton is induced by abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Overexpression of GhRAV1 in Arabidopsis resulted in plant sensitive to ABA, NaCl and PEG. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, seed germination and green seedling rates of the GhRAV1 transgenic plants were remarkably lower than those of wild type. In the presence of NaCl, the seed germination and seedling growth of the GhRAV1 transgenic lines were inhibited greater than those of wild type. And chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of the transgenic plants were significantly lower than those of wild type. Under drought stress, the GhRAV1 transgenic plants displayed more severe wilting than wild type. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhRAV1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants under high salinity and drought stresses. Collectively, our data suggested that GhRAV1 may be involved in response to high salinity and drought stresses through regulating expressions of the stress-related genes during cotton development.
Project description:Related to ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3 (ABI3)/VIVIPAROUS1(VP1)(RAV) transcription factors, which encode a B3 domain and an APETALA2(AP2) domain, belong to the APETALA2/ethylene-responsive element binding factor(AP2/ERF) or B3 superfamily and play an important role in regulating plant growth and development and responding to abiotic stress. Although there have been many functional studies on RAV, the functional differences between RAVs are not clear. Therefore, in this study, the functional differences of RAVs of Medicago truncatula were analyzed. Based on sequence data from the plant transcription factor database and the M. truncatula genome database, we cloned three RAV genes from M. truncatula, named MtRAV1, MtRAV2, and MtRAV3. The cis-acting elements of these genes promoters were predicted, and the expression patterns of MtRAVs under exogenous conditions (4°C, NaCl, Polyethylene Glycol, Abscisic acid) were analyzed. MtRAVs transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana were obtained and subjected to adversity treatment. Subcellular localization results indicated that MtRAVs were located in the nucleus. A much lower expression level was observed for MtRAV3 than the levels of MtRAV1 and MtRAV2 in M. truncatula for growth in normal conditions, but under 4°C or PEG and NaCl treatment, the expression level of MtRAV3 was significantly increased. Only the MtRAV3 overexpression transgenic plants showed strong cold resistance, but the overexpressed MtRAV1 and MtRAV2 transgenic plants showed no difference from wild type plants. MtRAV transgenic plants exhibited similar response to exogenous mannitol, NaCl, and ABA, and the expression of some adverse-related marker genes were up-regulated, such as COLD REGULATED 414 THYLAKOID MEMBRANE 1 (COR414-TM1), Arabidopsis thaliana drought-induced 21 (AtDI21), and Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (ATPLC). MtRAVs transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana exhibited increasing of branch number. These results indicated that there was some function redundancy during MtRAVs proteins of M. truncatula, and MtRAV3 has increased function compared to the other two genes. The results of this study should provide the foundation for future application of MtRAVs in legumes.
Project description:Transcription factors play vital roles in plant growth and in plant responses to abiotic stresses. The RAV transcription factors contain a B3 DNA binding domain and/or an APETALA2 (AP2) DNA binding domain. Although genome-wide analyses of RAV family genes have been performed in several species, little is known about the family in soybean (Glycine max L.). In this study, a total of 13 RAV genes, named as GmRAVs, were identified in the soybean genome. We predicted and analyzed the amino acid compositions, phylogenetic relationships, and folding states of conserved domain sequences of soybean RAV transcription factors. These soybean RAV transcription factors were phylogenetically clustered into three classes based on their amino acid sequences. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that the soybean RAV proteins were located in the nucleus. The expression patterns of 13 RAV genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Under drought stresses, the RAV genes expressed diversely, up- or down-regulated. Following NaCl treatments, all RAV genes were down-regulated excepting GmRAV-03 which was up-regulated. Under abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, the expression of all of the soybean RAV genes increased dramatically. These results suggested that the soybean RAV genes may be involved in diverse signaling pathways and may be responsive to abiotic stresses and exogenous ABA. Further analysis indicated that GmRAV-03 could increase the transgenic lines resistance to high salt and drought and result in the transgenic plants insensitive to exogenous ABA. This present study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the RAV transcription factors in soybean.
Project description:As the important source of natural fibers in the textile industry, cotton fiber quality and yield are often restricted to drought conditions because most of cotton plants in the world grow in the regions with water shortage. WRKY transcription factors regulate multiple plant physiological processes, including drought stress response. However, little is known of how the WRKY genes respond to drought stress in cotton. Our previous study revealed GhWRKY33 is leaf-specific and induced by drought stress. In this study, our data showed GhWRKY33 protein localizes to the cell nucleus and is able to bind to "W-box" cis-acting elements of the target promoters. Under drought stress, GhWRKY33 overexpressing transgenic Arabidopsis was withered much more quickly than wild type due to faster water loss. Moreover, GhWRKY33 transgenic plants displayed more tolerance to abscisic acid (ABA), relative to wild type. Expression of some drought stress-related genes and ABA-responsive genes were changed in the GhWRKY33 transgenic Arabidopsis with drought or ABA treatment. Collectively, our findings indicate that GhWRKY33 may act as a negative regulator to mediate plant response to drought stress and to participate in the ABA signaling pathway.
Project description:Drought is the major environmental stress that limits cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production worldwide. LOS5/ABA3 (LOS5) encodes a molybdenum co-factor and is essential for activating aldehyde oxidase, which is involved in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. In this study, a LOS5 cDNA of Arabidopsis thaliana was overexpressed in cotton cultivar Zhongmiansuo35 (Z35) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. The transformation and overexpression of AtLOS5 were assessed by PCR and RT-PCR analysis. Detached shoots of transgenic cotton showed slower transpirational water loss than those of Z35. When pot-grown 6-week-old seedlings were withheld from watering for 3 d, transgenic cotton accumulated 25% more endogenous ABA and about 20% more proline than Z35 plants. The transgenic plants also showed increased expression of some drought-responding genes such as P5CS and RD22, and enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase. Their membrane integrity was considerably improved under water stress, as indicated by reduced malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage relative to control plants. When the pot-grown plants were subjected to deficit irrigation for 8 weeks (watering to 50% of field capacity), transgenic plants showed a 13% increase in fresh weight than the wild type under the same drought condition. These results suggest that the AtLOS5 transgenic cotton plants acquired a better drought tolerance through enhanced ABA production and ABA-induced physiological regulations.
Project description:The sensitivity to abscisic acid (ABA) by its receptors, pyrabactin resistance-like proteins (PYLs), is considered a most important factor in activating the ABA signal pathway in response to abiotic stress. However, it is still unknown which PYL is the crucial ABA receptor mediating response to drought stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Here, we reported the identification and characterization of highly induced ABA receptor GhPYL9-11A in response to drought in cotton. It is observed that GhPYL9-11A was highly induced by ABA treatment. GhPYL9-11A binds to protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs) in an ABA-independent manner. Moreover, the GhPYL-11A-PP2C interactions are partially disrupted by mutations, proline (P84) and histidine (H111), in the gate-latch region. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing GhPYL9-11A plants were hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and early seedling stage. Further, the increased in root growth and up regulation of drought stress-related genes in transgenic Arabidopsis as compared to wild type confirmed the potential role of GhPYL9-11A in abiotic stress tolerance. Consistently, the expression level of GhPYL9-11A is on average higher in drought-tolerant cotton cultivars than in drought-sensitive cottons under drought treatment. In conclusion, the manipulation of GhPYL9-11A expression could be a useful strategy for developing drought-tolerant cotton cultivars.
Project description:Drought tolerance is an important trait being pursued by the agbiotech industry. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a stress hormone that mediates a multitude of processes in growth and development, water use efficiency (WUE) and gene expression during seed development and in response to environmental stresses. Arabidopsis B3-domain transcription factor Related to ABA-Insensitive3 (ABI3)/Viviparous1 (namely AtRAV2) and basic leucine zipper (bZIPs) AtABI5 or AtABF3 transactivated ABA-inducible promoter:GUS reporter expression in a maize mesophyll protoplast transient assay and showed synergies in reporter transactivation when coexpressed. Transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) expressing AtRAV1/2 and/or AtABI5 showed resistance to imposed drought stress under field and greenhouse conditions and exhibited improved photosynthesis and WUEs associated with absorption through larger root system and greater leaf area. We observed synergy for root biomass accumulation in the greenhouse, intrinsic WUE in the field and drought tolerance in stacked AtRAV and AtABI5 double-transgenic cotton. We assessed AtABI5 and AtRAV1/2 involvement in drought stress adaptations through reactive oxygen species scavenging and osmotic adjustment by marker gene expression in cotton. Deficit irrigation-grown AtRAV1/2 and AtABI5 transgenics had 'less-stressed' molecular and physiological phenotypes under drought, likely due to improved photoassimilation and root and shoot sink strengths and enhanced expression of endogenous GhRAV and genes for antioxidant and osmolyte biosynthesis. Overexpression of bZIP and RAV TFs could impact sustainable cotton agriculture and potentially other crops under limited irrigation conditions.
Project description:Containing both AP2 domain and B3 domain, RAV (Related to ABI3/VP1) transcription factors are involved in diverse functions in higher plants. A total of eight TsRAV genes were isolated from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea and could be divided into two groups (A- and B-group) based on their sequence similarity. The mRNA abundance of all Thellungiella salsuginea TsRAVs followed a gradual decline during seed germination. In Thellungiella salsuginea seedling, transcripts of TsRAVs in the group A (A-TsRAVs) were gradually and moderately reduced by salt treatment but rapidly and severely repressed by ABA treatment. In comparison, with a barely detectable constitutive expression, the transcriptional level of TsRAVs in the group B (B-TsRAVs) exhibited a moderate induction in cotyledons when confronted with ABA. We then produced the "gain-of-function" transgenic Arabidopsis plants for each TsRAV gene and found that only 35S:A-TsRAVs showed weak growth retardation including reduced root elongation, suggesting their roles in negatively controlling plant growth. Under normal conditions, the germination process of all TsRAVs overexpressing transgenic seeds was inhibited with a stronger effect observed in 35S:A-TsRAVs seeds than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seeds. With the presence of NaCl, seed germination and seedling root elongation of all plants including wild type and 35S:TsRAVs plants were retarded and a more severe inhibition occurred to the 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic plants. ABA treatment only negatively affected the germination rates of 35S:A-TsRAV transgenic seeds but not those of 35S:B-TsRAV transgenic seeds. All 35S:TsRAVs transgenic plants showed a similar degree of reduction in root growth compared with untreated seedlings in the presence of ABA. Furthermore, the cotyledon greening/expansion was more severely inhibited 35S:A-TsRAVs than in 35S:B-TsRAVs seedlings. Upon water deficiency, with a wider opening of stomata, 35S:A-TsRAVs plants experienced a faster transpirational water loss than wild type and 35S:B-TsRAVs lines. Taken together, our results suggest that two groups of TsRAVs perform distinct regulating roles during plant growth and abiotic defense including drought and salt, and A-TsRAVs are more likely than B-TsRAVs to act as negative regulators in the above-mentioned biological processes.
Project description:A cDNA clone encoding a 64-amino acid type 3 metallothionein protein, designated GhMT3a, was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) by cDNA library screening. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA accumulation of GhMT3a was up-regulated not only by high salinity, drought, and low temperature stresses, but also by heavy metal ions, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cotton seedlings. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing GhMT3a showed increased tolerance against abiotic stresses compared with wild-type plants. Interestingly, the induced expression of GhMT3a by salt, drought, and low-temperature stresses could be inhibited in the presence of antioxidants. H(2)O(2) levels in transgenic tobacco plants were only half of that in wild-type (WT) plants under such stress conditions. According to in vitro assay, recombinant GhMT3a protein showed an ability to bind metal ions and scavenge ROS. Transgenic yeast overexpressing GhMT3a also showed higher tolerance against ROS stresses. Taken together, these results indicated that GhMT3a could function as an effective ROS scavenger and its expression could be regulated by abiotic stresses through ROS signalling.
Project description:MYB transcription factors (TFs) are one of the largest families of TFs in higher plants and are involved in diverse biological, functional, and structural processes. Previously, very few functional validation studies on R2R3 MYB have been conducted in cotton in response to abiotic stresses. In the current study, GaMYB85, a cotton R2R3 MYB TF, was ectopically expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) and was functionally characterized by overexpression in transgenic plants.The in-silico analysis of GaMYB85 shows the presence of a SANT domain with a conserved R2R3 MYB imperfect repeat. The GaMYB85 protein has a 257-amino acid sequence, a molecular weight of 24.91 kD, and an isoelectric point of 5.58. Arabidopsis plants overexpressing GaMYB85 exhibited a higher seed germination rate in response to mannitol and salt stress, and higher drought avoidance efficiency than wild-type plants upon water deprivation. These plants had notably higher levels of free proline and chlorophyll with subsequent lower water loss rates and higher relative water content. Germination of GaMYB85 transgenics was more sensitive to abscisic acid (ABA) and extremely liable to ABA-induced inhibition of primary root elongation. Moreover, when subjected to treatment with different concentrations of ABA, transgenic plants with ectopically expressed GaMYB85 showed reduced stomatal density, with greater stomatal size and lower stomatal opening rates than those in wild-type plants. Ectopic expression of GaMYB85 led to enhanced transcript levels of stress-related marker genes such as RD22, ADH1, RD29A, P5CS, and ABI5.Our results indicate previously unknown roles of GaMYB85, showing that it confers good drought, salt, and freezing tolerance, most probably via an ABA-induced pathway. These findings can potentially be exploited to develop improved abiotic stress tolerance in cotton plants.
Project description:As the core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway, Clade A PP2C (PP2C-A) phosphatases in ABA-dependent stress responses have been well studied in Arabidopsis. However, the roles and natural variations of maize PP2C-A in stress responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of ZmPP2C-As treated with multiple stresses and generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing most of the ZmPP2C-A genes. The results showed that the expression of most ZmPP2C-As were dramatically induced by multiple stresses (drought, salt, and ABA), indicating that these genes may have important roles in response to these stresses. Compared with wild-type plants, ZmPP2C-A1, ZmPP2C-A2, and ZmPP2C-A6 overexpression plants had higher germination rates after ABA and NaCl treatments. ZmPP2C-A2 and ZmPP2C-A6 negatively regulated drought responses as the plants overexpressing these genes had lower survival rates, higher leaf water loss rates, and lower proline accumulation compared to wild type plants. The natural variations of ZmPP2C-As associated with drought tolerance were also analyzed and favorable alleles were detected. We widely studied the roles of ZmPP2C-A genes in stress responses and the natural variations detected in these genes have the potential to be used as molecular markers in genetic improvement of maize drought tolerance.