Genome-wide survey and expression analysis of F-box genes in chickpea.
ABSTRACT: The F-box genes constitute one of the largest gene families in plants involved in degradation of cellular proteins. F-box proteins can recognize a wide array of substrates and regulate many important biological processes such as embryogenesis, floral development, plant growth and development, biotic and abiotic stress, hormonal responses and senescence, among others. However, little is known about the F-box genes in the important legume crop, chickpea. The available draft genome sequence of chickpea allowed us to conduct a genome-wide survey of the F-box gene family in chickpea.A total of 285 F-box genes were identified in chickpea which were classified based on their C-terminal domain structures into 10 subfamilies. Thirteen putative novel motifs were also identified in F-box proteins with no known functional domain at their C-termini. The F-box genes were physically mapped on the 8 chickpea chromosomes and duplication events were investigated which revealed that the F-box gene family expanded largely due to tandem duplications. Phylogenetic analysis classified the chickpea F-box genes into 9 clusters. Also, maximum syntenic relationship was observed with soybean followed by Medicago truncatula, Lotus japonicus and Arabidopsis. Digital expression analysis of F-box genes in various chickpea tissues as well as under abiotic stress conditions utilizing the available chickpea transcriptome data revealed differential expression patterns with several F-box genes specifically expressing in each tissue, few of which were validated by using quantitative real-time PCR.The genome-wide analysis of chickpea F-box genes provides new opportunities for characterization of candidate F-box genes and elucidation of their function in growth, development and stress responses for utilization in chickpea improvement.
Project description:The CCCH zinc finger is a group of proteins characterised by a typical motif consisting of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue. These proteins have been reported to play important roles in regulation of plant growth, developmental processes and environmental responses. In the present study, genome wide analysis of the CCCH zinc finger gene family was carried out in the available chickpea genome. Various bioinformatics tools were employed to predict 58 CCCH zinc finger genes in chickpea (designated CarC3H1-58), which were analysed for their physio-chemical properties. Phylogenetic analysis classified the proteins into 12 groups in which members of a particular group had similar structural organization. Further, the numbers as well as the types of CCCH motifs present in the CarC3H proteins were compared with those from Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula. Synteny analysis revealed valuable information regarding the evolution of this gene family. Tandem and segmental duplication events were identified and their Ka/Ks values revealed that the CarC3H gene family in chickpea had undergone purifying selection. Digital, as well as real time qRT-PCR expression analysis was performed which helped in identification of several CarC3H members that expressed preferentially in specific chickpea tissues as well as during abiotic stresses (desiccation, cold, salinity). Moreover, molecular characterization of an important member CarC3H45 was carried out. This study provides comprehensive genomic information about the important CCCH zinc finger gene family in chickpea. The identified tissue specific and abiotic stress specific CCCH genes could be potential candidates for further characterization to delineate their functional roles in development and stress.
Project description:Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential membrane proteins that play critical role in the transport of water and many other solutes across cell membranes. In this study, a comprehensive genome-wide analysis identified 40 AQP genes in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). A complete overview of the chickpea AQP (CaAQP) gene family is presented, including their chromosomal locations, gene structure, phylogeny, gene duplication, conserved functional motifs, gene expression, and conserved promoter motifs. To understand AQP's evolution, a comparative analysis of chickpea AQPs with AQP orthologs from soybean, Medicago, common bean, and Arabidopsis was performed. The chickpea AQP genes were found on all of the chickpea chromosomes, except chromosome 7, with a maximum of six genes on chromosome 6, and a minimum of one gene on chromosome 5. Gene duplication analysis indicated that the expansion of chickpea AQP gene family might have been due to segmental and tandem duplications. CaAQPs were grouped into four subfamilies including 15 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs), 13 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), eight plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), and four small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) based on sequence similarities and phylogenetic position. Gene structure analysis revealed a highly conserved exon-intron pattern within CaAQP subfamilies supporting the CaAQP family classification. Functional prediction based on conserved Ar/R selectivity filters, Froger's residues, and specificity-determining positions suggested wide differences in substrate specificity among the subfamilies of CaAQPs. Expression analysis of the AQP genes indicated that some of the genes are tissue-specific, whereas few other AQP genes showed differential expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Promoter profiling of CaAQP genes for conserved cis-acting regulatory elements revealed enrichment of cis-elements involved in circadian control, light response, defense and stress responsiveness reflecting their varying pattern of gene expression and potential involvement in biotic and abiotic stress responses. The current study presents the first detailed genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in chickpea and provides valuable information for further functional analysis to infer the role of AQP in the adaptation of chickpea in diverse environmental conditions.
Project description:Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume crop, particularly for the arid regions including Indian subcontinent. Considering the detrimental effect of drought, temperature and salt stress on crop yield, efforts have been initiated in the direction of developing improved varieties and designing alternate strategies to sustain chickpea production in adverse environmental conditions. Identification of genes that confer abiotic stress tolerance in plants remains a challenge in contemporary plant breeding. The present study focused on the identification of abiotic stress responsive genes in chickpea based on sequence similarity approach exploiting known abiotic stress responsive genes from model crops or other plant species. Ten abiotic stress responsive genes identified in other plants were partially amplified from eight chickpea genotypes and their presence in chickpea was confirmed after sequencing the PCR products. These genes have been functionally validated and reported to play significant role in stress response in model plants like Arabidopsis, rice and other legume crops. Chickpea EST sequences available at NCBI EST database were used for the identification of abiotic stress responsive genes. A total of 8,536 unique coding long sequences were used for identification of chickpea homologues of these abiotic stress responsive genes by sequence similarity search (BLASTN and BLASTX). These genes can be further explored towards achieving the goal of developing superior chickpea varieties providing improved yields under stress conditions using modern molecular breeding approaches.
Project description:The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the plant-specific B3 domain-containing transcription factors (TFs) in chickpea. Scanning of the chickpea genome resulted in the identification of 51 B3 domain-containing TFs that were located on seven out of eight chickpea chromosomes. Based on the presence of additional domains other than the B3 domain, the candidates were classified into four subfamilies, i.e., ARF (24), REM (19), LAV (6) and RAV (2). Phylogenetic analysis classified them into four groups in which members of the same group had similar intron-exon organization and motif composition. Genome duplication analysis of the candidate B3 genes revealed an event of segmental duplication that was instrumental in the expansion of the B3 gene family. Ka/Ks analysis showed that the B3 gene family was under purifying selection. Further, chickpea B3 genes showed maximum orthology with Medicago followed by soybean and Arabidopsis. Promoter analyses of the B3 genes led to the identification of several tissue-specific and stress-responsive cis-regulatory elements. Expression profiling of the candidate B3 genes using publicly available RNA-seq data of several chickpea tissues indicated their putative role in plant development and abiotic stress response. These findings were further validated by real-time expression analysis. Overall, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of the B3 domain-containing proteins in chickpea that would aid in devising strategies for crop manipulation in chickpea.
Project description:Auxin plays a central role in many aspects of plant growth and development. Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) genes cooperate with several other components in the perception and signaling of plant hormone auxin. An investigation of chickpea and soybean genomes revealed 22 and 63 putative Aux/IAA genes, respectively. These genes were classified into six subfamilies on the basis of phylogenetic analysis. Among 63 soybean Aux/IAA genes, 57 (90.5%) were found to be duplicated via whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental events. Transposed duplication played a significant role in tandem arrangements between the members of different subfamilies. Analysis of Ka/Ks ratio of duplicated Aux/IAA genes revealed purifying selection pressure with restricted functional divergence. Promoter sequence analysis revealed several cis-regulatory elements related to auxin, abscisic acid, desiccation, salt, seed, and endosperm, indicating their role in development and stress responses. Expression analysis of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes in various tissues and stages of development demonstrated tissue/stage specific differential expression. In soybean, at least 16 paralog pairs, duplicated via WGD/segmental events, showed almost indistinguishable expression pattern, but eight pairs exhibited significantly diverse expression patterns. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as desiccation, salinity and/or cold, many Aux/IAA genes of chickpea and soybean revealed differential expression. qRT-PCR analysis confirmed the differential expression patterns of selected Aux/IAA genes in chickpea. The analyses presented here provide insights on putative roles of chickpea and soybean Aux/IAA genes and will facilitate elucidation of their precise functions during development and abiotic stress responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has a narrow genetic base making it difficult for breeders to produce new elite cultivars with durable resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. As an alternative to genome mapping, microarrays have recently been applied in crop species to identify and assess the function of putative genes thought to be involved in plant abiotic stress and defence responses. In the present study, a cDNA microarray approach was taken in order to determine if the transcription of genes, from a set of previously identified putative stress-responsive genes from chickpea and its close relative Lathyrus sativus, were altered in chickpea by the three abiotic stresses; drought, cold and high-salinity. For this, chickpea genotypes known to be tolerant and susceptible to each abiotic stress were challenged and gene expression in the leaf, root and/or flower tissues was studied. The transcripts that were differentially expressed among stressed and unstressed plants in response to the particular stress were analysed in the context of tolerant/susceptible genotypes. RESULTS: The transcriptional change of more than two fold was observed for 109, 210 and 386 genes after drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, respectively. Among these, two, 15 and 30 genes were consensually differentially expressed (DE) between tolerant and susceptible genotypes studied for drought, cold and high-salinity, respectively. The genes that were DE in tolerant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses code for various functional and regulatory proteins. Significant differences in stress responses were observed within and between tolerant and susceptible genotypes highlighting the multiple gene control and complexity of abiotic stress response mechanism in chickpea. CONCLUSION: The annotation of these genes suggests that they may have a role in abiotic stress response and are potential candidates for tolerance/susceptibility.
Project description:Auxin response factors (ARFs) are the transcription factors that regulate auxin responses in various aspects of plant growth and development. Although genome-wide analysis of ARF gene family has been done in some species, no information is available regarding ARF genes in chickpea. In this study, we identified 28 ARF genes (CaARF) in the chickpea genome. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CaARFs can be divided into four different groups. Duplication analysis revealed that 50% of CaARF genes arose from duplication events. We analyzed expression pattern of CaARFs in various developmental stages. CaARF16.3, CaARF17.1 and CaARF17.2 showed highest expression at initial stages of flower bud development, while CaARF6.2 had higher expression at later stages of flower development. Further, CaARF4.2, CaARF9.2, CaARF16.2 and CaARF7.1 exhibited differential expression under different abiotic stress conditions, suggesting their role in abiotic stress responses. Co-expression network analysis among CaARF, CaIAA and CaGH3 genes enabled us to recognize components involved in the regulatory network associated with CaARFs. Further, we identified microRNAs that target CaARFs and TAS3 locus that trigger production of trans-acting siRNAs targeting CaARFs. The analyses presented here provide comprehensive information on ARF family members and will help in elucidating their exact function in chickpea.
Project description:In this study, we aim to present a global view of transcriptome dynamics during various abiotic stresses in chickpea. We generated about 252 million high-quality reads from eight libraries (control, desiccation, salinity and cold stress samples for roots and shoots) using Illumina high-throughput sequencing GAII platform. We mapped the reads to the desi chickpea genome for estimation of their transcript abundance in different tissue samples. The transcriptome dynamics was studied by differential gene expression analyses between stress treatment and control sample. We collected different tissue samples (root and shoot tissues of 10-day-old seedlings subjected to control (kept in water), desiccation (transferred on folds of tissue paper), salinity (transferred to beaker containing 150 mM NaCl solution) and cold (kept in water at 4 ± 1°C) stress for 5 h. Total RNA isolated from these tissue samples was subjected to Illumina sequencing. The sequenced data was further filtered using NGS QC Toolkit to obtain high-quality reads. The filtered reads were mapped to annotated chickpea genome using TopHat and fragments per exon kilobase per million (FPKM) was calculated using Cufflinks software for each gene in all the sample to measure their gene expression. Differential expression analysis was performed using Cuffdiff software. The differentially expressed genes during various abiotic stress conditions were identified.
Project description:Physical map of chickpea was developed for the reference chickpea genotype (ICC 4958) using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries targeting 71,094 clones (~12× coverage). High information content fingerprinting (HICF) of these clones gave high-quality fingerprinting data for 67,483 clones, and 1,174 contigs comprising 46,112 clones and 3,256 singletons were defined. In brief, 574 Mb genome size was assembled in 1,174 contigs with an average of 0.49 Mb per contig and 3,256 singletons represent 407 Mb genome. The physical map was linked with two genetic maps with the help of 245 BAC-end sequence (BES)-derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This allowed locating some of the BACs in the vicinity of some important quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for drought tolerance and reistance to Fusarium wilt and Ascochyta blight. In addition, fingerprinted contig (FPC) assembly was also integrated with the draft genome sequence of chickpea. As a result, ~965 BACs including 163 minimum tilling path (MTP) clones could be mapped on eight pseudo-molecules of chickpea forming 491 hypothetical contigs representing 54,013,992 bp (~54 Mb) of the draft genome. Comprehensive analysis of markers in abiotic and biotic stress tolerance QTL regions led to identification of 654, 306 and 23 genes in drought tolerance "QTL-hotspot" region, Ascochyta blight resistance QTL region and Fusarium wilt resistance QTL region, respectively. Integrated physical, genetic and genome map should provide a foundation for cloning and isolation of QTLs/genes for molecular dissection of traits as well as markers for molecular breeding for chickpea improvement.
Project description:Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding.