Effects of methionine supplementation on the expression of protein deposition-related genes in acute heat stress-exposed broilers.
ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat stress and methionine supplementation on the gene expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone receptor (GHR), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and regulatory 1 (PI3KR1) in the liver, as well as the expression of the atrogin 1 and cathepsin L2 (CTSL2) genes in the breast muscle of broilers. Broilers from 1-21 and 22-42 days of age were divided into three treatments related to methionine supplementation as follows: without methionine supplementation (MD), recommended level of methionine (DL1), and excess supplementation of methionine (DL2). The animals were either maintained at a thermal comfort temperature or exposed to heat stress (HS) (38°C for 24 hours, starting on day 20 or day 41 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively). The heat stress increased the body temperature at both ages. Starter period: The HS animals presented increased plasma creatinine content (P<0.0001) and the highest CTSL2 gene expression (P<0.0001). The methionine supplementation increased the IGF-I (P = 0.0144) and GHR (P = 0.0011) gene expression and decreased the CTSL2 (P = 0.0004) and atrogin 1 (P = 0.0012) gene expression. Grower period: Significant effects for the interaction between supplementation and environment were observed for GHR (P = 0.0252) and CTSL2 (P = 0.0011) gene expression. The highest GHR expression was observed in animals that remained in thermal comfort on the DL2 diet, and the lowest expression occurred in the HS animals fed the MD diet. For CTSL2, the HS animals fed the MD diet presented the highest CTSL2 gene expression, and the lowest expression was observed in the animals maintained at thermal comfort on DL1 and DL2 diets. Only methionine supplementation had effect on atrogin-1 gene expression (P<0.0001), with higher methionine content in the diet lower atrogin-1 gene expression was observed. Our results suggest that heat stress induces greater protein degradation and that methionine supplementation could induce protein deposition because methionine increased the expression of genes related to protein synthesis and decreased the expression of genes related to protein breakdown.
Project description:Under conditions of high ambient temperatures and/or strenuous exercise, humans and animals experience considerable heat stress (HS) leading among others to intestinal epithelial damage through induction of cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of ?-Lipoic Acid (ALA) on HS-induced intestinal epithelial injury using an in vitro Caco-2 cell model.A confluent monolayer of Caco-2 cells was pre-incubated with ALA (24 h) prior to control (37?°C) or HS conditions (42?°C) for 6 or 24 h and the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), heat shock factor-1 (HSF1), and the antioxidant Nrf2 were investigated. Intestinal integrity was determined by measuring transepithelial resistance, paracellular permeability, junctional complex reassembly, and E-cadherin expression and localization. Furthermore, cell proliferation was measured in an epithelial wound healing assay and the expression of the inflammatory markers cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and transforming growth Factor-? (TGF-?) was evaluated.ALA pretreatment increased the HSP70 mRNA and protein expression under HS conditions, but did not significantly modulate the HS-induced activation of HSF1. The HS-induced increase in Nrf2 gene expression as well as the Nrf2 nuclear translocation was impeded by ALA. Moreover, ALA prevented the HS-induced impairment of intestinal integrity. Cell proliferation under HS conditions was improved by ALA supplementation as demonstrated in an epithelial wound healing assay and ALA was able to affect the HS-induced inflammatory response by decreasing the COX-2 and TGF-? mRNA expression.ALA supplementation could prevent the disruption of intestinal epithelial integrity by enhancing epithelial cell proliferation, and reducing the inflammatory response under HS conditions in an in vitro Caco-2 cell model.
Project description:The GH growth axis plays an important role in the growth and development of animals and runs through the whole life of animals. Many studies have shown that molecular mutations in key genes of the GH axis will affect the growth and development of animals. The purpose of this study was to explore the distribution characteristics of InDels of GHR, GHRH, and GHRHR in seven Chinese sheep populations, and to further explore the relationship between InDels and sheep growth traits. GHR showed high variation in Chinese sheep, and GHR-53 showed the highest minimum allele frequency (MAF). There was only one InDel mutation site in both GHRH and GHRHR. The genotype frequencies of Hu sheep (HS), Tong sheep (TS), and Lanzhou fat-tail sheep (LFTS) were quite different from other breeds. The association between GHR, GHRH, and GHRHR InDels and body size traits in seven varieties were analyzed. The results showed that there was no significant relationship between GHRH and body size traits in the seven sheep populations. There was a positive association between GHR-21 and hip height of LFSH (p < 0.05). GHR-43 reduced body height and chest depth of Small tail han sheep (STHS) and hip width of TS. GHR-44 significantly affected the body weight of HS, the body height of STHS and the head depth of TS. GHR-53 significantly reduced cannon girth of HS, chest of STHS and forehead width of TS. GHRHR-2 significantly reduced the body weight of LFHS. To sum up, this study revealed the effects of GHR, GHRH, and GHRHR InDels on sheep phenotypic traits, which indicated their potential application prospects in the genetic improvement of mutton sheep.
Project description:Heat stress (HS) has been reported to alter fat deposition in broilers, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well-defined. The objectives of the current study were, therefore: (1) to determine the effects of acute (2 h) and chronic (3 weeks) HS on the expression of key molecular signatures involved in hepatic lipogenic and lipolytic programs, and (2) to assess if diet supplementation with dried Noni medicinal plant (0.2% of the diet) modulates these effects. Broilers (480 males, 1 d) were randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers, subjected to two environmental conditions (heat stress, HS, 35°C vs. thermoneutral condition, TN, 24°C) and fed two diets (control vs. Noni) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Feed intake and body weights were recorded, and blood and liver samples were collected at 2 h and 3 weeks post-heat exposure. HS depressed feed intake, reduced body weight, and up regulated the hepatic expression of heat shock protein HSP60, HSP70, HSP90 as well as key lipogenic proteins (fatty acid synthase, FASN; acetyl co-A carboxylase alpha, ACC? and ATP citrate lyase, ACLY). HS down regulated the hepatic expression of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triacylglycerol lipase (LIPC), but up-regulated ATGL. Although it did not affect growth performance, Noni supplementation regulated the hepatic expression of lipogenic proteins in a time- and gene-specific manner. Prior to HS, Noni increased ACLY and FASN in the acute and chronic experimental conditions, respectively. During acute HS, Noni increased ACC?, but reduced FASN and ACLY expression. Under chronic HS, Noni up regulated ACC? and FASN but it down regulated ACLY. In vitro studies, using chicken hepatocyte cell lines, showed that HS down-regulated the expression of ACC?, FASN, and ACLY. Treatment with quercetin, one bioactive ingredient in Noni, up-regulated the expression of ACC?, FASN, and ACLY under TN conditions, but it appeared to down-regulate ACC? and increase ACLY levels under HS exposure. In conclusion, our findings indicate that HS induces hepatic lipogenesis in chickens and this effect is probably mediated via HSPs. The modulation of hepatic HSP expression suggest also that Noni might be involved in modulating the stress response in chicken liver.
Project description:The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary propolis supplementation to laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) on egg production, egg quality, physiological and immunological aspects under heat stress conditions. A total of 200, 21-day-old, Japanese quail females were distributed equally into standard wired cages in two identical environmentally-controlled rooms (10 cages per room, 10 birds per cage). From 29-70 d of age, the quail birds in the first room remained at a normal temperature of 24°C (C group), whereas the quail birds in the second room were kept under heat stress at 35°C (HS group). Each group was further assigned to 2 propolis subgroups (5 cages per subgroup); one of them received a basal diet without propolis supplementation (-PR subgroup), while, the other received 1 g propolis/ kg basal diet (+PR subgroup). In the present study, performance and egg production of laying quail were significantly (P<0.001) impaired by HS treatment and improved by the PR treatment. Similarly, the negative and positive effects of HS and PR, respectively, were appeared on the egg shell thickness and yolk index. Stress indicators in laying quail were significantly (P<0.001) increased by HS, while, PR significantly (P<0.05) moderated these levels in the HS+PR group when compared to the HS-PR quail group. In addition to the positive impact of PR on the plasma levels of calcium, phosphorus, and albumin, it also normalized the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase and cholesterol in the heat-stressed quail birds. Moreover, the quail birds in the HS groups expressed lower immunological aspects than those in the C group, while, the addition of propolis to the diets enhanced the immune status of laying quail birds under HS conditions. These results strongly suggest that dietary propolis supplementation could be a successful attempt to maintain the performance and egg production of laying Japanese quail at convenient levels under heat stress conditions.
Project description:Heat stress is one of the most detrimental confrontations in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, causing considerable economic losses in poultry production. Propolis, a resinous product of worker honeybees, possesses several biological activities that could be used to alleviate the deleterious effects of high environmental temperature on poultry production. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effects of propolis supplementation to Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) diets on the production performance, intestinal histomorphology, relative physiological and immunological parameters, and selected gene expression under heat stress conditions. Three hundred one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly distributed into 20 wired-cages. At 28 d of age, the birds were divided into 2 temperature treatment groups; a normal at 24°C (C group) and a heat stress at 35°C (HS group). The birds in each group were further assigned to 2 subgroups; one of them was fed on a basal diet without propolis supplementation (-Pr subgroup) while the other was supplemented with propolis (+Pr subgroup). Production performance including body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were measured. The intestinal histomorphological measurements were also performed for all treatment groups. Relative physiological parameters including body temperature, corticosterone hormone level, malondialdehyde (MDA) and free triiodothyronine hormone (fT3), as well as the relative immunological parameters including the total white blood cells count (TWBC's), heterophil/lymphocyte (H/L) ratio and lymphocyte proliferation index, were also measured. Furthermore, the mRNA expression for toll like receptor 5 (TLR5), cysteine-aspartic protease-6 (CASP6) and heat shock proteins 70 and 90 (Hsp70 and Hsp90) genes was quantified in this study. The quail production performance was significantly (P<0.05) impaired by HS treatment, while Pr treatment significantly improved the quail production performance. The villus width and area were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the HS compared to the C group, while Pr treatment significantly increased crypts depth of quail. A negative impact of HS treatment was observed on the physiological status of quail; however, propolis significantly alleviated this negative effect. Moreover, quail of the HS group expressed lower immunological parameters than C group, while propolis enhanced the immune status of the quail. The relative mRNA expression of TLR5 gene was down-regulated by HS treatment while it was up-regulated by the Pr treatment. Furthermore, the positive effects of propolis in HS-quail were evidenced by normalizing the high expressions of CASP6 and Hsp70 genes when compared to the C group. Based on these results, the addition of propolis to quail diets as a potential nutritional strategy in order to improve their performance, especially under heat stress conditions, is recommended.
Project description:Heat stress (HS) dramatically disrupts the events in energy and nutrient metabolism, many of which requires zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. In this study, metabolic effects of HS and Zn supplementation were evaluated by examining growth performance, blood chemistry, and metabolomes of crossbred gilts fed with ZnNeg (no Zn supplementation), ZnIO (120 ppm ZnSO4), or ZnAA (60 ppm ZnSO4 + 60 ppm zinc amino acid complex) diets under diurnal HS or thermal-neutral (TN) condition. The results showed that growth performance was reduced by HS but not by Zn supplementation. Among measured serum biochemicals, HS was found to increase creatinine but decrease blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level. Metabolomic analysis indicated that HS greatly affected diverse metabolites associated with amino acid, lipid, and microbial metabolism, including urea cycle metabolites, essential amino acids, phospholipids, medium-chain dicarboxylic acids, fatty acid amides, and secondary bile acids. More importantly, many changes in these metabolite markers were correlated with both acute and adaptive responses to HS. Relative to HS-induced metabolic effects, Zn supplementation-associated effects were much more limited. A prominent observation was that ZnIO diet, potentially through its influences on microbial metabolism, yielded different responses to HS compared with two other diets, which included higher levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecal fluid and higher levels of lysine in the liver and feces. Overall, comprehensive metabolomic analysis identified novel metabolite markers associated with HS and Zn supplementation, which could guide further investigation on the mechanisms of these metabolic effects.
Project description:Excessive heat exposure reduces intestinal integrity and post-absorptive energetics that can inhibit wellbeing and be fatal. Therefore, our objectives were to examine how acute heat stress (HS) alters intestinal integrity and metabolism in growing pigs. Animals were exposed to either thermal neutral (TN, 21°C; 35-50% humidity; n=8) or HS conditions (35°C; 24-43% humidity; n=8) for 24 h. Compared to TN, rectal temperatures in HS pigs increased by 1.6°C and respiration rates by 2-fold (P<0.05). As expected, HS decreased feed intake by 53% (P<0.05) and body weight (P<0.05) compared to TN pigs. Ileum heat shock protein 70 expression increased (P<0.05), while intestinal integrity was compromised in the HS pigs (ileum and colon TER decreased; P<0.05). Furthermore, HS increased serum endotoxin concentrations (P=0.05). Intestinal permeability was accompanied by an increase in protein expression of myosin light chain kinase (P<0.05) and casein kinase II-? (P=0.06). Protein expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins in the ileum revealed claudin 3 and occludin expression to be increased overall due to HS (P<0.05), while there were no differences in claudin 1 expression. Intestinal glucose transport and blood glucose were elevated due to HS (P<0.05). This was supported by increased ileum Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in HS pigs. SGLT-1 protein expression was unaltered; however, HS increased ileal GLUT-2 protein expression (P=0.06). Altogether, these data indicate that HS reduce intestinal integrity and increase intestinal stress and glucose transport.
Project description:Elevated summer temperature is reported to be the leading cause of stress in dairy and beef cows, which negatively affects various reproductive functions. Follicular cells respond to heat stress (HS) by activating the expression of heat shock family proteins (HSPs) and other antioxidants. HS is reported to negatively affect the bi-directional communication between the follicular cells and the oocyte, which is partly mediated by follicular fluid extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from surrounding cells. As carriers of bioactive molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, and lipids), the involvement of EVs in mediating the stress response in follicular cells is not fully understood. Here we used an in vitro model to decipher the cellular and EV-coupled miRNAs of bovine granulosa cells in response to HS. Moreover, the protective role of stress-related EVs against subsequent HS was assessed. For this, bovine granulosa cells from smaller follicles were cultured in vitro and after sub-confluency, cells were either kept at 37 °C or subjected to HS (42 °C). Results showed that granulosa cells exposed to HS increased the accumulation of ROS, total oxidized protein, apoptosis, and the expression of HSPs and antioxidants, while the viability of cells was reduced. Moreover, 14 and 6 miRNAs were differentially expressed in heat-stressed granulosa cells and the corresponding EVs, respectively. Supplementation of stress-related EVs in cultured granulosa cells has induced adaptive response to subsequent HS. However, this potential was not pronounced when the cells were kept under 37 °C. Taking together, EVs generated from granulosa cells exposed to HS has the potential to shuttle bioactive molecules to recipient cells and make them robust to subsequent HS.
Project description:Heat stress (HS) adversely affects growth performance and inflicts heavy economic losses to the poultry industry. There is, therefore, a critical need to identify new alternative strategies to alleviate the negative effects induced by HS. The tropic medicinal plant, Morinda citrifolia (Noni), is being used in livestock nutrition, however the literature is limited and conflicting for its impact on growth performance. The present study aimed to determine the effect of Noni on feeding and drinking behavior as well as on the hypothalamic expression of stress- and metabolic-related genes in broiler chickens exposed to acute HS. A total of 480 1 day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 12 controlled environmental chambers. Birds were subjected to two environmental conditions (TN, 25°C vs. HS, 35°C for 2 h) and fed two diets (control vs. 0.2% Noni) in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Feed intake and core body temperature (BT) were recorded during HS period. Blood was collected and hypothalamic tissues were harvested for target gene and protein analyses. Acute HS-broilers exhibited higher BT (~1°C), spent less time eating with a significant decrease in feed intake, and spent more time drinking along with higher drinking frequency compared to those maintained under TN conditions. Although Noni supplementation did not improve feed intake, it significantly delayed (~30 min) and reduced the BT-induced by HS. At molecular levels and under HS conditions, Noni supplementation down regulated the hypothalamic expression of HSP90 and its related transcription factors HSF1, 2, and 4, increased orexin mRNA levels, and decreased the phosphorylation levels of AMPK?1/2Thr172 and mTORSer2481. Together, these data indicated that Noni supplementation might modulate HS response in broilers through central orexin-AMPK-mTOR pathways.
Project description:Because of climate change, heat stress (HS) causes more and more impacts on dairy animals to decrease lactation performance. The neuroendocrine system is key in regulating systemic physiological processes and milk synthesis. However, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis response to HS is still unclear. In this study, a group of lactating mice underwent a daily 2-h heat treatment (36°C) for 14 d to explore possible cross-talk between the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and mammary gland under HS. Transcriptome analyses by multitissue RNA-Seq indicated the possible mechanisms of reduced lactation performance in animals under HS. In the hypothalamus, the cAMP signaling pathway was activated to resist neuronal death, and the expression of downstream genes was increased to promote cell survival under HS. Reduced food intake might be caused by down-regulated appetite-related peptide, whereas up-regulated neuropeptide Y acted to attenuate reduced food intake. In pituitary, energy stress from lower food intake might result in reduced secretion of prolactin and growth hormone. Under HS, the mammary gland may undergo hypoxic stress, causing mammary epithelial cell apoptosis. Together, these data showed systemic changes in tissues to accommodate the effects of HS on lactation.-Han, J., Shao, J., Chen, Q., Sun, H., Guan, L., Li, Y., Liu, J., Liu, H. Transcriptional changes in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and mammary gland underlying decreased lactation performance in mice under heat stress.