Association Between Antibiotic Exposure, Bronchiolitis, and TLR4 (rs1927911) Polymorphisms in Childhood Asthma.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The complex interplay between environmental and genetic factors plays an important role in the development of asthma. Several studies have yielded conflicting results regarding the 2 asthma-related risk factors: antibiotic usage during infancy and/or a history of bronchiolitis during early life and the development of asthma. In addition to these risk factors, we also explored the effects of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) polymorphism on the development of childhood asthma. METHODS:This cross-sectional study involved 7,389 middle school students who were from 8 areas of Seoul, Korea, and completed the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The TLR4 polymorphism rs1927911 was genotyped in 1,395 middle school students from two areas using the TaqMan assay. RESULTS:Bronchiolitis in the first 2 years of life, antibiotic exposure during the first year of life, and parental history of asthma were independent risk factors for the development of asthma. When combined, antibiotic use and a history of bronchiolitis increased the risk of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 4.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.09-6.97, P value for interaction=0.02). In subjects with CC genotype of TLR4, antibiotic exposure and a history of bronchiolitis during infancy, the risk of asthma was increased, compared to subjects without these risk factors (aOR: 5.72, 95% CI: 1.74-18.87). CONCLUSIONS:Early-life antibiotic exposures and a history of bronchiolitis are risk factors for asthma in young adolescents. Polymorphisms of TLR4 modified the influence of these environmental factors. Reducing antibiotic exposure and preventing bronchiolitis during infancy may prevent the development of asthma, especially in genetically susceptible subjects.
Project description:Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognise microbes that contribute to the severity of bronchiolitis and the subsequent risk of asthma. We evaluated whether post-bronchiolitis asthma was associated with polymorphisms in the TLR3 rs3775291, TLR4 rs4986790, TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs2407992, TLR9 rs187084, and TLR10 rs4129009 genes. The gene polymorphisms were studied at the age of 6.4 years (mean) in 135 children hospitalised for bronchiolitis in infancy. The outcome measure was current or previous asthma. Current asthma was more common (30%) in children with the variant AG or GG genotype in the TLR10 rs4129009 gene versus those who were homozygous for the major allele A (11%) (p = 0.03). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 4.30 (95% CI 1.30-14.29). Asthma ever was more common (34.6%) in girls with the TLR7 variant AT or TT genotype versus those who were homozygous for the major allele A (12.5%) (p = 0.03). The adjusted OR was 3.93 (95% CI 1.06-14.58). Corresponding associations were not seen in boys. There were no significant associations between TLR3, TLR4, TLR8, or TLR9 polymorphisms and post-bronchiolitis asthma. Polymorphism in the TLR10 gene increases and in the TLR7 gene may increase the risk of asthma in preschool-aged children after infant bronchiolitis.
Project description:Severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during infancy is strongly associated with the development of asthma. To identify genetic variation that contributes to asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we sequenced the coding exons of 131 asthma candidate genes in 182 European and African American children with severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy using anonymous pools for variant discovery, and then directly genotyped a set of 190 nonsynonymous variants. Association testing was performed for physician-diagnosed asthma before the 7th birthday (asthma) using genotypes from 6,500 individuals from the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) as controls to gain statistical power. In addition, among patients with severe RSV bronchiolitis during infancy, we examined genetic associations with asthma, active asthma, persistent wheeze, and bronchial hyperreactivity (methacholine PC20) at age 6 years. We identified four rare nonsynonymous variants that were significantly associated with asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis, including single variants in ADRB2, FLG and NCAM1 in European Americans (p = 4.6x10-4, 1.9x10-13 and 5.0x10-5, respectively), and NOS1 in African Americans (p = 2.3x10-11). One of the variants was a highly functional nonsynonymous variant in ADRB2 (rs1800888), which was also nominally associated with asthma (p = 0.027) and active asthma (p = 0.013) among European Americans with severe RSV bronchiolitis without including the ESP. Our results suggest that rare nonsynonymous variants contribute to the development of asthma following severe RSV bronchiolitis in infancy, notably in ADRB2. Additional studies are required to explore the role of rare variants in the etiology of asthma and asthma-related traits following severe RSV bronchiolitis.
Project description:Background:Acute bronchiolitis during infancy and human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections increases the risk of asthma in atopic children. We aimed to explore whether specific viruses, allergic sensitisation or cortisol levels during acute bronchiolitis in infancy increase the risk of early asthma, using recurrent wheeze as a proxy. Methods:In 294 children with a mean (range) age of 4.2 (0-12)?months enrolled during hospitalisation for acute infant bronchiolitis, we analysed virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates, serum specific immunoglobulin E against food and inhalant allergens, and salivary morning cortisol. These factors were assessed by regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex and parental atopy, for risk of recurrent wheeze, defined as a minimum of three parentally reported episodes of wheeze at the 2-year follow-up investigation. Results:At 2?years, children with, compared to without, recurrent wheeze had similar rates of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (82.9% versus 81.8%) and HRV (34.9% versus 35.0%) at the acute bronchiolitis, respectively. During infancy, 6.9% of children with and 9.2% of children without recurrent wheeze at 2?years were sensitised to at least one allergen (p=0.5). Neither recurrent wheeze nor incidence rate ratios for the number of wheeze episodes at 2?years were significantly associated with specific viruses, high viral load of RSV or HRV, allergic sensitisation, or morning salivary cortisol level during acute bronchiolitis in infancy. Conclusion:In children hospitalised with acute infant bronchiolitis, specific viruses, viral load, allergic sensitisation and salivary morning cortisol did not increase the risk of early asthma by 2?years of age.
Project description:Bronchiolitis during infancy is associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma. Whether winter viral infections cause asthma or are a manifestation of a predisposition to asthma development is unknown.To study the relationship of winter virus infection during infancy and the development of childhood asthma.We studied over 95,000 infants born between 1995 and 2000 and followed through 2005 who were enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program from birth through early childhood to determine whether infant birth in relationship to the winter virus peak alters the risk of developing early childhood asthma.Among 95,310 children studied during five winter virus seasons from birth through early childhood, the risk of developing asthma tracked with the timing of infant birth in relationship to the winter virus peak. Infant birth approximately 4 months before the winter virus peak carried the highest risk, with a 29% increase in odds of developing asthma compared with birth 12 months before the peak (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.40). Infant age at the winter virus peak was comparable to or greater than other known risk factors for asthma.Timing of birth in relationship to winter virus season confers a differential and definable risk of developing early childhood asthma, establishing winter virus seasonality as a causal factor in asthma development. Delay of exposure or prevention of winter viral infection during early infancy could prevent asthma.
Project description:Viral infections are closely linked to wheezing illnesses in children of all ages. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main causative agent of bronchiolitis, whereas rhinovirus (RV) is most commonly detected in wheezing children thereafter. Severe respiratory illness induced by either of these viruses is associated with subsequent development of asthma, and the risk is greatest for young children who wheeze with RV infections. Whether viral illnesses actually cause asthma is the subject of intense debate. RSV-induced wheezing illnesses during infancy influence respiratory health for years. There is definitive evidence that RSV-induced bronchiolitis can damage the airways to promote airway obstruction and recurrent wheezing. RV likely causes less structural damage and yet is a significant contributor to wheezing illnesses in young children and in the context of asthma. For both viruses, interactions between viral virulence factors, personal risk factors (eg, genetics), and environmental exposures (eg, airway microbiome) promote more severe wheezing illnesses and the risk for progression to asthma. In addition, allergy and asthma are major risk factors for more frequent and severe RV-related illnesses. Treatments that inhibit inflammation have efficacy for RV-induced wheezing, whereas the anti-RSV mAb palivizumab decreases the risk of severe RSV-induced illness and subsequent recurrent wheeze. Developing a greater understanding of personal and environmental factors that promote more severe viral illnesses might lead to new strategies for the prevention of viral wheezing illnesses and perhaps reduce the subsequent risk for asthma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Studies have shown diverse strength of evidence for the associations between air pollutants and childhood asthma, but these associations have scarcely been documented in the early life. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various air pollutants on the development of asthma phenotypes in the first year of life. METHODS: Adjusted odds ratios were estimated to assess the relationships between exposures to air pollutants and single and multi-dimensional asthma phenotypes in the first year of life in children of the EDEN mother-child cohort study (n = 1,765 mother-child pairs). The Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) model was used to determine the associations between prenatal maternal smoking and in utero exposure to traffic-related air pollution and asthma phenotypes (data were collected when children were at birth, and at 4, 8 and 12 months of age). Adjusted Population Attributable Risk (aPAR) was estimated to measure the impacts of air pollutants on health outcomes. RESULTS: In the first year of life, both single and multi-dimensional asthma phenotypes were positively related to heavy parental smoking, traffic-related air pollution and dampness, but negatively associated with contact with cats and domestic wood heating. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for traffic-related air pollution were the highest [1.71 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.08-2.72) for ever doctor-diagnosed asthma, 1.44 (95% CI: 1.05-1.99) for bronchiolitis with wheezing, 2.01 (95% CI: 1.23-3.30) for doctor-diagnosed asthma with a history of bronchiolitis]. The aPARs based on these aORs were 13.52%, 9.39%, and 17.78%, respectively. Results persisted for prenatal maternal smoking and in utero exposure to traffic-related air pollution, although statistically significant associations were observed only with the asthma phenotype of ever bronchiolitis. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for potential confounders, traffic-related air pollution in utero life and in the first year of life, had a greater impact on the development of asthma phenotypes compared to other factors.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A relationship between hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and asthma development has been suggested in case-control studies. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of current wheeze, asthma, and lung function at school age in infants previously hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis compared to non-hospitalized children. METHODS: For this study, data from a prospective birth cohort of unselected, term-born infants (n?=?553), of whom 4 (0.7%) were hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis, and a prospective patient cohort of 155 term infants hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis were used. Respiratory outcomes at age 6 in children hospitalized for RSV bronchiolitis were compared to non-hospitalized children. RESULTS: The risk of current wheeze was higher in hospitalized patients (n?=?159) compared to non-hospitalized children (n?=?549) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). Similarly, the risk of current asthma, defined as a doctor's diagnosis of asthma plus current symptoms or medication use, was higher in hospitalized patients (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.3-7.5). Compared to non-hospitalized children, RSV bronchiolitis hospitalization was associated with lower lung function (mean difference FEV1% predicted -6.8 l (95% CI (-10.2 to -3.4). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This is the first study showing that hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis during infancy is associated with increased risk of wheezing, current asthma, and impaired lung function as compared to an unselected birth cohort at age 6.
Project description:Respiratory syncytial virus-bronchiolitis is a major independent risk factor for subsequent asthma, but the causal mechanisms remain obscure. We identified that transient plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) depletion during primary Pneumovirus infection alone predisposed to severe bronchiolitis in early life and subsequent asthma in later life after reinfection. pDC depletion ablated interferon production and increased viral load; however, the heightened immunopathology and susceptibility to subsequent asthma stemmed from a failure to expand functional neuropilin-1+ regulatory T (T reg) cells in the absence of pDC-derived semaphorin 4a (Sema4a). In adult mice, pDC depletion predisposed to severe bronchiolitis only after antibiotic treatment. Consistent with a protective role for the microbiome, treatment of pDC-depleted neonates with the microbial-derived metabolite propionate promoted Sema4a-dependent T reg cell expansion, ameliorating both diseases. In children with viral bronchiolitis, nasal propionate levels were decreased and correlated with an IL-6high/IL-10low microenvironment. We highlight a common but age-related Sema4a-mediated pathway by which pDCs and microbial colonization induce T reg cell expansion to protect against severe bronchiolitis and subsequent asthma.
Project description:Between 75 000 and 125 000 U.S. infants are hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis every year. Up to half will be diagnosed with asthma in later childhood. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with susceptibility to asthma and respiratory infections. Measured vitamin D is largely bound to vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP); VDBP levels are influenced by its gene (GC) haplotype.We assessed the relationship between polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588, which define haplotypes GC1s, GC1f, and GC2, and RSV bronchiolitis susceptibility and subsequent asthma.We retrospectively recruited 198 otherwise healthy children (93% White) hospitalized for severe RSV bronchiolitis in Boston and 333 parents into a follow-up study to assess asthma diagnosis. Data were analysed using family-based genetic association tests. We independently validated our results in 465 White children hospitalized with RSV bronchiolitis and 930 White population controls from the Netherlands.The rs7041_C allele (denoting haplotype GC1s) was overtransmitted (P = 0.02, additive model) in the entire Boston cohort, in Whites (P = 0.03), and especially in children subsequently diagnosed with asthma (P = 0.006). The GC1f haplotype was undertransmitted in the asthma subgroups (all races and White, both P < 0.05). The rs7041_C allele was also more frequent in the RSV bronchiolitis group compared with controls (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02, 1.4, P = 0.03) in the Netherlands, especially in mechanically ventilated patients (P = 0.009).GC1s haplotype carriage may increase the risk of RSV bronchiolitis in infancy and subsequent asthma development. The GC1s haplotype is associated with higher VDBP levels, resulting in less freely available vitamin D.Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) haplotypes influence free vitamin D levels. We report an association between a VDBP haplotype and hospitalization for RSV bronchiolitis in infancy in two independent cohorts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. METHODS:We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. RESULTS:Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal delivery, C-section delivery increased odds of childhood asthma by 34% (OR 1.34, 95%CI 1.29, 1.39) in the univariate analysis and 11% after adjusting for other environmental exposures and covariates (AOR 1.11, 95%CI 1.06, 1.15). Maternal GBS was associated with a significant increased risk of childhood asthma in the univariate analysis (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.19, 1.35), but not in the adjusted analysis (AOR 1.03, 95%CI 0.96, 1.10). In the subgroup analysis of children whose maternal antibiotic use information was available, maternal antibiotic use was associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma in a similar dose-dependent manner in the univariate and adjusted analyses (OR 1.13, 95%CI 1.12, 1.15; AOR 1.06, 95%CI 1.05, 1.08 for every additional course). Compared with infants with the lowest number of exposures (no UTI during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, at least five older siblings at home, no antibiotics during infancy), infants with the highest number of exposures (at least three UTIs during pregnancy, C-section delivery, no older siblings, eight or more courses of antibiotics during infancy) had a 7.77 fold increased odds of developing asthma (AOR: 7.77, 95%CI: 6.25, 9.65). Lastly, infant antibiotic use had the greatest impact on asthma risk compared with maternal UTI during pregnancy, mode of delivery and having older siblings at home. CONCLUSION:Early-life exposures, maternal UTI during pregnancy (maternal antibiotic use), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and having older siblings at home, are associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma in a cumulative manner, and for those continuous variables, a dose-dependent relationship. Compared with in utero exposures, exposures occurring during infancy have a greater impact on the risk of developing childhood asthma.