Species differences in alternative substrate utilization by the antibacterial target undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase.
ABSTRACT: Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) is a critical enzyme required for the biosynthesis of polysaccharides essential for bacterial survival. In this report, we have tested the substrate selectivity of UPPS derived from the mammalian symbiont Bacteroides fragilis, the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus, and the typically benign but opportunistic pathogen Escherichia coli. An anthranilamide-containing substrate, 2-amideanilinogeranyl diphosphate (2AA-GPP), was an effective substrate for only the B. fragilis UPPS protein, yet replacing the amide with a nitrile [2-nitrileanilinogeranyl diphosphate (2CNA-GPP)] led to a compound that was fully functional for UPPS from all three target organisms. These fluorescent substrate analogues were also found to undergo increases in fluorescence upon isoprenoid chain elongation, and this increase in fluorescence can be utilized to monitor the activity and inhibition of UPPS in 96-well plate assays. The fluorescence of 2CNA-GPP increased by a factor of 2.5-fold upon chain elongation, while that of 2AA-GPP increased only 1.2-fold. The 2CNA-GPP compound was therefore more versatile for screening the activity of UPPS from multiple species of bacteria and underwent a larger increase in fluorescence that improved its ability to detect increases in chain length. Overall, this work describes the development of new assay methods for UPPS and demonstrates the difference in substrate utilization between forms of UPPS from different species, which has major implications for UPPS inhibitor development, assay construction, and the development of polysaccharide biosynthesis probes.
Project description:Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthase (UPPS) is an enzyme critical to the production of complex polysaccharides in bacteria, as it produces the crucial bactoprenol scaffold on which these materials are assembled. Methods to characterize the systems associated with polysaccharide production are non-trivial, in part due to the lack of chemical tools to investigate their assembly. In this report, we develop a new fluorescent tool using UPPS to incorporate a powerful fluorescent anthranilamide moiety into bactoprenol. The activity of this analogue in polysaccharide biosynthesis is then tested with the initiating hexose-1-phosphate transferases involved in Capsular Polysaccharide A biosynthesis in the symbiont Bacteroides fragilis and the asparagine-linked glycosylation system of the pathogenic Campylobacter jejuni. In addition, it is shown that the UPPS used to make this probe is not specific for E-configured isoprenoid substrates and that elongation by UPPS is required for activity with the downstream enzymes.
Project description:Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase catalyzes the consecutive head-to-tail condensations of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP, C5) with dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP, C5) and geranyl diphosphate (GPP, C10) to give (E,E)-FPP (C15). The enzyme belongs to a genetically distinct family of chain elongation enzymes that install E-double bonds during each addition of a five-carbon isoprene unit. Analysis of the C10 and C15 products from incubations with avian FPP synthase reveals that small amounts of neryl diphosphate (Z-C10) and (Z,E)-FPP are formed along with the E-isomers during the C5 --> C10 and C10 --> C15 reactions. Similar results were obtained for FPP synthase from Escherichia coli, Artemisia tridentata (sage brush), Pyrococcus furiosus, and Methanobacter thermautotrophicus and for GPP and FPP synthesized in vivo by E. coli FPP synthase. When (R)-[2-2H]IPP was a substrate for chain elongation, no deuterium was found in the chain elongation products. In contrast, the deuterium in (S)-[2-2H]IPP was incorporated into all of the products. Thus, the pro-R hydrogen at C2 of IPP is lost when the E- and Z-double bond isomers are formed. The synthesis of Z-double bond isomers by FPP synthase during chain elongation is unexpected for a highly evolved enzyme and probably reflects a compromise between optimizing double bond stereoselectivity and the need to exclude DMAPP from the IPP binding site.
Project description:Bactoprenyl diphosphate (BPP), a two-E eight-Z configuration C55 isoprenoid, serves as a critical anchor for the biosynthesis of complex glycans central to bacterial survival and pathogenesis. BPP is formed by the polymerase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UppS), which catalyzes the elongation of a single farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) with eight Z-configuration isoprene units from eight isopentenyl diphosphates. In vitro analysis of UppS and other polyprenyl diphosphate synthases requires the addition of a surfactant such as Triton X-100 to stimulate the release of the hydrophobic product from the enzyme for effective and efficient turnover. Here using a fluorescent 2-nitrileanilinogeranyl diphosphate analogue of FPP, we have found that a wide range of surfactants can stimulate release of product from UppS and that the structure of the surfactant has a major impact on the lengths of products produced by the protein. Of particular importance, shorter chain surfactants promote the release of isoprenoids with four to six Z-configuration isoprene additions, while larger chain surfactants promote the formation of natural isoprenoid lengths (8Z) and larger. We have found that the product chain lengths can be readily controlled and coarsely tuned by adjusting surfactant identity, concentration, and reaction time. We have also found that binary mixtures of just two surfactants can be used to fine-tune isoprenoid lengths. The surfactant effects discovered do not appear to be significantly altered with an alternative isoprenoid substrate. However, the surfactant effects do appear to be dependent on differences in UppS between bacterial species. This work provides new insights into surfactant effects in enzymology and highlights how these effects can be leveraged for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of otherwise difficult to obtain glycan biosynthesis probes. This work also provides key reagents for the systematic analysis of structure-activity relationships between glycan biosynthesis enzymes and isoprenoid structure.
Project description:Undecaprenyl Pyrophosphate Synthase (UPPS) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the production of bactoprenols, which act as membrane anchors for the assembly of complex bacterial oligosaccharides. One of the major hurdles in understanding the assembly of oligosaccharide assembly is a lack of chemical tools to study this process, since bactoprenols and the resulting isoprenoid-linked oligosaccharides lack handles or chromophores for use in pathway analysis. Here we describe the isolation of a new UPPS from the symbiotic microorganism Bacteroides fragilis, a key species in the human microbiome. The protein was purified to homogeneity and utilized to accept a chromophore containing farnesyl diphosphate analogue as a substrate. The analogue was utilized by the enzyme and resulted in a bactoprenyl diphosphate product with an easy to monitor tag associated with it. Furthermore, the diphosphate is shown to be readily converted to monophosphate using a common molecular biology reagent. This monophosphate product allowed for the investigation of complex oligosaccharide biosynthesis, and was used to probe the activity of glycosyltransferases involved in the well characterized Campylobacter jejuni N-linked protein glycosylation. Novel reagents similar to this will provide key tools for the study of uncharacterized oligosaccharide assemblies, and open the possibility for the development of rapid screening methodology for these biosynthetic systems.
Project description:UPPS (undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase) catalyses consecutive condensation reactions of FPP (farnesyl pyrophosphate) with eight isopentenyl pyrophosphates to generate C55 UPP, which serves as a lipid carrier for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. We reported the co-crystal structure of Escherichia coli UPPS in complex with FPP. Its phosphate head-group is bound to positively charged arginine residues and the hydrocarbon moiety interacts with hydrophobic amino acids including L85, L88 and F89, located on the alpha3 helix of UPPS. We now show that the monophosphate analogue of FPP binds UPPS with an eight times lower affinity (K(d)=4.4 microM) compared with the pyrophosphate analogue, a result of a larger dissociation rate constant (k(off)=192 s(-1)). Farnesol (1 mM) lacking the pyrophosphate does not inhibit the UPPS reaction. GGPP (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate) containing a larger C20 hydrocarbon tail is an equally good substrate (K(m)=0.3 microM and kcat=2.1 s(-1)) compared with FPP. The shorter C10 GPP (geranyl pyrophosphate) displays a 90-fold larger K(m) value (36.0+/-0.1 microM) but similar kcat value (1.7+/-0.1 s(-1)) compared with FPP. Replacement of L85, L88 or F89 with Ala increases FPP and GGPP K(m) values by the same amount, indicating that these amino acids are important for substrate binding, but do not determine substrate specificity. With GGPP as a substrate, UPPS still catalyses eight isopentenyl pyrophosphate condensation reactions to synthesize C60 product. Computer modelling suggests that the upper portion of the active-site tunnel, where cis double bonds of the product reside, may be critical for determining the final product chain length.
Project description:Bisphosphonate drugs (e.g., Fosamax and Zometa) are thought to act primarily by inhibiting farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS), resulting in decreased prenylation of small GTPases. Here, we show that some bisphosphonates can also inhibit geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS), as well as undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS), a cis-prenyltransferase of interest as a target for antibacterial therapy. Our results on GGPPS (10 structures) show that there are three bisphosphonate-binding sites, consisting of FPP or isopentenyl diphosphate substrate-binding sites together with a GGPP product- or inhibitor-binding site. In UPPS, there are a total of four binding sites (in five structures). These results are of general interest because they provide the first structures of GGPPS- and UPPS-inhibitor complexes, potentially important drug targets, in addition to revealing a remarkably broad spectrum of binding modes not seen in FPPS inhibition.
Project description:Geranyl diphosphate C-methyltransferase (GPPMT) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is the first methyltransferase discovered that modifies an acyclic isoprenoid diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate (GPP), to yield a noncanonical acyclic allylic diphosphate product, 2-methylgeranyl diphosphate, which serves as the substrate for a subsequent cyclization reaction catalyzed by a terpenoid cyclase, methylisoborneol synthase. Here, we report the crystal structures of GPPMT in complex with GPP or the substrate analogue geranyl S-thiolodiphosphate (GSPP) along with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine in the cofactor binding site, resulting from in situ demethylation of S-adenosyl-L-methionine, at 2.05 or 1.82 Å resolution, respectively. These structures suggest that both GPP and GSPP can undergo catalytic methylation in crystalline GPPMT, followed by dissociation of the isoprenoid product. S-Adenosyl-L-homocysteine remains bound in the active site, however, and does not exchange with a fresh molecule of cofactor S-adenosyl-L-methionine. These structures provide important clues about the molecular mechanism of the reaction, especially with regard to the face of the 2,3 double bond of GPP that is methylated as well as the stabilization of the resulting carbocation intermediate through cation-? interactions.
Project description:Isoprenyl chains are found in many important metabolites. These are derived from precursors of the appropriate length produced by isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDSs). The human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis makes various isoprenoids/terpenoids, with important roles in their biosynthesis played by two closely related IDSs, encoded by grcC1 (Rv0562) and grcC2 (Rv0989c), with Rv0989c generating the 10-carbon precursor (E)-geranyl diphosphate (GPP), and Rv0562 the 20-carbon precursor (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). Intriguingly, while Rv0562 contains the prototypical trans-IDS first and second aspartate-rich (DDxxD) motifs (FARM and SARM, respectively), Rv0989c uniquely contains arginine in place of the second Asp in the FARM and first Asp in the SARM. Here site-directed mutagenesis of the corresponding residues in both Rv0562 and Rv0989c reveals that these play a role in determination of product chain length. Specifically, substitution of Asp for the Arg in the FARM and SARM of Rv0989c leads to increased production of the longer 15-carbon farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while substitution of Arg for the corresponding Asp in Rv0562 leads to increased release of shorter products, both FPP and GPP. Accordingly, while the primary role of the FARM and SARM is known to be chelation of the divalent magnesium ion co-factors that assist substrate binding and catalysis, the Arg substitutions found in Rv0989c seem to provide a novel means by which product chain length is moderated, at least in these M. tuberculosis IDSs.
Project description:Undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) catalyzes the consecutive condensation of eight molecules of isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) with farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) to generate the C(55) undecaprenyl pyrophosphate (UPP). It has been demonstrated that tetramic acids (TAs) are selective and potent inhibitors of UPPS, but the mode of inhibition was unclear. In this work, we used a fluorescent FPP probe to study possible TA binding at the FPP binding site. A photosensitive TA analogue was designed and synthesized for the study of the site of interaction of TA with UPPS using photo-cross-linking and mass spectrometry. The interaction of substrates with UPPS and with the UPPS.TA complex was investigated by protein fluorescence spectroscopy. Our results suggested that tetramic acid binds to UPPS at an allosteric site adjacent to the FPP binding site. TA binds to free UPPS enzyme but not to substrate-bound UPPS. Unlike Escherichia coli UPPS which follows an ordered substrate binding mechanism, Streptococcus pneumoniae UPPS appears to follow a random-sequential substrate binding mechanism. Only one substrate, FPP or IPP, is able to bind to the UPPS.TA complex, but the quaternary complex, UPPS.TA.FPP.IPP, cannot be formed. We propose that binding of TA to UPPS significantly alters the conformation of UPPS needed for proper substrate binding. As the result, substrate turnover is prevented, leading to the inhibition of UPPS catalytic activity. These probe compounds and biophysical assays also allowed us to quickly study the mode of inhibition of other UPPS inhibitors identified from a high-throughput screening and inhibitors produced from a medicinal chemistry program.
Project description:Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) is a key enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis, it catalyzes the head-to-tail condensation of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) with two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) to generate farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a precursor of juvenile hormone (JH). In this study, we functionally characterized an Aedes aegypti FPPS (AaFPPS) expressed in the corpora allata. AaFPPS is the only FPPS gene present in the genome of the yellow fever mosquito, it encodes a 49.6 kDa protein exhibiting all the characteristic conserved sequence domains on prenyltransferases. AaFPPS displays its activity in the presence of metal cofactors; and the product condensation is dependent of the divalent cation. Mg(2+) ions lead to the production of FPP, while the presence of Co(2+) ions lead to geranyl diphosphate (GPP) production. In the presence of Mg(2+) the AaFPPS affinity for allylic substrates is GPP > DMAPP > IPP. These results suggest that AaFPPS displays "catalytic promiscuity", changing the type and ratio of products released (GPP or FPP) depending on allylic substrate concentrations and the presence of different metal cofactors. This metal ion-dependent regulatory mechanism allows a single enzyme to selectively control the metabolites it produces, thus potentially altering the flow of carbon into separate metabolic pathways.