Is there an association between traumatic dental injury and social capital, binge drinking and socioeconomic indicators among schoolchildren?
ABSTRACT: Traumatic dental injury is defined as trauma caused by forces on a tooth with variable extent and severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of traumatic dental injury and its association with overjet, lip protection, sex, socioeconomic status, social capital and binge drinking among 12-year-old students.A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 633 12-year-old students. Data were collected through a clinical exam and self-administered questionnaires. Socioeconomic status was determined based on mother's schooling and household income. The Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) were used to measure social capital and binge drinking, respectively.The prevalence of traumatic dental injury was 29.9% (176/588). Traumatic dental injury was more prevalent among male adolescents (p = 0.010), those with overjet greater than 5 mm (p < 0.001) and those with inadequate lip protection (p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression analysis, overjet [OR = 3.80 (95% CI: 2.235-6.466), p < 0.0001], inadequate lip protection [OR = 5.585 (95% CI: 3.654-8.535), p < 0.0001] and binge drinking [OR = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.21-3.06), p = 0.005] remained significantly associated with traumatic dental injury.The present findings suggest that a high level of total social capital and trust are not associated with TDI in adolescents, unlike binge drinking. The effects of social and behavioral factors on TDI are not well elucidated. Therefore, further research involving other populations and a longitudinal design is recommended.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This study assessed the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI) and its association with sociodemographic and physical characteristics in the anterior permanent teeth of 12-year-old schoolchildren at the city of Brasília - DF, Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on a sample of 1,389 boys and girls aged 12 years, enrolled in public and private fundamental schools at the Administrative Region (RA) of Brasília, Brazil, from October 2011 to September 2012. The demographic details were achieved by a structured questionnaire. The study recorded the type of damage, the size of incisal overjet, and whether lip coverage was inadequate. Sociodemographic data included sex, income and educational level of the parents or caretakers. RESULTS: A total of 1118 schoolchildren were examined, yielding a response rate of 80.48%. The prevalence of TDI was 14.63% in public schools and 23.40% in private schools. The students did not differ according to sex, income and educational level of the parents or caretakers concerning the occurrence of traumas in permanent anterior teeth. Increased overjet and inadequate lip coverage were found to be important contributing factors for TDIs. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study showed an expressive prevalence of TDI in 12-year-old in schoolchildren at Brasília DF, Brazil. Sex and educational level of the parents were not associated with trauma. The increased overjet and inadequate lip coverage were significantly associated with dental trauma.
Project description:Adolescence is characterized by heightened susceptibility to peer influence, which makes adolescents vulnerable to initiating or maintaining risky habits such as heavy drinking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of social capital with longitudinal changes in the frequency of binge drinking among adolescents at public and private high schools in the city of Diamantina, Brazil. This longitudinal study used two waves of data collected when the adolescents were 12 and 13 years old. At the baseline assessment in 2013 a classroom survey was carried out with a representative sample of 588 students. In 2014, a follow-up survey was carried out with the same adolescents when they were aged 13 years. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-C (AUDIT C) was employed for the evaluation of alcohol intake. Our predictor variables included sociodemographic and economic characteristics (gender, type of school, mother's education, family income) and Social Capital. For evaluation of social capital, we used the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS). Descriptive and bivariate analyzes were performed (p <0.05). The log-binomial model was used to calculate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals. The two-tailed p value was set at <0.05. The prevalence of binge drinking in 2013 was 23.1% and in 2014 the prevalence had risen to 30.1%. Gender (PR 1.48; 95% CI 0.87-2.52) and socioeconomic status (type of school and mother's education) were not associated with the increase in the frequency of binge drinking. However, higher social capital was significantly associated with an increase in binge drinking by students. Adolescents who reported that they had an increase in social cohesion in the community/neighborhood subscale were 3.4 times more likely (95%CI 1.96-6.10) to binge drink themselves. Our results provide new evidence about the "dark side" of social cohesion in promoting binge drinking among adolescents.
Project description:Traumatic dental injury (TDI) during childhood may negatively impact the quality of life of children.To describe the association of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and domains (oral symptons, functional limitation, emotional- and social-well-being) of children with individual and contextual variables.A cross-sectional study was performed using a representative sample of 1,201 schoolchildren, 8-10 years-old, from public and private schools of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The CPQ8-10 was used to assess OHRQoL, dichotomized in low and high impact. Sociodemographic information was collected through questionnaires to parents. Children were examined at schools, using the Andreasen criteria. Individual variables were gender, age, number of residents in home, parents/caregivers' level of education, family income, and TDI (dichotomized into without trauma/mild trauma and severe trauma). Dental caries and malocclusion were considered co-variables. Contextual variables were the Social Vulnerability Index and type of school. Ethical approval and consent forms were obtained. Data were analyzed using SPSS for Windows 19.0 and HLM 6.06, including frequency distribution, chi-squared test and multilevel approach (p < 0.05).The prevalence of a negative impact on OHRQoL in children with severe trauma was 55.9%. The TDI negatively impacted emotional and social domains of OHRQoL. A multilevel analysis revealed a significant difference in OHRQoL according to the type of school and showed that 16% of the total variance was due to contextual characteristics (p < 0.001; ICC = 0.16). The negative impact on OHRQoL was higher in girls (p = 0.009), younger children (p = 0.023), with severe TDI (p = 0.014), those from public schools (p = 0.017) and whose parents had a lower education level (p = 0.001).Severe trauma impacts OHRQoL on emotional and social domains. Contextual dimensions add information to individual variability to explain higher impact, emphasizing socioeconomic inequalities.
Project description:To examine whether experiencing a traumatic brain injury (TBI) on a recent combat deployment was associated with postdeployment binge drinking, independent of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).Using the 2008 Department of Defense Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel, an anonymous survey completed by 28 546 personnel, the study sample included 6824 personnel who had a combat deployment in the past year. Path analysis was used to examine whether PTSD accounted for the total association between TBI and binge drinking.The dependent variable, binge drinking days, was an ordinal measure capturing the number of times personnel drank 5+ drinks on one occasion (4+ for women) in the past month. Traumatic brain injury level captured the severity of TBI after a combat injury event exposure: TBI-AC (altered consciousness only), TBI-LOC of 20 or less (loss of consciousness up to 20 minutes), and TBI-LOC of more than 20 (loss of consciousness >20 minutes). A PTSD-positive screen relied on the standard diagnostic cutoff of 50+ on the PTSD Checklist-Civilian.The final path model found that while the direct effect of TBI (0.097) on binge drinking was smaller than that of PTSD (0.156), both were significant. Almost 70% of the total effect of TBI on binge drinking was from the direct effect; only 30% represented the indirect effect through PTSD.Further research is needed to replicate these findings and to understand the underlying mechanisms that explain the relationship between TBI and increased postdeployment drinking.
Project description:This study examines whether the relationship between traumatic brain injury (TBI) and post-deployment binge drinking is independent of screening positive for mental health problems among male and female service members. Data are from the Substance Use and Psychological Injury Combat Study of Army members returning from deployment to Afghanistan or Iraq in fiscal years 2008-2011. The sample consists of 240,694 male and 26,406 female active duty members who completed initial and follow-up questionnaires. The initial questionnaire, completed at the end of deployment, included screens for TBI and mental health problems (post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, harmful thoughts). The dependent variable, frequent binge drinking (six or more drinks on one occasion, at least monthly), was assessed on the follow-up questionnaire on average 3-9 months post-deployment. More than 21% of males and 7% of females reported frequent binge drinking. Male members were more likely to screen positive for TBI, compared with females (7.5% vs. 4.4%). Females with both TBI and mental health positive screens had more than double the risk of frequent binge drinking, compared with those without either problem (15.8% vs. 6.6%), and males with both problems had almost double the risk, compared with males with neither problem (33.6% vs. 19.7%). In multivariable logistic regression models, having a TBI and a comorbid positive mental health screen was associated with increased odds of frequent binge drinking among both males and females (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]?=?1.59, CI: 1.50-1.69, and AOR?=?2.11, CI: 1.57-2.83, respectively), compared with those with neither condition. More research is needed on the interaction of gender and binge drinking, especially when TBI and mental health problems co-exist.
Project description:Few studies have assessed changes in alcohol use before and after a massive disaster. We investigated the contribution of exposure to traumatic events and stressors related to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita to alcohol use and binge drinking. We used data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics collected in Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama on adults aged 18-85 (n=439): (1) data from 1968 to 2005 on household income; (2) data from 2005 and 2007 on total number of drinks per year and number of days the respondent binged; and (3) data from 2007 on exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events and post-hurricane stressors. Exposure to each additional hurricane-related traumatic event was associated with 79.2 more drinks and 2.46 times higher odds of binge drinking for more days in the past year (95% CI: 1.09, 5.55), while more post-disaster stressors were associated with 16.5 more drinks and 1.23 times higher odds of binge drinking for more days in the past year (95% CI: 0.99, 1.51). Respondents who had followed a lower lifetime income trajectory and were exposed to more lifetime traumatic events experienced the highest risk of reporting increased alcohol use given exposure to hurricane-related traumatic events and post-hurricane stressors. Disaster-related traumatic events and the proliferation of post-disaster stressors may result in increased post-disaster alcohol use and abuse. Disaster-related exposures may have a particularly strong impact among individuals with a history of social and economic adversity, widening preexisting health disparities.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated risk factors, characteristics, and pattern of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in the permanent anterior teeth among school children of North East Delhi area.A cross-sectional study was done in 3000 school-going children aged 7-14 years.A detailed case history and clinical examination were performed on the entire sample population. TDIs were recorded according to Andreasen's epidemiological classification of TDIs including World Health Organization codes.For finding the independent association of the significant variables with outcome, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used.A prevalence of 10.7% was observed in the sample being studied. Dental trauma was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with male gender, and high statistical significance (P < 0.001) was noted with age, participation in sports, lip seal, and overjet. Fall of the child while playing by himself/herself was the most common cause; afternoon and schools were the most common time and place of occurrence of TDIs, respectively. Single tooth enamel fractures in the left maxillary central incisors were most commonly seen. Adhesive restorations were the most frequent form of treatment required.Organizing studies addressing the prevention and treatment needs of TDIs and educational programs aimed toward parents and school teachers are of paramount importance. Furthermore, recognizing the tremendous treatment negligence is extremely critical to adequately analyze indifference of the people toward dental trauma and its consequences.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Trauma exposure is common, with estimates of 28% to 90% of adults reporting at least one traumatic event over their lifetime. Those exposed to traumatic events are at risk for alcohol misuse (i.e., binge drinking), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or both. A potential underlying mechanism for this comorbidity is increased impulsivity-the tendency to act rashly. Little work to date has examined the impact of different impulsogenic traits on this comorbidity. METHODS:This study (n = 162) investigated trauma-exposed young adults (aged 21-30) who had endorsed a lifetime interpersonal trauma. In addition, three impulsogenic traits (motor, nonplanning, and attentional) were measured. RESULTS:Over and above the covariates for age, gender, race, and traumatic events, greater attentional impulsivity was associated with greater likelihood of meeting criteria for PTSD and binge drinking, compared to meeting criteria for PTSD, binge drinking, or neither. Neither nonplanning impulsivity nor motor impulsivity exerted unique effects. CONCLUSIONS:Young adults who report difficulty attending to immediate stimuli within their environment may be unable to think about and/or process the traumatic event, potentially increasing risk for PTSD and maladaptive coping skills to manage this distress (e.g., alcohol misuse, binge drinking).
Project description:To determine the optimal dentoalveolar measure to assess unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) patient plaster models.The models of 34 patients with UCLP taken at 5, 10, and 15-20 years of age were scored by two examiners on two separate occasions using five indices: the 5 Year Olds' (5YO), GOSLON, Modified Huddart/Bodenham (MHB), EUROCRAN, and Overjet. Reliability, validity, and ease of use were recorded for each index/examiner.All models were scored in either Bristol Dental Hospital or Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, United Kingdom by senior orthodontic clinicians.Highest overall reliability was seen with MHB (Kappa = 0.56-0.97). Predictive validity was similar for MHB, GOSLON, and 5YO with a 50-65 per cent prediction of final outcome from 5 and 10 years. EUROCRAN palatal index showed no clear predictive validity (Spearman's correlation = 0.20-0.21). Agreement to the gold standard 5YO score at the 5-year age group was high for MHB (Kappa = 0.83) and moderate for GOSLON (Kappa = 0.59). Agreement to the gold standard GOSLON score at 10 years was highest for 5YO (Kappa = 0.69), followed by Overjet (Kappa = 0.59) and MHB (Kappa = 0.46). Time to score 34 models per index (minutes): GOSLON (13.4) < Overjet (13.6) < 5YO (19.4) < EUROCRAN (24.8) < MHB (27.4).As an outcome measure of UCLP models, only MHB and 5YO indices can be recommended for use at 5 years of age and GOSLON at 10 years of age.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Observational studies have suggested that traumatic dental injuries (TDI) can lead to pain, loss of function and esthetic problems, with physical, emotional and social consequences for children and their families. However, population-based studies that investigate the impact of TDI on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among preschool children are scarce and offer conflicting results. The aim of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the impact of TDI on OHRQoL among preschool children (PROSPERO-CRD42015032513). METHODS:An electronic search of six databases was performed in PubMed (MEDLINE), ISI Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, EMBASE and Google Scholar, with no language or publication date restrictions. The eligibility criteria were TDI as the exposure variable, OHRQoL as the outcome and a population of children up to six years of age. RevMan software was used for data analysis. Results are expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for the total score of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) as well as the scores of the Child Impact Section (CIS) and Family Impact Section (FIS). The random effect model was chosen and heterogeneity was evaluated using the I2 test. RESULTS:2,013 articles were initially retrieved; 1,993 articles were excluded based on title and abstracts; 10 articles excluded after full-text analysis. Ten studies comprising a population of 7,461 preschool children were included in the systematic review and nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. TDI caused a negative impact on OHRQoL based on the overall ECOHIS (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.08-1.43) and CIS (OR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07-1.41), but not the FIS (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.90-1.32). CONCLUSIONS:TDI negatively impacted on OHRQoL of preschool children. The present findings indicate the need for TDI prevention and treatment programs in early childhood.