Crystal structures capture three states in the catalytic cycle of a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) synthase.
ABSTRACT: PLP synthase (PLPS) is a remarkable single-enzyme biosynthetic pathway that produces pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) from glutamine, ribose 5-phosphate, and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The intact enzyme includes 12 synthase and 12 glutaminase subunits. PLP synthesis occurs in the synthase active site by a complicated mechanism involving at least two covalent intermediates at a catalytic lysine. The first intermediate forms with ribose 5-phosphate. The glutaminase subunit is a glutamine amidotransferase that hydrolyzes glutamine and channels ammonia to the synthase active site. Ammonia attack on the first covalent intermediate forms the second intermediate. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate reacts with the second intermediate to form PLP. To investigate the mechanism of the synthase subunit, crystal structures were obtained for three intermediate states of the Geobacillus stearothermophilus intact PLPS or its synthase subunit. The structures capture the synthase active site at three distinct steps in its complicated catalytic cycle, provide insights into the elusive mechanism, and illustrate the coordinated motions within the synthase subunit that separate the catalytic states. In the intact PLPS with a Michaelis-like intermediate in the glutaminase active site, the first covalent intermediate of the synthase is fully sequestered within the enzyme by the ordering of a generally disordered 20-residue C-terminal tail. Following addition of ammonia, the synthase active site opens and admits the Lys-149 side chain, which participates in formation of the second intermediate and PLP. Roles are identified for conserved Asp-24 in the formation of the first intermediate and for conserved Arg-147 in the conversion of the first to the second intermediate.
Project description:Vitamin B6 is an essential metabolic cofactor that has more functions in humans than any other single nutrient. Its de novo biosynthesis occurs through two mutually exclusive pathways that are absent in animals. The predominant pathway found in most prokaryotes, fungi, and plants has only recently been discovered. It is distinguished by a glutamine amidotransferase, which is remarkable in that it alone can synthesize the cofactor form, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), directly from a triose and a pentose saccharide and glutamine. Here we report the 3D structure of the PLP synthase complex with substrate glutamine bound as well as those of the individual synthase and glutaminase subunits Pdx1 and Pdx2, respectively. The complex is made up of 24 protein units assembled like a cogwheel, a dodecameric Pdx1 to which 12 Pdx2 subunits attach. In contrast to the architecture of previously determined glutamine amidotransferases, macromolecular assembly is directed by an N-terminal alpha-helix on the synthase. Interaction with the synthase subunit leads to glutaminase activation, resulting in formation of an oxyanion hole, a prerequisite for catalysis. Mutagenesis permitted identification of the remote glutaminase and synthase catalytic centers and led us to propose a mechanism whereby ammonia shuttles between these active sites through a methionine-rich hydrophobic tunnel.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B6 and is an important cofactor for several of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino sugars. The PLP synthase holoenzyme consists of two subunits: YaaD catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and ammonia, and YaaE catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. Here we describe the structure of the PLP synthase complex (YaaD-YaaE) from Thermotoga maritima at 2.9 A resolution. This complex consists of a core of 12 YaaD monomers with 12 noninteracting YaaE monomers attached to the core. Compared with the previously published structure of PdxS (a YaaD ortholog in Geobacillus stearothermophilus), the N-terminus (1-18), which includes helix alpha0, the beta2-alpha2 loop (46-56), which includes new helix alpha2a, and the C-terminus (270-280) of YaaD are ordered in the complex but disordered in PdxS. A ribulose 5-phosphate is bound to YaaD via an imine with Lys82. Previous studies have demonstrated a similar imine at Lys149 and not at Lys81 (equivalent to Lys150 and Lys82 in T. maritima) for the Bacillus subtilis enzyme suggesting the possibility that two separate sites on YaaD are involved in PLP formation. A phosphate from the crystallization solution is found bound to YaaD and also serves as a marker for a possible second active site. An ammonia channel that connects the active site of YaaE with the ribulose 5-phosphate binding site was identified. This channel is similar to one found in imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase; however, when the beta-barrels of the two complexes are superimposed, the glutaminase domains are rotated by about 180 degrees with respect to each other.
Project description:Vitamin B(6) is essential in all organisms, due to its requirement as a cofactor in the form of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) for key metabolic enzymes. It can be synthesized de novo by either of two pathways known as deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-dependent and DXP-independent. The DXP-independent pathway is the predominant pathway and is found in most microorganisms and plants. A glutamine amidotransferase consisting of the synthase Pdx1 and its glutaminase partner, Pdx2, form a complex that directly synthesizes PLP from ribose 5-phosphate, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, and glutamine. The protein complex displays an ornate architecture consisting of 24 subunits, two hexameric rings of 12 Pdx1 subunits to which 12 Pdx2 subunits attach, with the glutaminase and synthase active sites remote from each other. The multiple catalytic ability of Pdx1, the remote glutaminase and synthase active sites, and the elaborate structure suggest regulation of activity on several levels. A missing piece in deciphering this intricate puzzle has been information on the Pdx1 C-terminal region that has thus far eluded structural characterization. Here we use fluorescence spectrophotometry and protein chemistry to demonstrate that the Pdx1 C terminus is indispensable for PLP synthase activity and mediates intersubunit cross-talk within the enzyme complex. We provide evidence that the C terminus can act as a flexible lid, bridging as well as shielding the active site of an adjacent protomer in Pdx1. We show that ribose 5-phosphate binding triggers strong cooperativity in Pdx1, and the affinity for this substrate is substantially enhanced upon interaction with the Michaelis complex of Pdx2 and glutamine.
Project description:Glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase channels ammonia over 18 A from glutamine at the glutaminase site to fructose-6P at the synthase site. We have modeled the anisotropic displacements of the glutaminase and synthase domains from the two crystallized states, the enzyme in complex with fructose-6P or in complex with glucose-6P and a glutamine affinity analog, using TLS (rigid-body motion in terms of translation, libration, and screw motions) refinement implemented in REFMAC. The domains displacements in the crystal lattices are compared to the movement of the glutaminase domain relative to the synthase domain that occurs during the catalytic cycle upon glutamine binding, which was visualized by comparing the two structures. This movement was analyzed by the program DYNDOM as a 22.8 degrees rotation around an effective hinge axis running approximately parallel to helix 300-317 of the synthase domain, the glutaminase loop that covers the glutaminase site upon glutamine binding acting as the mechanical hinge.
Project description:Glutamate synthase (GltS) is a complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein that catalyzes the reductive transfer of L-glutamine amide group to the C2 carbon of 2-oxoglutarate yielding two molecules of L-glutamate. Molecular dynamics calculations in explicit solvent were carried out to gain insight into the conformational flexibility of GltS and into the role played by the enzyme substrates in regulating the catalytic cycle. We have modelled the free (unliganded) form of Azospirillum brasilense GltS alpha subunit and the structure of the reduced enzyme in complex with the L-glutamine and 2-oxoglutarate substrates starting from the crystallographically determined coordinates of the GltS alpha subunit in complex with L-methionine sulphone and 2-oxoglutarate. The present 4-ns molecular dynamics calculations reveal that the GltS glutaminase site may exist in a catalytically inactive conformation unable to bind glutamine, and in a catalytically competent conformation, which is stabilized by the glutamine substrate. Substrates binding also induce (1) closure of the loop formed by residues 263-271 with partial shielding of the glutaminase site from solvent, and (2) widening of the ammonia tunnel entrance at the glutaminase end to allow for ammonia diffusion toward the synthase site. The Q-loop of glutamate synthase, which acts as an active site lid in other amidotransferases, seems to maintain an open conformation. Finally, binding of L-methionine sulfone, a glutamine analog that mimics the tetrahedral transient species occurring during its hydrolysis, causes a coordinated rigid-body motion of segments of the glutaminase domain that results in the inactive conformation observed in the crystal structure of GltS alpha subunit.
Project description:The prevalent de novo biosynthetic pathway of vitamin B6 involves only two enzymes (Pdx1 and Pdx2) that form an ornate multisubunit complex functioning as a glutamine amidotransferase. The synthase subunit, Pdx1, utilizes ribose 5-phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as ammonia derived from the glutaminase activity of Pdx2 to directly form the cofactor vitamer, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Given the fact that a single enzyme performs the majority of the chemistry behind this reaction, a complicated mechanism is anticipated. Recently, the individual steps along the reaction co-ordinate are beginning to be unraveled. In particular, the binding of the pentose substrate and the first steps of the reaction have been elucidated but it is not known if the latter part of the chemistry, involving the triose sugar, takes place in the same or a disparate site. Here, we demonstrate through the use of enzyme assays, enzyme kinetics, and mutagenesis studies that indeed a second site is involved in binding the triose sugar and moreover, is the location of the final vitamin product, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. Furthermore, we show that product release is triggered by the presence of a PLP-dependent enzyme. Finally, we provide evidence that a single arginine residue of the C terminus of Pdx1 is responsible for coordinating co-operativity in this elaborate protein machinery.
Project description:Pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase (PdxS) is an important player in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the biologically active form of vitamin B(6). PLP is an important cofactor involved in the metabolic pathway of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino sugars. PdxS catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) and ammonia, while glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. PdxS and PdxT form a complex, PLP synthase, and widely exist in eubacteria, archaea, fungi and plants. To facilitate further structural comparisons among PdxS proteins, the structural analysis of PdxS from Pyrococcus horikoshii encoded by the Ph1355 gene was initiated. PdxS from P. horikoshii was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 296 K using 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. Crystals of P. horikoshii PdxS diffracted to 2.61 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 59.30, b = 178.56, c = 109.23 Å, ? = 102.97°. The asymmetric unit contained six monomers, with a corresponding V(M) of 2.54 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 51.5% by volume.
Project description:The transfer of ammonia in carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations and experimental characterization of mutations within the ammonia tunnel. In CPS, ammonia is derived from the hydrolysis of glutamine and this intermediate must travel approximately 45 A from the site of formation in the small subunit to the site of utilization in the large subunit. In this investigation, the migration of ammonia was analyzed from the exit of the small subunit through the large subunit where it ultimately reacts with the carboxy phosphate intermediate. Potential of mean force calculations along the transfer pathway for ammonia indicate a relatively low free-energy barrier for the translocation of ammonia. The highest barrier of 7.2 kcal/mol is found at a narrow turning gate surrounded by the side chains of Cys-232, Ala-251, and Ala-314 in the large subunit. The environment of the ammonia tunnel from the exit of the small subunit to the turning gate in the tunnel is filled with clusters of water molecules and the ammonia is able to travel through this area easily. After ammonia passes through the turning gate, it enters a hydrophobic passage. A hydrogen bond then forms between the ammonia and Thr-249, which facilitates the delivery to a more hydrophilic environment near the active site for the reaction with the carboxy phosphate intermediate. The transport process from the turning gate to the end of the tunnel is favored by an overall downhill free-energy potential and no free-energy barrier higher than 3 kcal/mol. A conformational change of the turning gate, caused by formation of the carboxy phosphate intermediate, is consistent with a mechanism in which the reaction between ATP and bicarbonate triggers the transport of ammonia and consequently accelerates the rate of glutamine hydrolysis in the small subunit. A blockage in the turning gate passageway was introduced by the triple mutant C232V/A251V/A314V. This mutant is unable to synthesize carbamoyl phosphate using glutamine as a nitrogen source.
Project description:NAD+ synthetase is an essential enzyme of de novo and recycling pathways of NAD+ biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis but not in humans. This bifunctional enzyme couples the NAD+ synthetase and glutaminase activities through an ammonia tunnel but free ammonia is also a substrate. Here we show that the Homo sapiens NAD+ synthetase (hsNadE) lacks substrate specificity for glutamine over ammonia and displays a modest activation of the glutaminase domain compared to tbNadE. We report the crystal structures of hsNadE and NAD+ synthetase from M. tuberculosis (tbNadE) with synthetase intermediate analogues. Based on the observed exclusive arrangements of the domains and of the intra- or inter-subunit tunnels we propose a model for the inter-domain communication mechanism for the regulation of glutamine-dependent activity and NH3 transport. The structural and mechanistic comparison herein reported between hsNadE and tbNadE provides also a starting point for future efforts in the development of anti-TB drugs.
Project description:NAD is a ubiquitous and essential metabolic redox cofactor which also functions as a substrate in certain regulatory pathways. The last step of NAD synthesis is the ATP-dependent amidation of deamido-NAD by NAD synthetase (NADS). Members of the NADS family are present in nearly all species across the three kingdoms of Life. In eukaryotic NADS, the core synthetase domain is fused with a nitrilase-like glutaminase domain supplying ammonia for the reaction. This two-domain NADS arrangement enabling the utilization of glutamine as nitrogen donor is also present in various bacterial lineages. However, many other bacterial members of NADS family do not contain a glutaminase domain, and they can utilize only ammonia (but not glutamine) in vitro. A single-domain NADS is also characteristic for nearly all Archaea, and its dependence on ammonia was demonstrated here for the representative enzyme from Methanocaldococcus jannaschi. However, a question about the actual in vivo nitrogen donor for single-domain members of the NADS family remained open: Is it glutamine hydrolyzed by a committed (but yet unknown) glutaminase subunit, as in most ATP-dependent amidotransferases, or free ammonia as in glutamine synthetase? Here we addressed this dilemma by combining evolutionary analysis of the NADS family with experimental characterization of two representative bacterial systems: a two-subunit NADS from Thermus thermophilus and a single-domain NADS from Salmonella typhimurium providing evidence that ammonia (and not glutamine) is the physiological substrate of a typical single-domain NADS. The latter represents the most likely ancestral form of NADS. The ability to utilize glutamine appears to have evolved via recruitment of a glutaminase subunit followed by domain fusion in an early branch of Bacteria. Further evolution of the NADS family included lineage-specific loss of one of the two alternative forms and horizontal gene transfer events. Lastly, we identified NADS structural elements associated with glutamine-utilizing capabilities.