A new cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels.
ABSTRACT: Junctin, a non-catalytic splice variant encoded by the aspartate-?-hydroxylase (Asph) gene, is inserted into the membrane of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) store where it modifies Ca(2+) signalling in the heart and skeletal muscle through its regulation of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels. Junctin is required for normal muscle function as its knockout leads to abnormal Ca(2+) signalling, muscle dysfunction and cardiac arrhythmia. However, the nature of the molecular interaction between junctin and RyRs is largely unknown and was assumed to occur only in the SR lumen. We find that there is substantial binding of RyRs to full junctin, and the junctin luminal and, unexpectedly, cytoplasmic domains. Binding of these different junctin domains had distinct effects on RyR1 and RyR2 activity: full junctin in the luminal solution increased RyR channel activity by ?threefold, the C-terminal luminal interaction inhibited RyR channel activity by ?50%, and the N-terminal cytoplasmic binding produced an ?fivefold increase in RyR activity. The cytoplasmic interaction between junctin and RyR is required for luminal binding to replicate the influence of full junctin on RyR1 and RyR2 activity. The C-terminal domain of junctin binds to residues including the S1-S2 linker of RyR1 and N-terminal domain of junctin binds between RyR1 residues 1078 and 2156.
Project description:Here we investigate how ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart alters regulation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) by intracellular Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) and the role of these changes in SR Ca(2+) release. RyRs were isolated from rat hearts, perfused in a Langendorff apparatus for 5 min and subject to 1 min perfusion with 1 µM isoproterenol or without (control) and snap frozen in liquid N2 to capture their phosphorylation state. Western Blots show that RyR2 phosphorylation was increased by isoproterenol, confirming that RyR2 were subject to normal ß-adrenergic signaling. Under basal conditions, S2808 and S2814 had phosphorylation levels of 69% and 15%, respectively. These levels were increased to 83% and 60%, respectively, after 60 s of ß-adrenergic stimulation consistent with other reports that ß-adrenergic stimulation of the heart can phosphorylate RyRs at specific residues including S2808 and S2814 causing an increase in RyR activity. At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] <1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation increased luminal Ca(2+) activation of single RyR channels, decreased luminal Mg(2+) inhibition and decreased inhibition of RyRs by mM cytoplasmic Mg(2+). At cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] >1 µM, ß-adrenergic stimulation only decreased cytoplasmic Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) inhibition of RyRs. The Ka and maximum levels of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) activation site were not affected by ß-adrenergic stimulation. Our RyR2 gating model was fitted to the single channel data. It predicted that in diastole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated by 1) increasing the activating potency of Ca(2+) binding to the luminal Ca(2+) site and decreasing its affinity for luminal Mg(2+) and 2) decreasing affinity of the low-affinity Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) cytoplasmic inhibition site. However in systole, ß-adrenergic stimulation is mediated mainly by the latter.
Project description:Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release in striated muscle is mediated by a multiprotein complex that includes the ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) channel and the intra-SR Ca(2+) buffering protein calsequestrin (CSQ). Besides its buffering role, CSQ is thought to regulate RyR channel function. Here, CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac (RyR2) channels is explored. Skeletal (CSQ1) or cardiac (CSQ2) calsequestrin were systematically added to the luminal side of single RyR1 or RyR2 channels. The luminal Ca(2+) dependence of open probability (Po) over the physiologically relevant range (0.05-1 mM Ca(2+)) was defined for each of the four RyR/CSQ isoform pairings. We found that the luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR2 channels was substantial when either CSQ isoform was present. In contrast, no significant luminal Ca(2+) sensitivity of single RyR1 channels was detected in the presence of either CSQ isoform. We conclude that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation of single RyR2 channels lacks CSQ isoform specificity, and that CSQ-dependent luminal Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle likely plays a relatively minor (if any) role in regulating the RyR1 channel activity, indicating that the chief role of CSQ1 in this tissue is as an intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer.
Project description:Skeletal (RyR1) and cardiac muscle (RyR2) isoforms of ryanodine receptor calcium channels are inhibited by millimollar Ca(2+), but the affinity of RyR2 for inhibitory Ca(2+) is ~10 times lower than that of RyR1. Previous studies demonstrated that the C-terminal quarter of RyR has critical domain(s) for Ca(2+) inactivation. To obtain further insights into the molecular basis of regulation of RyRs by Ca(2+), we constructed and expressed 18 RyR1-RyR2 chimeras in HEK293 cells and determined the Ca(2+) activation and inactivation affinities of these channels using the [(3)H]ryanodine binding assay. Replacing two distinct regions of RyR1 with corresponding RyR2 sequences reduced the affinity for Ca(2+) inactivation. The first region (RyR2 amino acids 4020-4250) contains two EF-hand Ca(2+) binding motifs (EF1, amino acids 4036-4047; EF2, amino acids 4071-4082), and the second region includes the putative second transmembrane segment (S2). A RyR1-backbone chimera containing only EF2 from RyR2 had a modest (not significant) change in Ca(2+) inactivation, whereas another chimera channel carrying only EF1 from RyR2 had a significantly reduced level of Ca(2+) inactivation. The results suggest that EF1 is a more critical determinant for RyR inactivation by Ca(2+). In addition, activities of the chimera carrying RyR2 EF-hands were suppressed at 10-100 ?M Ca(2+), and the suppression was relieved by 1 mM Mg(2+). The same effects have been observed with wild-type RyR2. A mutant RyR1 carrying both regions replaced with RyR2 sequences (amino acids 4020-4250 and 4560-4618) showed a Ca(2+) inactivation affinity comparable to that of RyR2, indicating that these regions are sufficient to confer RyR2-type Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation on RyR1.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are located in the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membrane and are responsible for the release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores during excitation-contraction coupling in both cardiac and skeletal muscle. RyRs are the largest known ion channels (> 2MDa) and exist as three mammalian isoforms (RyR 1-3), all of which are homotetrameric proteins that interact with and are regulated by phosphorylation, redox modifications, and a variety of small proteins and ions. Most RyR channel modulators interact with the large cytoplasmic domain whereas the carboxy-terminal portion of the protein forms the ion-conducting pore. Mutations in RyR2 are associated with human disorders such as catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia whereas mutations in RyR1 underlie diseases such as central core disease and malignant hyperthermia. This chapter examines the current concepts of the structure, function and regulation of RyRs and assesses the current state of understanding of their roles in associated disorders.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) are Ca(2+)-release channels on the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum that modulate a wide array of physiological functions. Three RyR isoforms are present in cells: RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3. To date, there are no reports on ligands that modulate RyR in an isoform-selective manner. Such ligands are not only valuable research tools, but could serve as intermediates for development of therapeutics.Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid and 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide were allowed to react in carbon tetrachloride for 24?h at low temperatures and pressures. The chemical structures of the two products isolated were elucidated using NMR spectrometry, mass spectrometry and elemental analyses. [(3) H]-ryanodine binding, lipid bilayer and time-lapsed confocal imaging were used to determine their effects on RyR isoforms.The major product, 2-cyclohexyl-3-cyclohexylimino-2, 3, dihydro-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazol-1-one (CCDI) dose-dependently potentiated Ca(2+)-dependent binding of [(3)H]-ryanodine to RyR1, with no significant effects on [(3)H]-ryanodine binding to RyR2 or RyR3. CCDI also reversibly increased the open probability (P(o)) of RyR1 with minimal effects on RyR2 and RyR3. CCDI induced Ca(2+) transients in C2C12 skeletal myotubes, but not in rat ventricular myocytes. This effect was blocked by pretreating cells with ryanodine. The minor product 2-cyclohexyl-pyrrolo[1,2-c]imidazole-1,3-dione had no effect on either [(3)H]-ryanodine binding or P(o) of RyR1, RyR2 and RyR3.A new ligand that preferentially modulates RyR1 was identified. In addition to being an important research tool, the pharmacophore of this small molecule could serve as a template for the synthesis of other isoform-selective modulators of RyRs.
Project description:The mammalian ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel (RyR) has a single conserved high affinity calmodulin (CaM) binding domain. However, the skeletal muscle RyR1 is activated and cardiac muscle RyR2 is inhibited by CaM at submicromolar Ca2+. This suggests isoform-specific domains are involved in RyR regulation by CaM. To gain insight into the differential regulation of cardiac and skeletal muscle RyRs by CaM, RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants were expressed in HEK293 cells, and their single channel activities were measured using a lipid bilayer method. All RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants were inhibited by CaM at 2?M Ca2+, consistent with CaM inhibition of RyR1 and RyR2 at micromolar Ca2+ concentrations. An RyR1/RyR2 chimera with RyR1 N-terminal amino acid residues (aa) 1-3725 and RyR2 C-terminal aa 3692-4968 were inhibited by CaM at <1?M Ca2+ similar to RyR2. In contrast, RyR1/RyR2 chimera with RyR1 aa 1-4301 and RyR2 4254-4968 was activated at <1?M Ca2+ similar to RyR1. Replacement of RyR1 aa 3726-4298 with corresponding residues from RyR2 conferred CaM inhibition at <1?M Ca2+, which suggests RyR1 aa 3726-4298 are required for activation by CaM. Characterization of additional RyR1/RyR2 chimeras and mutants in two predicted Ca2+ binding motifs in RyR1 aa 4081-4092 (EF1) and aa 4116-4127 (EF2) suggests that both EF-hand motifs and additional sequences in the large N-terminal regions are required for isoform-specific RyR1 and RyR2 regulation by CaM at submicromolar Ca2+ concentrations.
Project description:Large-conductance Ca2+ release channels known as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) mediate the release of Ca2+ from an intracellular membrane compartment, the endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum. There are three mammalian RyR isoforms: RyR1 is present in skeletal muscle; RyR2 is in heart muscle; and RyR3 is expressed at low levels in many tissues including brain, smooth muscle, and slow-twitch skeletal muscle. RyRs form large protein complexes comprising four 560-kD RyR subunits, four ?12-kD FK506-binding proteins, and various accessory proteins including calmodulin, protein kinases, and protein phosphatases. RyRs share ?70% sequence identity, with the greatest sequence similarity in the C-terminal region that forms the transmembrane, ion-conducting domain comprising ?500 amino acids. The remaining ?4,500 amino acids form the large regulatory cytoplasmic "foot" structure. Experimental evidence for Ca2+, ATP, phosphorylation, and redox-sensitive sites in the cytoplasmic structure have been described. Exogenous effectors include the two Ca2+ releasing agents caffeine and ryanodine. Recent work describing the near atomic structures of mammalian skeletal and cardiac muscle RyRs provides a structural basis for the regulation of the RyRs by their multiple effectors.
Project description:The ryanodine receptor (RyR) ion channel releases Ca<sup>2+</sup> from intracellular stores by conducting Ca<sup>2+</sup> but also by recruiting neighboring RyRs to open, as RyRs are activated by micromolar levels of cytosolic Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Using long single-RyR recordings of the cardiac isoform (RyR2), we conclude that Ca<sup>2+</sup> binding to the cytosolic face of RyR while the channel is closed determines the distribution of open times. This mechanism explains previous findings that RyR is not activated by its own fluxed Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Our measurements also bolster previous findings that luminal [Ca<sup>2+</sup>] can affect both the cytosolic activation and inactivation sites and that RyR has different gating modes for the same ionic conditions.
Project description:Ryanodine receptors (RyRs) regulate contractility in resistance-size cerebral artery smooth muscle, yet their molecular identity, subcellular location, and phenotype in this tissue remain unknown. Following rat resistance-size cerebral artery myocyte sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) purification and incorporation into POPE-POPS-POPC (5:3:2; wt/wt) bilayers, unitary conductances of 110 +/- 8, 334 +/- 15, and 441 +/- 27 pS in symmetric 300 mM Cs(+) were usually detected. The most frequent (34/40 bilayers) conductance (334 pS) decreased to <or=100 pS when Cs(+) was replaced with Ca(2+). The predominant conductance displayed 66 bursts/min with at least three open and three closed states. The steady-state activity (NP(o))-voltage curve was bell shaped, with NP(o) drastically decreasing when voltage was switched from -30 to -40 mV. NP(o) increased when intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)(i)) was raised within 0.1-100 microM to abruptly diminish with higher Ca(2+)(i). Thus maximal activity occurred within the Ca(2+)(i) range found in rat cerebral artery myocytes under physiological conditions. NP(o) was reduced by ruthenium red (80 muM), increased monotonically by caffeine (0.1-5 mM) or ryanodine (0.05-5 microM), and unaffected by heparin (2 mg/ml). This phenotype resembles that of cardiac RyR and recombinant RyR2. RT-PCR detected RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 transcripts in cerebral artery myocytes. However, real-time PCR indicated that RyR2 was 4 and 1.5 times more abundant than RyR1 and RyR3, respectively. Consistently, Western blotting showed that the RyR2 product was very abundant. Immunofluorescence showed that each RyR isoform distributed differentially among subcellular compartments. In particular, RyR2 was drastically stronger in the subplasmalemma than in other compartments, underscoring the predominance of RyR2 in a compartment where SR is abundant. Consistently, RyR from SR-enriched membranes displayed pharmacological specificity typical of RyR2, being activated by digoxin (1 muM), resistant to dantrolene (100 muM), and shifted to a subconductance by neomycin (100 nM). Therefore, RyR2 is the predominant molecular and functional RyR that is expressed in the SR membrane of rat resistance-size cerebral artery myocytes.
Project description:The ryanodine receptor/Ca(2+)-release channels (RyRs) of skeletal and cardiac muscle are essential for Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum that mediates excitation-contraction coupling. It has been shown that RyR activity is regulated by dynamic post-translational modifications of Cys residues, in particular S-nitrosylation and S-oxidation. Here we show that the predominant form of RyR in skeletal muscle, RyR1, is subject to Cys-directed modification by S-palmitoylation. S-Palmitoylation targets 18 Cys within the N-terminal, cytoplasmic region of RyR1, which are clustered in multiple functional domains including those implicated in the activity-governing protein-protein interactions of RyR1 with the L-type Ca(2+) channel CaV1.1, calmodulin, and the FK506-binding protein FKBP12, as well as in "hot spot" regions containing sites of mutations implicated in malignant hyperthermia and central core disease. Eight of these Cys have been identified previously as subject to physiological S-nitrosylation or S-oxidation. Diminishing S-palmitoylation directly suppresses RyR1 activity as well as stimulus-coupled Ca(2+) release through RyR1. These findings demonstrate functional regulation of RyR1 by a previously unreported post-translational modification and indicate the potential for extensive Cys-based signaling cross-talk. In addition, we identify the sarco/endoplasmic reticular Ca(2+)-ATPase 1A and the α1S subunit of the L-type Ca(2+) channel CaV1.1 as S-palmitoylated proteins, indicating that S-palmitoylation may regulate all principal governors of Ca(2+) flux in skeletal muscle that mediates excitation-contraction coupling.