A CaMKII/PDE4D negative feedback regulates cAMP signaling.
ABSTRACT: cAMP production and protein kinase A (PKA) are the most widely studied steps in ?-adrenergic receptor (?AR) signaling in the heart; however, the multifunctional Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is also activated in response to ?AR stimulation and is involved in the regulation of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Its activity and expression are increased during cardiac hypertrophy, in heart failure, and under conditions that promote arrhythmias both in animal models and in the human heart, underscoring the clinical relevance of CaMKII in cardiac pathophysiology. Both CaMKII and PKA phosphorylate a number of protein targets critical for Ca(2+) handling and contraction with similar, but not always identical, functional consequences. How these two pathways communicate with each other remains incompletely understood, however. To maintain homeostasis, cyclic nucleotide levels are regulated by phosphodiesterases (PDEs), with PDE4s predominantly responsible for cAMP degradation in the rodent heart. Here we have reassessed the interaction between cAMP/PKA and Ca(2+)/CaMKII signaling. We demonstrate that CaMKII activity constrains basal and ?AR-activated cAMP levels. Moreover, we show that these effects are mediated, at least in part, by CaMKII regulation of PDE4D. This regulation establishes a negative feedback loop necessary to maintain cAMP/CaMKII homeostasis, revealing a previously unidentified function for PDE4D as a critical integrator of cAMP/PKA and Ca(2+)/CaMKII signaling.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptors (?-ARs) enhance cardiac contractility by increasing cAMP levels and activating PKA. PKA increases Ca²?-induced Ca²? release via phosphorylation of L-type Ca²? channels (LTCCs) and ryanodine receptor 2. Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate local cAMP concentration in cardiomyocytes, with PDE4 being predominant for the control of ?-AR-dependent cAMP signals. Three genes encoding PDE4 are expressed in mouse heart: Pde4a, Pde4b, and Pde4d. Here we show that both PDE4B and PDE4D are tethered to the LTCC in the mouse heart but that ?-AR stimulation of the L-type Ca²? current (ICa,L) is increased only in Pde4b-/- mice. A fraction of PDE4B colocalized with the LTCC along T-tubules in the mouse heart. Under ?-AR stimulation, Ca²? transients, cell contraction, and spontaneous Ca²? release events were increased in Pde4b-/- and Pde4d-/- myocytes compared with those in WT myocytes. In vivo, after intraperitoneal injection of isoprenaline, catheter-mediated burst pacing triggered ventricular tachycardia in Pde4b-/- mice but not in WT mice. These results identify PDE4B in the CaV1.2 complex as a critical regulator of ICa,L during ?-AR stimulation and suggest that distinct PDE4 subtypes are important for normal regulation of Ca²?-induced Ca²? release in cardiomyocytes.
Project description:cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) activation represents a key signaling mechanism upon beta-adrenergic stimulation under stress. Both beta(1)- and beta(2)-adrenoreceptor (ARs) subtypes induce cAMP accumulation, yet play distinct roles in cardiac contraction and myocyte apoptosis. Differences in controlling cAMP/PKA activities through the assembly of complexes between the receptors and cAMP-specific phosphodiesterases contribute to the distinct biological outcomes. Here, we demonstrate that beta(2)ARs form signaling complexes with a set of PDE4D isoforms expressed in cardiac myocytes. PDE4D9 and PDE4D8 bind to the beta(2)AR at resting conditions; however, agonist stimulation induces dissociation of PDE4D9 from the receptor but recruitment of PDE4D8 to the receptor. Agonist stimulation also induces recruitment of PDE4D5 to the beta(2)AR. Moreover, the receptor-associated PDE4D isoforms play distinct roles in controlling cAMP activities and regulating the PKA phosphorylation of the receptor and myocyte contraction rate responses. Knockdown of PDE4D9 with short hairpin RNA enhances the beta(2)AR-induced cAMP signaling, whereas knockdown of PDE4D8 only slightly prolongs the receptor-induced cAMP signaling in myocytes. Inhibition of PDE4D9 and PDE4D5 enhances the base-line levels of contraction rates, whereas inhibition of PDE4D9 and PDE4D8 enhances the maximal contraction rate increases upon activation of beta(2)AR. Our data underscore the complex regulation of intracellular cAMP by beta(2)AR-associated phosphodiesterase enzymes to enforce the specificity of the receptor signaling for physiological responses.
Project description:Ca(2+) release from the Golgi apparatus regulates key functions of the organelle, including vesicle trafficking. We found that the Golgi apparatus was the source of prolonged Ca(2+) release events that originated near the nuclei of primary cardiomyocytes. Golgi Ca(2+) release was unaffected by depletion of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+), and disruption of the Golgi apparatus abolished Golgi Ca(2+) release without affecting sarcoplasmic reticulum function, suggesting functional and spatial independence of Golgi and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. ?1-Adrenoceptor stimulation triggers the production of the second messenger cAMP, which activates the Epac family of Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factors and the kinase PKA (protein kinase A). Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), including those in the PDE3 and PDE4 families, degrade cAMP. Activation of ?1-adrenoceptors stimulated Golgi Ca(2+) release, an effect that required activation of Epac, PKA, and the kinase CaMKII. Inhibition of PDE3s or PDE4s potentiated ?1-adrenergic-induced Golgi Ca(2+) release, which is consistent with compartmentalization of cAMP signaling near the Golgi apparatus. Interventions that stimulated Golgi Ca(2+) release appeared to increase the trafficking of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) from the Golgi apparatus to the surface membrane of cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes from rats with heart failure, decreases in the abundance of PDE3s and PDE4s were associated with increased Golgi Ca(2+) release events. These data suggest that the Golgi apparatus is a focal point for ?1-adrenergic-stimulated Ca(2+) signaling and that the Golgi Ca(2+) store functions independently from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the global Ca(2+) transients that trigger contraction in cardiomyocytes.
Project description:Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) regulate the local concentration of 3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) within cells. cAMP activates the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In patients, PDE inhibitors have been linked to heart failure and cardiac arrhythmias, although the mechanisms are not understood. We show that PDE4D gene inactivation in mice results in a progressive cardiomyopathy, accelerated heart failure after myocardial infarction, and cardiac arrhythmias. The phosphodiesterase 4D3 (PDE4D3) was found in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2)/calcium-release-channel complex (required for excitation-contraction [EC] coupling in heart muscle). PDE4D3 levels in the RyR2 complex were reduced in failing human hearts, contributing to PKA-hyperphosphorylated, "leaky" RyR2 channels that promote cardiac dysfunction and arrhythmias. Cardiac arrhythmias and dysfunction associated with PDE4 inhibition or deficiency were suppressed in mice harboring RyR2 that cannot be PKA phosphorylated. These data suggest that reduced PDE4D activity causes defective RyR2-channel function associated with heart failure and arrhythmias.
Project description:In the heart, cAMP is a key regulator of excitation-contraction coupling and its biological effects are mainly associated with the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the cAMP-binding protein Epac (Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) in the regulation of the contractile properties of rat ventricular cardiac myocytes. We report that both PKA and Epac increased cardiac sarcomere contraction but through opposite mechanisms. Differently from PKA, selective Epac activation by the cAMP analog 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT) reduced Ca(2+) transient amplitude and increased cell shortening in intact cardiomyocytes and myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity in permeabilized cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ventricular myocytes, which were infected in vivo with a constitutively active form of Epac, showed enhanced myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity compared to control cells infected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) alone. At the molecular level, Epac increased phosphorylation of 2 key sarcomeric proteins, cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) and cardiac Myosin Binding Protein-C (cMyBP-C). The effects of Epac activation on myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and on cTnI and cMyBP-C phosphorylation were independent of PKA and were blocked by protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca(2+) calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) inhibitors. Altogether these findings identify Epac as a new regulator of myofilament function.
Project description:?(2) adrenergic receptor (?(2)AR) is a prototypical G-protein coupled receptor that stimulates the classic cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. Recent studies indicate that the cAMP-PKA activities are spatiotemporally regulated in part due to dynamic association of ?(2)AR with phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), a group of cAMP degradation enzymes. Here, we demonstrate that in cardiomyocytes, palmitoylation of ?(2)AR, the covalent acylation of cysteine residue 341, plays a critical role in shaping subcellular cAMP-PKA activities in cardiomyocytes via regulating ?(2)AR association with arrestin/PDE4D. Replacing cysteine 341 on ?(2)AR with alanine (C341A) leads to an impaired binding to ? arrestin 2. Surprisingly, the C341A mutant is able to internalize via an arrestin-independent pathway at saturated concentration of agonist stimulation; the internalization becomes caveolae-dependent and requires dynamin GTPase. However, the impaired binding to ? arrestin 2 also leads to an impaired recruitment of PDE4D to the C341A mutant. Thus, the mutant C341A ?(2)AR is transported alone from the plasma membrane to the endosome without recruiting PDE4D. This alteration leads to an enhanced cytoplasmic cAMP signal for PKA activation under ?(2)AR stimulation. Functionally, Mutation of the C341 residue or inhibition of palmitoylation modification of ?(2)AR enhances the receptor-induced PKA activities in the cytoplasm and increases in myocyte contraction rate. Our data reveal a novel function of palmitoylation in shaping subcellular cAMP-PKA signaling in cardiomyocytes via modulating the recruitment of ? arrestin 2-PDE4D complexes to the agonist-stimulated ?(2)AR.
Project description:Multiple cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) isoforms play divergent roles in cardiac homeostasis but the molecular basis for their non-redundant function remains poorly understood. Here, we report a novel role for the PDE4B isoform in ?-adrenergic (?AR) signaling in the heart. Genetic ablation of PDE4B disrupted ?AR-induced cAMP transients, as measured by FRET sensors, at the sarcolemma but not in the bulk cytosol of cardiomyocytes. This effect was further restricted to a subsarcolemmal compartment because PDE4B regulates ?1AR-, but not ?2AR- or PGE2-induced responses. The spatially restricted function of PDE4B was confirmed by its selective effects on PKA-mediated phosphorylation patterns. PDE4B limited the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of key players in excitation-contraction coupling that reside in the sarcolemmal compartment, including L-type Ca(2+) channels and ryanodine receptors, but not phosphorylation of distal cytosolic proteins. ?1AR- but not ?2AR-ligation induced PKA-dependent activation of PDE4B and interruption of this negative feedback with PKA inhibitors increased sarcolemmal cAMP. Thus, PDE4B mediates a crucial PKA-dependent feedback that controls ?1AR-dependent cAMP signals in a restricted subsarcolemmal domain. Disruption of this feedback augments local cAMP/PKA signals, leading to an increased intracellular Ca(2+) level and contraction rate.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptor (?-AR) activation can provoke cardiac arrhythmias mediated by cAMP-dependent alterations of Ca(2+) signaling. However, cAMP can activate both protein kinase A and an exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac), but their functional interaction is unclear. In heart, selective Epac activation can induce potentially arrhythmogenic sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release that involves Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) effects on the ryanodine receptor (RyR).We tested whether physiological ?-AR activation causes Epac-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak and arrhythmias and whether it requires Epac1 versus Epac2, ?(1)-AR versus ?(2)-AR, and CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814. We used knockout (KO) mice for Epac1, Epac2, or both. All KOs exhibited unaltered basal cardiac function, Ca(2+) handling, and hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. However, SR Ca(2+) leak induced by the specific Epac activator 8-CPT in wild-type mice was abolished in Epac2-KO and double-KO mice but was unaltered in Epac1-KO mice. ?-AR-induced arrhythmias were also less inducible in Epac2-KO versus wild-type mice. ?-AR activation with protein kinase A inhibition mimicked 8-CPT effects on SR Ca(2+) leak and was prevented by blockade of ?(1)-AR but not ?(2)-AR. CaMKII inhibition (KN93) and genetic ablation of either CaMKII? or CaMKII phosphorylation on RyR2-S2814 prevented 8-CPT-induced SR Ca(2+) leak.?(1)-AR activates Epac2 to induce SR Ca(2+) leak via CaMKII?-dependent phosphorylation of RyR2-S2814. This pathway contributes to ?-AR-induced arrhythmias and reduced cardiac function.
Project description:Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is a highly coordinated process that is controlled by protein kinase signaling pathways, including Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and protein kinase A (PKA). Increased CaMKII expression and activity (as occurs during heart failure) destabilizes EC coupling and may lead to sudden cardiac death. To better understand mechanisms of cardiac CaMKII function, we integrated dynamic CaMKII-dependent regulation of key Ca(2+) handling targets with previously validated models of cardiac EC coupling, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent activation of CaMKII, and ?-adrenergic activation of PKA. Model predictions are validated against CaMKII-overexpression data from rabbit ventricular myocytes. The model demonstrates how overall changes to Ca(2+) handling during CaMKII overexpression are explained by interactions between individual CaMKII substrates. CaMKII and PKA activities during ?-adrenergic stimulation may synergistically facilitate inotropic responses and contribute to a CaMKII-Ca(2+)-CaMKII feedback loop. CaMKII regulated early frequency-dependent acceleration of relaxation and EC coupling gain (which was highly sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load-dependent). Additionally, the model identifies CaMKII-dependent ryanodine receptor hyperphosphorylation as a proarrhythmogenic trigger. In summary, we developed a detailed computational model of CaMKII and PKA signaling in cardiac myocytes that provides unique insights into their regulation of normal and pathological Ca(2+) handling.
Project description:AIMS:The cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) mediates β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) regulation of cardiac contraction and gene expression. Whereas PKA activity is well characterized in various subcellular compartments of adult cardiomyocytes, its regulation in the nucleus remains largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the modalities of PKA regulation in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cardiomyocytes. METHODS AND RESULTS:Cytoplasmic and nuclear cAMP and PKA activity were measured with targeted fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes in adult rat ventricular myocytes. β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (Iso) led to fast cAMP elevation in both compartments, whereas PKA activity was fast in the cytoplasm but markedly slower in the nucleus. Iso was also more potent and efficient in activating cytoplasmic than nuclear PKA. Similar slow kinetics of nuclear PKA activation was observed upon adenylyl cyclase activation with L-858051 or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxantine. Consistently, pulse stimulation with Iso (15 s) maximally induced PKA and myosin-binding protein C phosphorylation in the cytoplasm, but marginally activated PKA and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation in the nucleus. Inhibition of PDE4 or ablation of the Pde4d gene in mice prolonged cytoplasmic PKA activation and enhanced nuclear PKA responses. In the cytoplasm, phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) contributed to the termination of PKA responses, whereas only PP1 played a role in the nucleus. CONCLUSION:Our study reveals a differential integration of cytoplasmic and nuclear PKA responses to β-AR stimulation in cardiac myocytes. This may have important implications in the physiological and pathological hypertrophic response to β-AR stimulation.