The expanding family of Arabidopsis thaliana small heat stress proteins and a new family of proteins containing alpha-crystallin domains (Acd proteins).
ABSTRACT: Comprehensive analysis of the Arabidopsis genome revealed a total of 13 sHsps belonging to 6 classes defined on the basis of their intracellular localization and sequence relatedness plus 6 ORFs encoding proteins distantly related to the cytosolic class Cl or the plastidial class of sHsps. The complexity of the Arabidopsis sHsp family far exceeds that in any other organism investigated to date. Furthermore, we have identified a new family of ORFs encoding multidomain proteins that contain one or more regions with homology to the ACD (Acd proteins). The functions of the Acd proteins and the role of their ACDs remain to be investigated.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Small Heat Shock Proteins (sHSPs) are chaperone-like proteins involved in the prevention of the irreversible aggregation of misfolded proteins. Although many studies have already been conducted on sHSPs, the molecular mechanisms and structural properties of these proteins remain unclear. Here, we propose a better understanding of the architecture, organization and properties of the sHSP family through structural and functional annotations. We focused on the Alpha Crystallin Domain (ACD), a sandwich fold that is the hallmark of the sHSP family. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new approach for detecting sHSPs and delineating ACDs based on an iterative Hidden Markov Model algorithm using a multiple alignment profile generated from structural data on ACD. Using this procedure on the UniProt databank, we found 4478 sequences identified as sHSPs, showing a very good coverage with the corresponding PROSITE and Pfam profiles. ACD was then delimited and structurally annotated. We showed that taxonomic-based groups of sHSPs (animals, plants, bacteria) have unique features regarding the length of their ACD and, more specifically, the length of a large loop within ACD. We detailed highly conserved residues and patterns specific to the whole family or to some groups of sHSPs. For 96% of studied sHSPs, we identified in the C-terminal region a conserved I/V/L-X-I/V/L motif that acts as an anchor in the oligomerization process. The fragment defined from the end of ACD to the end of this motif has a mean length of 14 residues and was named the C-terminal Anchoring Module (CAM). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work annotates structural components of ACD and quantifies properties of several thousand sHSPs. It gives a more accurate overview of the architecture of sHSP monomers.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Heat shock proteins (Hsps) constitute an important component in the heat shock response of all living systems. Among the various plant Hsps (i.e. Hsp100, Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20), Hsp20 or small Hsps (sHsps) are expressed in maximal amounts under high temperature stress. The characteristic feature of the sHsps is the presence of alpha-crystallin domain (ACD) at the C-terminus. sHsps cooperate with Hsp100/Hsp70 and co-chaperones in ATP-dependent manner in preventing aggregation of cellular proteins and in their subsequent refolding. Database search was performed to investigate the sHsp gene family across rice genome sequence followed by comprehensive expression analysis of these genes. RESULTS: We identified 40 alpha-crystallin domain containing genes in rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 23 out of these 40 genes constitute sHsps. The additional 17 genes containing ACD clustered with Acd proteins of Arabidopsis. Detailed scrutiny of 23 sHsp sequences enabled us to categorize these proteins in a revised scheme of classification constituting of 16 cytoplasmic/nuclear, 2 ER, 3 mitochondrial, 1 plastid and 1 peroxisomal genes. In the new classification proposed herein nucleo-cytoplasmic class of sHsps with 9 subfamilies is more complex in rice than in Arabidopsis. Strikingly, 17 of 23 rice sHsp genes were noted to be intronless. Expression analysis based on microarray and RT-PCR showed that 19 sHsp genes were upregulated by high temperature stress. Besides heat stress, expression of sHsp genes was up or downregulated by other abiotic and biotic stresses. In addition to stress regulation, various sHsp genes were differentially upregulated at different developmental stages of the rice plant. Majority of sHsp genes were expressed in seed. CONCLUSION: We identified twenty three sHsp genes and seventeen Acd genes in rice. Three nucleocytoplasmic sHsp genes were found only in monocots. Analysis of expression profiling of sHsp genes revealed that these genes are differentially expressed under stress and at different stages in the life cycle of rice plant.
Project description:Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) make up a class of molecular chaperones broadly observed across organisms. Many sHSPs form large oligomers that undergo dynamic subunit exchange that is thought to play a role in chaperone function. Though remarkably heterogeneous, sHSP oligomers share three types of intermolecular interactions that involve all three defined regions of a sHSP: the N-terminal region (NTR), the conserved ?-crystallin domain (ACD), and a C-terminal region (CTR). Here we define the structural interactions involved in incorporation of a subunit into a sHSP oligomer. We demonstrate that a minimal ACD dimer of the human sHSP, HSPB5, interacts with an HSPB5 oligomer through two types of interactions: (1) interactions with CTRs in the oligomer and (2) via exchange into and out of the dimer interface composed of two ACDs. Unexpectedly, although dimers are thought to be the fundamental building block for sHSP oligomers, our results clearly indicate that subunit exchange into and out of oligomers occurs via monomers. Using structure-based mutants, we show that incorporation of a subunit into an oligomer is predicated on recruitment of the subunit via its interaction with CTRs on an oligomer. Both the rate and extent of subunit incorporation depend on the accessibility of CTRs within an HSPB5 oligomer. We show that this mechanism also applies to formation of heterooligomeric sHSP species composed of HSPB5 and HSPB6 and is likely general among sHSPs. Finally, our observations highlight the importance of NTRs in the thermodynamic stability of sHSP oligomers.
Project description:We describe a new class of plant small heat stress proteins (sHsps) with dominant nuclear localization (Hsp17-CIII). The corresponding proteins in tomato, Arabidopsis, and rice are encoded by unique genes containing a short intron in the beta4-encoding region of the alpha-crystallin domain (ACD). The strong nuclear localization results from a cluster of basic amino acid residues in the loop between beta5 and beta6 of the ACD. Using yeast 2-hybrid tests, analyses of native complexes of the sHsps, and immunofluorescence data, we demonstrate that, in contrast to earlier observations (Kirschner et al 2000), proteins of the sHsp classes CI, CII, and CIII interact with each other, thereby influencing oligomerization state and intracellular localization.
Project description:Heterogeneity in small heat shock proteins (sHsps) spans multiple spatiotemporal regimes-from fast fluctuations of part of the protein, to conformational variability of tertiary structure, plasticity of the interfaces, and polydispersity of the inter-converting, and co-assembling oligomers. This heterogeneity and dynamic nature of sHsps has significantly hindered their structural characterization. Atomic coordinates are particularly lacking for vertebrate sHsps, where most available structures are of extensively truncated homomers. sHsps play important roles in maintaining protein levels in the cell and therefore in organismal health and disease. HspB2 and HspB3 are vertebrate sHsps that are found co-assembled in neuromuscular cells, and variants thereof are associated with disease. Here, we present the structure of human HspB2/B3, which crystallized as a hetero-tetramer in a 3:1 ratio. In the HspB2/B3 tetramer, the four ?-crystallin domains (ACDs) assemble into a flattened tetrahedron which is pierced by two non-intersecting approximate dyads. Assembly is mediated by flexible "nuts and bolts" involving IXI/V motifs from terminal regions filling ACD pockets. Parts of the N-terminal region bind in an unfolded conformation into the anti-parallel shared ACD dimer grooves. Tracts of the terminal regions are not resolved, most likely due to their disorder in the crystal lattice. This first structure of a full-length human sHsp heteromer reveals the heterogeneous interactions of the terminal regions and suggests a plasticity that is important for the cytoprotective functions of sHsps.
Project description:Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) play a central role in protein homeostasis under conditions of stress by binding partly unfolded, aggregate-prone proteins and keeping them soluble. Like many sHSPs, the widely expressed human sHSP, ?B-crystallin ('?B'), forms large polydisperse multimeric assemblies. Molecular interactions involved in both sHSP function and oligomer formation remain to be delineated. A growing database of structural information reveals that a central conserved ?-crystallin domain (ACD) forms dimeric building blocks, while flanking N- and C-termini direct the formation of larger sHSP oligomers. The most commonly observed inter-subunit interaction involves a highly conserved C-terminal 'IxI/V' motif and a groove in the ACD that is also implicated in client binding. To investigate the inherent properties of this interaction, peptides mimicking the IxI/V motif of ?B and other human sHSPs were tested for binding to dimeric ?B-ACD. IxI-mimicking peptides bind the isolated ACD at 22°C in a manner similar to interactions observed in the oligomer at low temperature, confirming these interactions are likely to exist in functional ?B oligomers.
Project description:Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a class of chaperones with low molecular weight, feathered by a C-terminal α-crystallin domain (ACD). They participate in reestablishing the stability of partially denatured proteins and therefore contribute to cellular homeostasis. In this work, we identified a sHsp homolog (designated as sHsp19) from Haliotis discus hannai, an economically important farmed mollusk in East Asia. sHsp19 possesses a sHsp hallmark domain, which exhibits the typical fold of ACD as revealed by a three-dimensional model constructed through an iterative threading assembly refinement method. The amino acid sequence sHsp19 shares low identities with any other known sHsps, with percentages below 35 %. Besides, sHsp19 shows relatively distant phylogenetic relationships with sHsps of various mollusks, including two other identified sHsps of abalone subspecies. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of sHsp19 occurred in multiple tissues. Upon exposure to thermal, oxidative, and multiple toxic metal stresses, the level of sHsp19 mRNA was rapidly elevated in a persistent fashion, with the maximum increase up to 170.58-, 405.84-, and 361.96-fold, respectively. These results indicate sHsp is a novel sHsp that possesses the distinguishing structural feature of sHsps but has remote homologies with known sHsps. It is likely to be important in stress adaptation of abalone and may be applied as a bioindicator for monitoring pollution or detrimental changes of environment in abalone culture.
Project description:Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are essential 'holdase' chaperones that form large assemblies and respond dynamically to pH and temperature stresses to protect client proteins from aggregation. While the alpha-crystallin domain (ACD) dimer of sHSPs is the universal building block, how the ACD transmits structural changes in response to stress to promote holdase activity is unknown. We found that the dimer interface of HSPB5 is destabilized over physiological pHs and a conserved histidine (His-104) controls interface stability and oligomer structure in response to acidosis. Destabilization by pH or His-104 mutation shifts the ACD from dimer to monomer but also results in a large expansion of HSPB5 oligomer states. Remarkably, His-104 mutant-destabilized oligomers are efficient holdases that reorganize into structurally distinct client-bound complexes. Our data support a model for sHSP function wherein cell stress triggers small perturbations that alter the ACD building blocks to unleash a cryptic mode of chaperone action.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In living organisms, small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are triggered in response to stress situations. This family of proteins is large in plants and, in the case of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), 33 genes have been identified, most of them related to heat stress response and to the ripening process. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed complex patterns of expression for these genes. In this work, we investigate the coregulation of these genes by performing a computational analysis of their promoter architecture to find regulatory motifs known as heat shock elements (HSEs). We leverage the presence of sHSP members that originated from tandem duplication events and analyze the promoter architecture diversity of the whole sHSP family, focusing on the identification of HSEs. RESULTS:We performed a search for conserved genomic sequences in the promoter regions of the sHSPs of tomato, plus several other proteins (mainly HSPs) that are functionally related to heat stress situations or to ripening. Several computational analyses were performed to build multiple sequence motifs and identify transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) homologous to HSF1AE and HSF21 in Arabidopsis. We also investigated the expression and interaction of these proteins under two heat stress situations in whole tomato plants and in protoplast cells, both in the presence and in the absence of heat shock transcription factor A2 (HsfA2). The results of these analyses indicate that different sHSPs are up-regulated depending on the activation or repression of HsfA2, a key regulator of HSPs. Further, the analysis of protein-protein interaction between the sHSP protein family and other heat shock response proteins (Hsp70, Hsp90 and MBF1c) suggests that several sHSPs are mediating alternative stress response through a regulatory subnetwork that is not dependent on HsfA2. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, this study identifies two regulatory motifs (HSF1AE and HSF21) associated with the sHSP family in tomato which are considered genomic HSEs. The study also suggests that, despite the apparent redundancy of these proteins, which has been linked to gene duplication, tomato sHSPs showed different up-regulation and different interaction patterns when analyzed under different stress situations.
Project description:The small heat shock proteins (sHsps), which are ubiquitous stress proteins proposed to act as chaperones, are encoded by an unusually complex gene family in plants. Plant sHsps are classified into different subfamilies according to amino acid sequence similarity and localization to distinct subcellular compartments. In the whole Arabidopsis thaliana genome, 19 genes were annotated to encode sHsps, of which 14 belong to previously defined plant sHsp families. In this paper, we report studies of the five additional sHsp genes in A. thaliana, which can now be shown to represent evolutionarily distinct sHsp subfamilies also found in other plant species. While two of these five sHsps show expression patterns typical of the other 14 genes, three have unusual tissue specific and developmental profiles and do not respond to heat induction. Analysis of intracellular targeting indicates that one sHsp represents a new class of mitochondrion-targeted sHsps, while the others are cytosolic/nuclear, some of which may cooperate with other sHsps in formation of heat stress granules. Three of the five new proteins were purified and tested for chaperone activity in vitro. Altogether, these studies complete our basic understanding of the sHsp chaperone family in plants.