Anesthesia technique, mortality, and length of stay after hip fracture surgery.
ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE:More than 300,000 hip fractures occur each year in the United States. Recent practice guidelines have advocated greater use of regional anesthesia for hip fracture surgery. OBJECTIVE:To test the association of regional (ie, spinal or epidural) anesthesia vs general anesthesia with 30-day mortality and hospital length of stay after hip fracture. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS:We conducted a matched retrospective cohort study involving patients 50 years or older who were undergoing surgery for hip fracture at general acute care hospitals in New York State between July 1, 2004, and December 31, 2011. Our main analysis was a near-far instrumental variable match that paired patients who lived at different distances from hospitals that specialized in regional or general anesthesia. Supplementary analyses included a within-hospital match that paired patients within the same hospital and an across-hospital match that paired patients at different hospitals. EXPOSURES:Spinal or epidural anesthesia; general anesthesia. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Thirty-day mortality and hospital length of stay. Because the distribution of length of stay had long tails, we characterized this outcome using the Huber M estimate with Huber weights, a robust estimator similar to a trimmed mean. RESULTS:Of 56,729 patients, 15,904 (28%) received regional anesthesia and 40,825 (72%) received general anesthesia. Overall, 3032 patients (5.3%) died. The M estimate of the length of stay was 6.2 days (95% CI, 6.2 to 6.2). The near-far matched analysis showed no significant difference in 30-day mortality by anesthesia type among the 21,514 patients included in this match: 583 of 10,757 matched patients (5.4%) who lived near a regional anesthesia-specialized hospital died vs 629 of 10,757 matched patients (5.8%) who lived near a general anesthesia-specialized hospital (instrumental variable estimate of risk difference, -1.1%; 95% CI, -2.8 to 0.5; P?=?.20). Supplementary analyses of within and across hospital patient matches yielded mortality findings to be similar to the main analysis. In the near-far match, regional anesthesia was associated with a 0.6-day shorter length of stay than general anesthesia (95% CI, -0.8 to -0.4, P?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous meta-analyses assessing anesthetic techniques in adult patients undergoing hip fractures surgery are available. However, whether the anesthetic technique is associated with risk of mortality and complications in geriatric patients with hip fractures remains unclear. This study was conducted to assess postoperative outcomes of anesthesia technique in geriatric patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. METHODS:Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, CNKI, and CBM were searched from inception up to May 25, 2018. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the perioperative outcomes of technique of anesthesia (general or regional [epidural/spinal/neuraxial]) in geriatric patients (?60 years old) undergoing hip fracture surgery were included. Two investigators independently screened studies for inclusion and performed data extraction. Heterogeneity was assessed by the I and Chi-square tests. The odds ratio (OR) of the dichotomous data, mean difference (MD) of continuous data, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess the pooled data. RESULTS:Eleven retrospective and 2 RCTs were included. There was no difference in 30-day mortality (OR?=?0.96; 95% CI 0.86-1.08; P?=?.51) between the general and regional anesthesia groups. In-hospital mortality (OR?=?1.26; 95% CI 1.17-1.36; P?<?.001), acute respiratory failure (OR?=?2.66; 95% CI 2.34-3.02; P?<?.001), length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.33; 95% CI 0.24-0.42; P?<?.001), and readmission (OR?=?1.09; 95% CI 1.01-1.18; P?=?.03) were significantly reduced in the regional anesthesia group. Pneumonia (OR?=?0.99; 95% CI 0.91-1.07; P?=?.79), heart failure (OR?=?0.97; 95% CI 0.86-1.09; P?=?.62), acute myocardial infraction (OR?=?1.07; 95% CI 0.99-1.16; P?=?.10), acute renal failure (OR?=?1.32; 95% CI 0.97-1.79; P?=?.07), cerebrovascular accident (OR?=?1.08; 95% CI 0.82-1.42; P?=?.58), postoperative delirium (OR?=?1.51; 95% CI 0.16-13.97; P?=?.72), and deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolism (OR?=?1.42; 95% CI 0.84-2.38; P?=?.19) were similar between the two anesthetic techniques. CONCLUSION:General anesthesia is associated with increased risk of in-hospital mortality, acute respiratory failure, longer hospital stays, and higher readmission. There is evidence to suggest that regional anesthesia is associated with improved perioperative outcomes. Large RCTs are needed to explore the most optimal anesthetic techniques for geriatric patients with hip fractures before drawing final conclusions. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018093582.
Project description:To evaluate the effect of anesthesia type on the risk of in-hospital mortality among adults undergoing hip fracture surgery in the United States.Retrospective cohort study.Premier research database, United States.73,284 adults undergoing hip fracture surgery on hospital day 2 or greater between 2007 and 2011. Of those, 61,554 (84.0%) received general anesthesia, 6939 (9.5%) regional anesthesia, and 4791 (6.5%) combined general and regional anesthesia.In-hospital all cause mortality.In-hospital deaths occurred in 1362 (2.2%) patients receiving general anesthesia, 144 (2.1%) receiving regional anesthesia, and 115 (2.4%) receiving combined anesthesia. In the multivariable adjusted analysis, when compared with general anesthesia the mortality risk did not differ significantly between regional anesthesia (risk ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.11) or combined anesthesia (1.00, 0.82 to 1.22). A mixed effects analysis accounting for differences between hospitals produced similar results: compared with general anesthesia the risk from regional anesthesia was 0.91 (0.75 to 1.10) and from combined anesthesia was 0.98 (0.79 to 1.21). Findings were also consistent in subgroup analyses.In this large nationwide sample of hospital admissions, mortality risk did not differ significantly by anesthesia type among patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Our results suggest that if the previously posited beneficial effect of regional anesthesia on short term mortality exists, it is likely to be more modest than previously reported.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Older patients with hip fractures who are undergoing surgery are at high risk of significant mortality and morbidity including postoperative delirium. It is unclear whether different types of anaesthesia may reduce the incidence of postoperative delirium. This systematic review will investigate the impact of anaesthetic technique on postoperative delirium. Other outcomes included mortality, length of stay, complications and functional outcomes. DESIGN:Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised controlled studies. DATA SOURCES:Bibliographic databases were searched from inception to June 2018. Web of Science and ZETOC databases were searched for conference proceedings. Reference lists of relevant articles were checked, and clinical trial registers were searched to identify ongoing trials. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:Studies were eligible if general and regional anaesthesia were compared in patients (aged 60 and over) undergoing hip fracture surgery, reporting primary outcome of postoperative delirium and secondary outcomes of mortality, length of hospital stay, adverse events, functional outcomes, discharge location and quality of life. Exclusion criteria were anaesthetic technique or drug not considered current standard practice; patients undergoing hip fracture surgery alongside other surgery and uncontrolled studies. RESULTS:One hundred and four studies were included. There was no evidence to suggest that anaesthesia type influences postoperative delirium or mortality. Some studies suggested a small reduction in length of hospital stay with regional anaesthesia. There was some evidence to suggest that respiratory complications and intraoperative hypotension were more common with general anaesthesia. Heterogeneity precluded meta-analysis. All findings were described narratively and data were presented where possible in forest plots for illustrative purposes. CONCLUSIONS:While there was no evidence to suggest that anaesthesia types influence postoperative delirium, the evidence base is lacking. There is a need to ascertain the impact of type of anaesthesia on outcomes with an adequately powered, methodologically rigorous study. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42015020166.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Hip fractures occur 1.6 million times each year worldwide, with substantial associated mortality and losses of independence. At present, anaesthesia care for hip fracture surgery varies widely within and between countries, with general anaesthesia and spinal anaesthesia representing the 2 most common approaches. Limited randomised evidence exists regarding potential short-term or long-term differences in outcomes between patients receiving spinal or general anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. METHODS:The REGAIN trial (Regional vs General Anesthesia for Promoting Independence after Hip Fracture) is an international, multicentre, pragmatic randomised controlled trial. 1600 previously ambulatory patients aged 50 and older will be randomly allocated to receive either general or spinal anaesthesia for hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome is a composite of death or new inability to walk 10 feet or across a room at 60 days after randomisation, which will be assessed via telephone interview by staff who are blinded to treatment assignment. Secondary outcomes will be assessed by in-person assessment and medical record review for in-hospital end points (delirium; major inpatient medical complications and mortality; acute postoperative pain; patient satisfaction; length of stay) and by telephone interview for 60-day, 180-day and 365-day end points (mortality; disability-free survival; chronic pain; return to the prefracture residence; need for new assistive devices for ambulation; cognitive impairment). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The REGAIN trial has been approved by the ethics boards of all participating sites. Recruitment began in February 2016 and will continue until the end of 2019. Dissemination plans include presentations at scientific conferences, scientific publications, stakeholder engagement efforts and presentation to the public via lay media outlets. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02507505, Pre-results.
Project description:Regional anesthesia has proven to be a highly effective technique for pain control after total shoulder arthroplasty. However, concerns have been raised about the safety of upper-extremity nerve blocks, particularly with respect to the incidence of perioperative respiratory and neurologic complications, and little is known about their influence, if any, on length of stay after surgery.Using a large national cohort, we asked: (1) How frequently are upper-extremity peripheral nerve blocks added to general anesthesia in patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty? (2) Are there differences in the incidence of and adjusted risk for major perioperative complications and mortality between patients receiving general anesthesia with and without nerve blocks? And (3) does resource utilization (blood product transfusion, intensive care unit admission, length of stay) differ between groups?We searched a nationwide discharge database for patients undergoing total shoulder arthroplasty under general anesthesia with or without addition of a nerve block. Groups were compared with regard to demographics, comorbidities, major perioperative complications, and length of stay. Multivariable logistic regressions were performed to measure complications and resource use. A negative binomial regression was fitted to measure length of stay.We identified 17,157 patients who underwent total shoulder arthroplasty between 2007 and 2011. Of those, approximately 21% received an upper-extremity peripheral nerve block in addition to general anesthesia. Patients receiving combined regional-general anesthesia had similar mean age (68.6 years [95% CI: 68.2-68.9 years] versus 69.1 years [95% CI: 68.9-69.3 years], p < 0.0043), a slightly lower mean Deyo (comorbidity) index (0.87 versus 0.93, p = 0.0052), and similar prevalence of individual comorbidities, compared to those patients receiving general anesthesia only. Addition of regional anesthesia was not associated with different odds ratios for complications, transfusion, and intensive care unit admission. Incident rates for length of stay were also similar between groups (incident rate ratio = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.97-1.02; p = 0.467) CONCLUSIONS: Addition of regional to general anesthesia was not associated with an increased complication profile or increased use of resources. In combination with improved pain control as known from previous research, regional anesthesia may represent a viable management option for shoulder arthroplasty. However, further research is necessary to better clarify the risk of neurologic complications.Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The optimal anesthetic technique remains debated in patients undergoing total-hip arthroplasty (THA). The purpose of this meta-analysis was to test the efficacy of general and spinal anesthesia for patients undergoing THA.<h4>Methods</h4>In January 2018, we searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Google database. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the use of general and spinal anesthesia for patients undergoing THA were retrieved. The primary outcome was to compare the total blood loss. The secondary outcomes were the occurrence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT), the occurrence of nausea, and the length of hospital stay. Software Stata 12.0 was used for meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Five RCTs with 487 THAs were finally included for meta-analysis. There was no significant difference between the general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia in terms of the total blood loss (weighted mean difference [WMD]?=?-20.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] -84.50 to 43.05, P?=?.524; I?=?87.8%) and the occurrence of DVT (risk ratio (RR)?=?0.85, 95% CI 0.24-3.01, P?=?.805; I?=?70.5%). Compared with general anesthesia, spinal anesthesia was a significant reduction in the occurrence of nausea (RR?=?3.04, 95% CI 1.69-5.50, P?=?.000; I?=?0.0%) and the length of hospital stay (WMD?=?1.00, 95% CI 0.59-1.41, P?=?.000; I?=?94.7%).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Spinal anesthesia was superior than general anesthesia in terms of the occurrence of nausea and shorten the length of hospital stay. The quality and number of included studies was limited; thus, a greater number of high-quality RCTs is still needed to further identify the effects of spinal anesthesia on reducing the blood loss after THA.
Project description:Current evidences show that regional anesthesia is associated with decreased risk of complications after major surgery. However, the effects of combined regional-general anesthesia remain controversial. The purpose of our study was to analyze the impact of anesthesia (combined epidural-general anesthesia vs. general anesthesia) on the risk of postoperative complications in patients undergoing open surgery for pheochromocytoma.This was a retrospective cohort study. 146 patients who underwent open surgery for pheochromocytoma (100 received combined epidural-general anesthesia and 46 received general anesthesia) in Peking University First Hospital from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2015 were enrolled. The primary outcome was the occurrence of postoperative complications during hospital stay after surgery. Multivariate Logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between the choice of anesthetic method and the risk of postoperative complications.17 (11.6%) patients developed complications during postoperative hospital stay. The incidence of postoperative complications was lower in patients with combined epidural-general anesthesia than in those with general anesthesia (6% [6/100] vs. 23.9% [11/46], P = 0.006). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that use of combined epidural-general anesthesia (OR 0.219, 95% CI 0.065-0.741; P = 0.015) was associated with lower risk, whereas male gender (OR 5.213, 95% CI 1.283-21.177; P = 0.021) and perioperative blood transfusion (OR 25.879; 95% CI 3.130-213.961; P = 0.003) were associated with higher risk of postoperative complications.For patients undergoing open surgery for pheochromocytoma, use of combined epidural-general anesthesia may decrease the occurrence of postoperative complications.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Patients with femur fracture benefit from early surgery. Recent reports suggest that regional anesthesia may be superior to general anesthesia in these patients. Early surgery under spinal anesthesia could be performed safely by determining platelet function in patients receiving antiplatelet agents. METHODS:Multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel clinical trial expected to include 156 patients ? 18 years of age under chronic treatment with antiplatelet agents who develop a proximal femur fracture. EXCLUSION CRITERIA:presence of multiple or pathological fractures, current treatment with vitamin K antagonists or new oral anticoagulants, and congenital or acquired coagulopathy.Patients will be randomized to eitherThe primary endpoint is time (hours) from admission to surgery. Secondary endpoints include: platelet function; postoperative bleeding; medical-surgical complications; perioperative and 1-year mortality; quality of life; length of hospital stay; cost-effectiveness; and cost-utility. Follow-up assessments will be performed during hospital admission and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF THE STUDY:The determination of platelet function at admission to the emergency department in patients with femoral fracture receiving antiplatelet therapy may permit earlier surgery under spinal anesthesia, thus shortening the hospital stay and reducing the risk of complications. These advantages associated with early surgery could positively impact patient well-being and also reduce treatment-related healthcare costs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study has been approved by the ethics committees at all participating centers. Their results will be disseminated in congresses and published in peer reviewed journals.
Project description:Total hip arthroplasty may be performed under general or spinal anesthesia. The purpose of the current study was to compare perioperative outcomes between anesthetic types for patients undergoing primary elective total hip arthroplasty.Patients who had undergone primary elective total hip arthroplasty from 2010 to 2012 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database. Operating room times, length of stay, thirty-day adverse events, and readmission were compared between patients who had received general anesthesia and those who had received spinal anesthesia. Propensity-adjusted multivariate analysis was used to control for selection bias and baseline patient characteristics.A total of 20,936 patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty met inclusion criteria for this study. Of these, 12,752 patients (60.9%) had received general anesthesia and 8184 patients (39.1%) had received spinal anesthesia. On propensity-adjusted multivariate analyses, general anesthesia for total hip arthroplasty was associated with increased operative time (+12 minutes [95% confidence interval, +11 to +13 minutes]; p < 0.001) and postoperative room time (+5 minutes [95% confidence interval, +4 to +6 minutes]; p < 0.001). General anesthesia was also associated with the occurrence of any adverse event (odds ratio, 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.41]; p < 0.001), prolonged postoperative ventilator use (odds ratio, 5.81 [95% confidence interval, 1.35 to 25.06]; p = 0.018), unplanned intubation (odds ratio, 2.17 [95% confidence interval, 1.11 to 4.29]; p = 0.024), stroke (odds ratio, 2.51 [95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 6.20]; p = 0.046), cardiac arrest (odds ratio, 5.04 [95% confidence interval, 1.15 to 22.07]; p = 0.032), any minor adverse event (odds ratio, 1.35 [95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.45]; p = 0.001), and blood transfusion (odds ratio, 1.34 [95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 1.45]; p < 0.001). General anesthesia was not associated with any difference in preoperative room time, postoperative length of stay, or readmission.General anesthesia was associated with an increased rate of adverse events and mildly increased operating room times.
Project description:The superiority of distinct anesthesia methods for geriatric hip fracture surgery remains unclear. We evaluated high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) with three different anesthesia methods in elderly patients undergoing hip fracture surgery. Routine blood test findings, postoperative morbidity, and mortality were assessed as secondary outcome. In total, 176 patients were randomized into desflurane (n = 60), propofol (n = 58), or spinal groups (n = 58) that received desflurane-based balanced anesthesia, propofol-based total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA), or spinal anesthesia, respectively. The spinal group required less intraoperative vasopressors (p < 0.001) and fluids (p = 0.006). No significant differences in HMGB1 (pgroup×time = 0.863) or IL-6 (pgroup×time = 0.575) levels were noted at baseline, postoperative day (POD) 1, or POD2. Hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, total lymphocyte count, potassium, troponin T, and C-reactive protein were comparable among groups at all time-points. No significant differences in postoperative hospital stay, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and ventilator use among groups were observed. Postoperative pulmonary, cardiac, and neurologic complications; and in-hospital, 30-day, and 90-day mortality were not significantly different among groups (p = 0.974). In conclusion, HMGB1 and IL-6, and all secondary outcomes, were not significantly different between desflurane anesthesia, propofol TIVA, and spinal anesthesia.