NMR solution structure of a parallel LNA quadruplex.
ABSTRACT: The solution structure of a locked nucleic acid (LNA) quadruplex, formed by the oligomer d(TGGGT), containing only conformationally restricted LNA residues is reported. NMR and CD spectroscopy, as well as molecular dynamics and mechanic calculations, has been used to characterize the complex. The molecule adopts a parallel stranded conformation with a 4-fold rotational symmetry, showing a right-handed helicity and the guanine residues in an almost planar conformation with three well-defined G-tetrads. The thermal stability of Q-LNA has been found to be comparable with that of [r(UGGGU)]4, while a T(m) increment of 20 degrees C with respect to the corresponding DNA quadruplex structure [d(TGGGT)]4 has been observed. The structural features of the LNA quadruplex reported here may open new perspectives for the biological application of LNAs as novel versatile tools to design aptamer or catalyst oligonucleotides.
Project description:We have determined the NMR solution structures of the quadruplexes formed by d(TGLGLT) and d(TL4T), where L denotes LNA (locked nucleic acid) modified G-residues. Both structures are tetrameric, parallel and right-handed and the native global fold of the corresponding DNA quadruplex is retained upon introduction of the LNA nucleotides. However, local structural alterations are observed owing to the locked LNA sugars. In particular, a distinct change in the sugar-phosphate backbone is observed at the G2pL3 and L2pL3 base steps and sequence dependent changes in the twist between tetrads are also seen. Both the LNA modified quadruplexes have raised thermostability as compared to the DNA quadruplex. The quadruplex-forming capability of d(TGLGLT) is of particular interest as it expands the design flexibility for stable parallel LNA quadruplexes and shows that LNA nucleotides can be mixed with DNA or other modified nucleic acids. As such, LNA-based quadruplexes can be decorated by a variety of chemical modifications. Such LNA quadruplex scaffolds might find applications in the developing field of nanobiotechnology.
Project description:"Locked nucleic acids" (LNAs) belong to the backbone-modified nucleic acid family. The 2'-O,4'-C-methylene-β-D-ribofuranose nucleotides are used for single or multiple substitutions in RNA molecules and thereby introduce enhanced bio- and thermostability. This renders LNAs powerful tools for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. RNA molecules maintain the overall canonical A-type conformation upon substitution of single or multiple residues/nucleotides by LNA monomers. The structures of "all" LNA homoduplexes, however, exhibit significant differences in their overall geometry, in particular a decreased twist, roll and propeller twist. This results in a widening of the major groove, a decrease in helical winding, and an enlarged helical pitch. Therefore, the LNA duplex structure can no longer be described as a canonical A-type RNA geometry but can rather be brought into proximity to other backbone-modified nucleic acids, like glycol nucleic acids or peptide nucleic acids. LNA-modified nucleic acids provide thus structural and functional features that may be successfully exploited for future application in biotechnology and drug discovery.
Project description:G-quadruplex-forming oligonucleotides containing modified nucleotide chemistries have demonstrated promising pharmaceutical potential. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of sugar-modified guanosines on the structure and stability of a (4+0) parallel and a (3+1) hybrid G-quadruplex using over 60 modified sequences containing a single-position substitution of 2'-O-4'-C-methylene-guanosine ((LNA)G), 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-riboguanosine ((F)G) or 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-arabinoguanosine ((FANA)G). Our results are summarized in two parts: (I) Generally, (LNA)G substitutions into 'anti' position guanines within a guanine-tetrad lead to a more stable G-quadruplex, while substitutions into 'syn' positions disrupt the native G-quadruplex conformation. However, some interesting exceptions to this trend are observed. We discover that a (LNA)G modification upstream of a short propeller loop hinders G-quadruplex formation. (II) A single substitution of either (F)G or (FANA)G into a 'syn' position is powerful enough to perturb the (3+1) G-quadruplex. Substitution of either (F)G or (FANA)G into any 'anti' position is well tolerated in the two G-quadruplex scaffolds. (FANA)G substitutions to 'anti' positions are better tolerated than their (F)G counterparts. In both scaffolds, (FANA)G substitutions to the central tetrad layer are observed to be the most stabilizing. The observations reported herein on the effects of (LNA)G, (F)G and (FANA)G modifications on G-quadruplex structure and stability will enable the future design of pharmaceutically relevant oligonucleotides.
Project description:In this article, we report a structural study, based on NMR and CD spectroscopies, and molecular modelling of all possible d(TG(3)T) and d(TG(4)T) analogues containing two 8-methyl-2'-deoxyguanosine residues (M). Particularly, the potential ability of these modified residues to orientate the strands and then to affect the folding topology of tetramolecular quadruplex structures has been investigated. Oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) TMMGT (T12) and TMMGGT (F12) form parallel tetramolecular quadruplexes, characterized by an all-syn M-tetrad at the 5'-side stacked to all-anti M- and G-tetrads. ODNs TMGMT (T13) and TMGGMT (F14) form parallel tetramolecular quadruplexes, in which an all-anti G core is sandwiched between two all-syn M-tetrads at the 5'- and the 3'-side. Notably, the quadruplex formed by T13 corresponds to an unprecedented structure in which the syn residues exceed in number the anti ones. Conversely, ODN TGMGMT (F24) adopts a parallel arrangement in which all-anti G-tetrads alternate with all-syn M-tetrads. Most importantly, all data strongly suggest that ODN TMGMGT (F13) forms an unprecedented anti-parallel tetramolecular quadruplex in which G and M residues adopt anti and syn glycosidic conformations, respectively. This article opens up new understandings and perspectives about the intricate relationship between the quadruplex strands orientation and the glycosidic conformation of the residues.
Project description:Human telomeric DNA G-quadruplex has been considered as an attractive target for cancer therapeutic intervention. The telomeric sequence shows intrinsic structure polymorphism. Here we report a novel intramolecular G-quadruplex structure formed by a variant human telomeric sequence in K(+) solution. This sequence forms a basket-type intramolecular G-quadruplex with only two G-tetrads but multiple-layer capping structures formed by loop residues. While it is shown that this structure can only be detected in the specifically truncated telomeric sequences without any 5'-flanking residues, our results suggest that this two-G-tetrad conformation is likely to be an intermediate form of the interconversion of different telomeric G-quadruplex conformations.
Project description:Locked nucleic acids (LNA) show remarkable affinity and specificity against native DNA targets. Effects of LNA modifications on mismatch discrimination were studied as a function of sequence context and identity of the mismatch using ultraviolet (UV) melting experiments. A triplet of LNA residues centered on the mismatch was generally found to have the largest discriminatory power. An exception was observed for G-T mismatches, where discrimination decreased when the guanine nucleotide at the mismatch site or even the flanking nucleotides were modified. Fluorescence experiments using 2-aminopurine suggest that LNA modifications enhance base stacking of perfectly matched base pairs and decrease stabilizing stacking interactions of mismatched base pairs. LNAs do not change the amount of counterions (Na+) that are released when duplexes denature. New guidelines are suggested for design of LNA probes, which significantly improve mismatch discrimination in comparison with unmodified DNA probes.
Project description:Locked Nucleic Acids (LNAs) are RNA analogues with an O2'-C4' methylene bridge which locks the sugar into a C3'-endo conformation. This enhances hybridization to DNA and RNA, making LNAs useful in microarrays and potential therapeutics. Here, the LNA, L(CAAU), provides a simplified benchmark for testing the ability of molecular dynamics (MD) to approximate nucleic acid properties. LNA ? torsions and partial charges were parametrized to create AMBER parm99_LNA. The revisions were tested by comparing MD predictions with AMBER parm99 and parm99_LNA against a 200 ms NOESY NMR spectrum of L(CAAU). NMR indicates an A-Form equilibrium ensemble. In 3000 ns simulations starting with an A-form structure, parm99_LNA and parm99 provide 66% and 35% agreement, respectively, with NMR NOE volumes and (3)J-couplings. In simulations of L(CAAU) starting with all ? torsions in a syn conformation, only parm99_LNA is able to repair the structure. This implies methods for parametrizing force fields for nucleic acid mimics can reasonably approximate key interactions and that parm99_LNA will improve reliability of MD studies for systems with LNA. A method for approximating ? population distribution on the basis of base to sugar NOEs is also introduced.
Project description:We report the NMR solution structure of the intramolecular G-quadruplex formed in human telomeric DNA in K(+). The hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex consists of three G-tetrads linked with mixed parallel-antiparallel G-strands, with the bottom two G-tetrads having the same G-arrangement (anti:anti:syn:anti) and the top G-tetrad having the reversed G-arrangement (syn:syn:anti:syn). The three TTA loop segments adopt different conformations, with the first TTA assuming a double-chain-reversal loop conformation, and the second and third TTA assuming lateral loop conformations. The NMR structure is very well defined, including the three TTA loops and the two flanking sequences at 5'- and 3'-ends. Our study indicates that the three loop regions interact with the core G-tetrads in a specific way that defines and stabilizes the unique human telomeric G-quadruplex structure in K(+). Significantly, a novel adenine triple platform is formed with three naturally occurring adenine residues, A21, A3 and A9, capping the top tetrad of the hybrid-type telomeric G-quadruplex. This adenine triple is likely to play an important role in the formation of a stable human telomeric G-quadruplex structure in K(+). The unique human telomeric G-quadruplex structure formed in K(+) suggests that it can be specifically targeted for anticancer drug design.
Project description:The post-synthetic modification of an oligonucleotide is a powerful strategy for the synthesis of various analogs of the oligonucleotide, aiming to achieve the desired functions. In this study, we synthesized the thymidine phosphoramidite of 2'-N-pentafluorophenoxycarbonyl-2'-amino-LNA, which was introduced into oligonucleotides. Oligonucleotides containing a 2'-N-pentafluorophenoxycarbonyl-2'-amino-LNA unit could be isolated under ultra-mild deprotection conditions (50 mM K2CO3 in MeOH at room temperature for 4 h). Moreover, by treatment with various amines as a post-synthetic modification, the oligonucleotides were successfully converted into the corresponding 2'-N-alkylaminocarbonyl-2'-amino-LNA (2'-urea-LNA) derivatives. The duplex- and triplex-forming abilities of the synthesized oligonucleotides were evaluated by UV-melting experiments, which showed that 2'-urea-LNAs could stabilize the nucleic acid complexes, similar to the proto-type, 2'-amino-LNA. Thus, 2'-urea-LNAs could be promising units for the modification of oligonucleotides; the design of a substituent on urea may aid the formation of useful oligonucleotides. In addition, pentafluorophenoxycarbonyl, an amino moiety, acted as a precursor of the substituted urea, which may be applicable to the synthesis of oligonucleotide conjugates.
Project description:Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a chemically modified nucleic acid with its sugar ring locked in an RNA-like (C3'-endo) conformation. LNAs show extraordinary thermal stabilities when hybridized with DNA, RNA or LNA itself. We performed molecular dynamics simulations on five isosequential duplexes (LNA-DNA, LNA-LNA, LNA-RNA, RNA-DNA and RNA-RNA) in order to characterize their structure, dynamics and hydration. Structurally, the LNA-DNA and LNA-RNA duplexes are found to be similar to regular RNA-DNA and RNA-RNA duplexes, whereas the LNA-LNA duplex is found to have its helix partly unwound and does not resemble RNA-RNA duplex in a number of properties. Duplexes with an LNA strand have on average longer interstrand phosphate distances compared to RNA-DNA and RNA-RNA duplexes. Furthermore, intrastrand phosphate distances in LNA strands are found to be shorter than in DNA and slightly shorter than in RNA. In case of induced sugar puckering, LNA is found to tune the sugar puckers in partner DNA strand toward C3'-endo conformations more efficiently than RNA. The LNA-LNA duplex has lesser backbone flexibility compared to the RNA-RNA duplex. Finally, LNA is less hydrated compared to DNA or RNA but is found to have a well-organized water structure.