Chronic Prosopis glandulosa treatment blunts neutrophil infiltration and enhances muscle repair after contusion injury.
ABSTRACT: The current treatment options for soft tissue injuries remain suboptimal and often result in delayed/incomplete recovery of damaged muscle. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of oral Prosopis glandulosa treatment on inflammation and regeneration in skeletal muscle after contusion injury, in comparison to a conventional treatment. The gastrocnemius muscle of rats was subjected to mass-drop injury and muscle samples collected after 1-, 3 h, 1- and 7 days post-injury. Rats were treated with P. glandulosa (100 mg/kg/day) either for 8 weeks prior to injury (up until day 7 post-injury), only post-injury, or with topically applied diclofenac post-injury (0.57 mg/kg). Neutrophil (His48-positive) and macrophage (F4/80-positive) infiltration was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry. Indicators of muscle satellite cell proliferation (ADAM12) and regeneration (desmin) were used to evaluate muscle repair. Chronic P. glandulosa and diclofenac treatment (p<0.0001) was associated with suppression of the neutrophil response to contusion injury, however only chronic P. glandulosa treatment facilitated more effective muscle recovery (increased ADAM12 (p<0.05) and desmin (p<0.001) expression), while diclofenac treatment had inhibitory effects on repair, despite effective inhibition of neutrophil response. Data indicates that P. glandulosa treatment results in more effective muscle repair after contusion.
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating clinical condition resulting in significant disabilities for affected individuals. Apart from local injury within the spinal cord, SCI patients develop a myriad of complications characterized by multi-organ dysfunction. Disorders, such as lung injury, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, kidney and urinary tract dysfunction, alterations in gut microbiome, neuropathic pain, depression and altered immune responses are common in SCI patients. Such whole body, systemic responses hinder the functional recovery and can be life-threatening in SCI population. Investigations of organ specific gene expression analyses can provide a better understanding of the injury response and identify molecular targets. Consequently, this can be used to develop treatment for SCI, promoting functional recovery and overall quality of life. Overall design: Rats were subjected to a single level laminectomy at T2 vertebrae before receiving a complete transection injury or moderately-severe contusion injury (25 g-cm SCI) at the T2 spinal cord level using the NYU Impactor (W.Young, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ). After four days of recovery, all animals were housed two per cage in tiny cage (7.5” x 8.5” x 8”) as opposed to standard cage (22” x 12.5” x 8”) to restrict their motion for the duration of the study. The subjects were then randomized into one of four groups: 1) Contusion SCI + swimming (SWIM), 2) Contusion SCI + shallow water walking (SWW), 3) Contusion SCI, un-exercised, 4) Complete Transection, un-exercised and 5) un-injured and un-exercised control group. Swimming and shallow water walking as exercise intervention, began 2.5 weeks post injury in T2 contused group and was conducted 5 days a week for 10 weeks. Animals were sacrificed at 13.5 weeks post-injury for contusion SCI+Exercise, at 11.5 weeks post-injury for contusion SCI alone, and 8.5 weeks post-injury for transection SCI. Soleus muscle tissue was retrieved from each animal and total RNA was extracted for Illumina NextSeq RNA sequencing.
Project description:Contusion-type cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most common forms of SCI observed in patients. In particular, injuries targeting the C3-C5 region affect the pool of phrenic motor neurons (PhMNs) that innervates the diaphragm, resulting in significant and often chronic respiratory dysfunction. Using a previously described rat model of unilateral midcervical C4 contusion with the Infinite Horizon Impactor, we have characterized the early time course of PhMN degeneration and consequent respiratory deficits following injury, as this knowledge is important for designing relevant treatment strategies targeting protection and plasticity of PhMN circuitry. PhMN loss (48% of the ipsilateral pool) occurred almost entirely during the first 24?h post-injury, resulting in persistent phrenic nerve axonal degeneration and denervation at the diaphragm neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Reduced diaphragm compound muscle action potential amplitudes following phrenic nerve stimulation were observed as early as the first day post-injury (30% of pre-injury maximum amplitude), with slow functional improvement over time that was associated with partial reinnervation at the diaphragm NMJ. Consistent with ipsilateral diaphragmatic compromise, the injury resulted in rapid, yet only transient, changes in overall ventilatory parameters measured via whole-body plethysmography, including increased respiratory rate, decreased tidal volume, and decreased peak inspiratory flow. Despite significant ipsilateral PhMN loss, the respiratory system has the capacity to quickly compensate for partially impaired hemidiaphragm function, suggesting that C4 hemicontusion in rats is a model of SCI that manifests subacute respiratory abnormalities. Collectively, these findings demonstrate significant and persistent diaphragm compromise in a clinically relevant model of midcervical contusion SCI; however, the therapeutic window for PhMN protection is restricted to early time points post-injury. On the contrary, preventing loss of innervation by PhMNs and/or inducing plasticity in spared PhMN axons at the diaphragm NMJ are relevant long-term targets.
Project description:1. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been shown to have an important role during muscle regeneration. The regenerative capacity of muscles after contusion injury in LIF-knockout mice is impaired compared with that of wild-type mice. 2. To clarify whether LIF modulates muscle regeneration by regulating myogenic precursor cell activity, we studied LIF expression and myogenic precursor cell activity in gastrocnemius muscles from Wistar rats at various times after contusion injury using immunohistochemistry and the direct effect of LIF on a rat myoblast cell line (L6). 3. After contusion injury, transient upregulation of the mRNA expression of LIF, LIF receptors and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3, downstream of LIF and involved in enhanced cell proliferation, was observed. A marked increase in LIF protein in the cytosol of damaged myofibres was strongly correlated with a significant increase in the number of myogenic precursor cells (MyoD-positive cells) by 12 h after contusion. In addition, coexpression of LIF and MyoD protein in control and injured muscles after contusion injury from 3 h to 7 days was evident. 4. Treatment of L6 cells with LIF (1 ng/mL) in serum-free medium enhanced proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation) by 24 h. This was accompanied by increased expression of c-Myc protein within 12 h and was abolished by short interference RNA against c-Myc mRNA. 5. Together, the results of the present study suggest that LIF acts via paracrine and autocrine actions to regulate myogenic precursor cell activity during muscle regeneration after contusion injury and that the proliferative effect of LIF on L6 cells occurs via c-Myc signalling.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a complex series of inflammatory responses that contribute to secondary tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalein, a flavonoid possessing potent anti-inflammatory properties, on functional and histological outcomes and inflammatory cytokine expression, following TBI in rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Rats subjected to controlled cortical impact injury were injected with baicalein (30 mg kg(-1)) or vehicle immediately after injury or daily for 4 days. Neurological status was evaluated using the rotarod, adhesive removal, modified neurological severity scores and beam walk tests. Contusion volume and neuronal degeneration were measured using cresyl violet and FluoroJade B (FJB) histochemistry. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA and protein were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. KEY RESULTS: Single-dose and multiple-dose treatment with baicalein significantly improved functional recovery and reduced contusion volumes up to day 28 post-injury, although multiple-dose baicalein was the more effective treatment. Single-dose baicalein also significantly reduced the number of degenerating neurons (31%) on post-injury day 1 as indicated by FJB staining. These changes were associated with significantly decreased levels, at the contusion site, of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-6 mRNA at 6 h, and cytokine protein on day 1 post-injury. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Post-injury treatment with baicalein improved functional and histological outcomes and reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines in rat TBI. The neuroprotective effect of baicalein may be related to a decreased inflammatory response following the injury.
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating clinical condition resulting in significant disabilities for affected individuals. Apart from local injury within the spinal cord, SCI patients develop a myriad of complications characterized by multi-organ dysfunction. Disorders, such as lung injury, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, kidney and urinary tract dysfunction, alterations in gut microbiome, neuropathic pain, depression and altered immune responses are common in SCI patients. Such whole body, systemic responses hinder the functional recovery and can be life-threatening in SCI population. Investigations of organ specific gene expression analyses can provide a better understanding of the injury response and identify molecular targets. Consequently, this can be used to develop treatment for SCI, promoting functional recovery and overall quality of life. Overall design: The effect of post-SCI activity on the liver transcriptome was explored with two different approaches. In the first approach, liver tissue was harvested from three groups of rats housed in cages of varying size at 11.5 weeks post-SCI. The experimental groups consisted of 1) T2 contusion injury in large cages, 2) T2 contusion injury in tiny cages, and 3) uninjured controls in standard cages. In the second approach, liver tissue was harvested from five groups of rats at 11.5 weeks post SCI. Experimental groups consisted of 1) T2 contusion injury 2) T2 contusion injury followed by swimming (SWIM), 3) T2 contusion injury followed by shallow water walking (SWW), 4) T2 transection injury, and 5) uninjured contols. In the second approach, all rats were housed in tiny cages. Each experimental group consists of 4-5 replicates.
Project description:Mid-cervical spinal cord contusion disrupts both the pathways and motoneurons vital to the activity of inspiratory muscles. The present study was designed to determine if a rat contusion model could result in a measurable deficit to both ventilatory and respiratory motor function under "normal" breathing conditions at acute to chronic stages post trauma. Through whole body plethysmography and electromyography we assessed respiratory output from three days to twelve weeks after a cervical level 3 (C3) contusion. Contused animals showed significant deficits in both tidal and minute volumes which were sustained from acute to chronic time points. We also examined the degree to which the contusion injury impacted ventilatory pattern variability through assessment of Mutual Information and Sample Entropy. Mid-cervical contusion significantly and robustly decreased the variability of ventilatory patterns. The enduring deficit to the respiratory motor system caused by contusion was further confirmed through electromyography recordings in multiple respiratory muscles. When isolated via a lesion, these contused pathways were insufficient to maintain respiratory activity at all time points post injury. Collectively these data illustrate that, counter to the prevailing literature, a profound and lasting ventilatory and respiratory motor deficit may be modelled and measured through multiple physiological assessments at all time points after cervical contusion injury.
Project description:The application of cryotherapy is widely used in sports medicine today. Cooling could minimize secondary hypoxic injury through the reduction of cellular metabolism and injury area. Conflicting results have also suggested cryotherapy could delay and impair the regeneration process. There are no definitive findings about the effects of cryotherapy on the process of muscle regeneration. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a clinical-like cryotherapy on inflammation, regeneration and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling on the Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats 3, 7 and 14 days post-injury. It was observed that the intermittent application of cryotherapy (three 30-minute sessions, every 2 h) in the first 48 h post-injury decreased inflammatory processes (mRNA levels of TNF-α, NF-κB, TGF-β and MMP-9 and macrophage percentage). Cryotherapy did not alter regeneration markers such as injury area, desmin and Myod expression. Despite regulating Collagen I and III and their growth factors, cryotherapy did not alter collagen deposition. In summary, clinical-like cryotherapy reduces the inflammatory process through the decrease of macrophage infiltration and the accumulation of the inflammatory key markers without influencing muscle injury area and ECM remodeling.
Project description:Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment promotes early recovery from muscle injury. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) upregulation is a key mechanism of HBO, which produces high O2 content in tissues through increased dissolution of oxygen at high pressure. Nitric oxide (NO), a type of ROS, generally stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1? and stimulates secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) from endothelial cells and macrophages, which then induces angiogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether HBO could promote angiogenesis via induction of NO and induce muscle regeneration in contused rat skeletal muscles. The HBO protocol consisted of 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) 100% oxygen for 120?minutes, once a day for 5 consecutive days. We also evaluated the effects of a ROS inhibitor (NAC) or NOS-specific inhibitor (L-NAME) on HBO. HBO significantly increased NO3-, VEGF, and bFGF levels and stabilized HIF1? within 1 day. HBO promoted blood vessel formation at 3-7 days and muscle healing at 5-7 days after contusion. Administration of both NAC and L-NAME before HBO suppressed angiogenesis and muscle regeneration even after HBO. HBO thus promoted angiogenesis and muscle regeneration mainly through generation of NO in the early phase after muscle contusion injury.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) induces the differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) into smooth muscle cells. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-rich microdomains in cell membranes that reportedly play a key role in receptor-mediated signal transduction and cellular responses. In order to clarify whether lipid rafts are involved in TGF-?1-induced differentiation of hASCs into smooth muscle cells, we analyzed the lipid raft proteome of hASCs.Pretreatment of hASCs with the lipid raft disruptor methyl-?-cyclodextrin abrogated TGF-?1-induced expression of ?-smooth muscle actin, a smooth muscle cell marker, suggesting a pivotal role of lipid rafts in TGF-?1-induced differentiation of hASCs to smooth muscle cells. Sucrose density gradient centrifugation along with a shotgun proteomic strategy using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 1002 individual proteins as the lipid raft proteome, and 242 of these were induced by TGF-?1 treatment. ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloproteases family member, was identified as the most highly up-regulated protein in response to TGF-?1 treatment. TGF-?1 treatment of hASCs stimulated the production of both ADAM12 protein and mRNA. Silencing of endogenous ADAM12 expression using lentiviral small hairpin RNA or small interfering RNA abrogated the TGF-?1-induced differentiation of hASCs into smooth muscle cells.These results suggest a pivotal role for lipid raft-associated ADAM12 in the TGF-?1-induced differentiation of hASCs into smooth muscle cells.
Project description:Hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) promotes rapid recovery from soft tissue injuries. However, the healing mechanism is unclear. Here we assessed the effects of HBO on contused calf muscles in a rat skeletal muscle injury model. An experimental HBO chamber was developed and rats were treated with 100% oxygen, 2.5 atmospheres absolute for 2?h/day after injury. HBO reduced early lower limb volume and muscle wet weight in contused muscles, and promoted muscle isometric strength 7 days after injury. HBO suppressed the elevation of circulating macrophages in the acute phase and then accelerated macrophage invasion into the contused muscle. This environment also increased the number of proliferating and differentiating satellite cells and the amount of regenerated muscle fibers. In the early phase after injury, HBO stimulated the IL-6/STAT3 pathway in contused muscles. Our results demonstrate that HBO has a dual role in decreasing inflammation and accelerating myogenesis in muscle contusion injuries.