Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin replacing conventional doxorubicin in standard R-CHOP chemotherapy for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: an open label, single arm, phase II trial.
ABSTRACT: The present multicenter phase II trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) instead of conventional doxorubicin in standard R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine [Oncovin], and prednisone) therapy for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.Patients aged > 60 years who had stage II to IV disease were included. Treatment consisted of rituximab 375 mg/m(2) intravenously (I.V.); cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2) IV; PLD 40 mg/m(2) (maximum, 90 mg) I.V. over 1 hour; and vincristine 2.0 mg I.V., all on day 1. Additionally prednisone, 40 mg/m(2), was given orally on days 1 to 1 to 5 (DRCOP [rituximab, cyclophosphamide, PLD, vincristine, and prednisone]). The cycles were repeated every 3 weeks for 6 to 8 cycles.Eighty patients were enrolled and were evaluable for toxicity. The median age was 69 years. All except 1 had additional cardiac risk factors for anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity beyond advanced age. From the intent-to-treat analysis of 79 eligible patients, the overall response rate was 86%, and the complete response rate was 78%. Cardiac events greater than grade 3 were identified in 3 patients (4%); grade 1 to 2 events, mostly asymptomatic declines in ejection fraction, were noted in another 16 patients. One death was attributed to cardiac failure. The estimated 5-year event-free and overall survival rate was 52% and 70%, respectively.DRCOP represents an effective strategy for potentially mitigating cardiotoxicity in elderly patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Future studies incorporating baseline cardiac risk assessments, long-term follow-up data, and biospecimen collection for correlative science should be undertaken.
Project description:This phase 2 study evaluated whether substituting bortezomib for vincristine in frontline rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy could improve efficacy in non-germinal center B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (non-GCB DLBCL), centrally confirmed by immunohistochemistry (Hans method). In total, 164 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive six 21-day cycles of rituximab 375 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), and doxorubicin 50 mg/m(2), all IV day 1, prednisone 100 mg/m(2) orally days 1-5, plus either bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) IV days 1, 4, 8, 11 (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and prednisone with bortezomib [VR-CAP]; n = 84) or vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) (maximum 2 mg) IV day 1 (R-CHOP; n = 80). There were no significant differences between VR-CAP and R-CHOP in complete response rate (64.5%, 66.2%; odds ratio [OR], 0.91; P = .80), overall response rate (93.4%, 98.6%; OR, 0.21; P = .11), progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.12; P = .76), or overall survival (HR, 0.89; P = .75). Rates of grade ?3 adverse events (AEs; 88%, 89%), serious AEs (38%, 34%), discontinuations due to AEs (7%, 3%), and deaths due to AEs (2%, 5%) were similar with VR-CAP and R-CHOP. Grade ?3 peripheral neuropathy rates were 6% and 3%, respectively. VR-CAP did not improve efficacy vs R-CHOP in non-GCB DLBCL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01040871.
Project description:Though most follicular lymphoma biomarkers rely on tumor features, the host genetic background may also be relevant for outcome. Here we aimed at verifying the contribution of candidate polymorphisms of FCγ receptor, DNA repair and detoxification genes to prognostic stratification of follicular lymphoma treated with immunochemotherapy. The study was based on 428 patients enrolled in the FOLL05 prospective trial that compared three standard-of-care regimens (rituximab-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone versus rituximab-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone versus rituximab-fludarabine-mitoxantrone) for the first line therapy of advanced follicular lymphoma. Polymorphisms were genotyped on peripheral blood DNA samples. The primary endpoint was time to treatment failure. Polymorphisms of FCGR2A and FCGR3A, which have been suggested to influence the activity of rituximab as a single agent, did not affect time to treatment failure in the pooled analysis of the three FOLL05 treatment arms that combined rituximab with chemotherapy (P=0.742, P=0.252, respectively). These results were consistent even when the analysis was conducted by intention to treat, indicating that different chemotherapy regimens and loads did not interact differentially with the FCGR2A and FCGR3A genotypes. The genotype of MLH1, which regulates the genotoxic effect of doxorubicin, significantly affected time to treatment failure in patients in the rituximab-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone arm (P=0.001; q<0.1), but not in arms in which patients did not receive doxorubicin (i.e., the rituximab-cyclophosphamide-vincristine-prednisone and rituximab-fludarabine-mitoxantrone arms). The impact of MLH1 on time to treatment failure was independent after adjusting for the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index and other potential confounding variables by multivariate analysis. These data indicate that MLH1 genotype is a predictor of failure to benefit from rituximab-cyclophosphamide-doxorubicin-vincristine-prednisone treatment in advanced follicular lymphoma and confirm that FCGR2A and FCGR3A polymorphisms have no impact when follicular lymphoma is treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00774826).
Project description:Despite improvements in standard therapy with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone for patients with untreated, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, up to 40% of these patients relapse. Lenalidomide alone or in combination with rituximab has been shown to be active in relapsed/refractory aggressive lymphomas. In this phase I study we determined the maximum tolerated dose of lenalidomide plus rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone in untreated, elderly (median age 68 years) patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Four lenalidomide doses (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/day on days 1-14) allocated using the continual reassessment method were planned to be administered for 14 days in combination with each course of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone for a total of six courses. Seven cohorts of patients (n=3 in each cohort) were treated (total n=21) at 10, 20, 15, 15, 15, 10, and 10 mg of lenalidomide. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in seven patients during the first three courses of treatment. The third dose-level of lenalidomide (15 mg/day) was selected as the maximum tolerated dose, with an estimated probability of dose-limiting toxicities of 0.345 (95% credibility interval 0.164-0.553). Grade 3-4 hematologic adverse events were: neutropenia in 28% of the courses, thrombocytopenia in 9%, and anemia in 3%. Non-hematologic toxicities were moderate: grade 4 increase of creatinine phosphokinase (n=1), grade 3 cardiac (n=2), grade 3 neurological (n=3), and grade 3 gastrointestinal (n=1). In this phase I study, the overall response rate was 90%, with 81% achieving complete remission. This combination regimen appears safe in elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and its efficacy will be assessed in the ongoing phase II trial. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00907348.
Project description:Rituximab plus intravenous bolus chemotherapy is a standard treatment for immunocompetent patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Some studies have suggested that rituximab is associated with excessive toxicity in HIV-associated NHL, and that infusional chemotherapy may be more effective. We performed a randomized phase 2 trial of rituximab (375 mg/m(2)) given either concurrently before each infusional etoposide, vincristine, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone (EPOCH) chemotherapy cycle or sequentially (weekly for 6 weeks) after completion of all chemotherapy in HIV-associated NHL. EPOCH consisted of a 96-hour intravenous infusion of etoposide, doxorubicin, and vincristine plus oral prednisone followed by intravenous bolus cyclophosphamide given every 21 days for 4 to 6 cycles. In the concurrent arm, 35 of 48 evaluable patients (73%; 95% confidence interval, 58%-85%) had a complete response. In the sequential arm, 29 of 53 evaluable patients (55%; 95% confidence interval, 41%-68%) had a complete response. The primary efficacy endpoint was met for the concurrent arm only. Toxicity was comparable in the 2 arms, although patients with a baseline CD4 count less than 50/microL had a high infectious death rate in the concurrent arm. We conclude that concurrent rituximab plus infusional EPOCH is an effective regimen for HIV-associated lymphoma.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies which typically respond to standard first-line chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Unfortunately, patients with refractory NHL face a poor prognosis and represent an unmet need for improved therapeutics. We present two cases of refractory CD30+ NHL who responded to novel brentuximab vedotin- (BV-) based regimens. The first is a patient with stage IV anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) with cranial nerve involvement who failed front-line treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide, and prednisone (CHOEP) and second line cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone alternating with high-dose methotrexate (MTX), and cytarabine (hyperCVAD) with intrathecal- (IT-) MTX and IT-cytarabine, but responded when BV was substituted for vincristine (hyperCBAD). The second patient was a man with stage IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with leptomeningeal involvement whose disease progressed during first-line rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) and progressed despite salvage therapy with rituximab, dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (R-DHAP) in whom addition of BV to topotecan resulted in a significant response. This report describes the first successful salvage treatments of highly aggressive, double refractory CD30+ NHL using two unreported BV-based chemoimmunotherapy regimens. Both regimens appear effective and have manageable toxicities. Further clinical trials assessing novel BV combinations are warranted.
Project description:For patients with advanced indolent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) or elderly patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), the recently reported results of the German StiL NHL-1 2003 and the international BRIGHT phase III trials showed that, as first-line treatment, the combination of bendamustine and rituximab is at least as effective as rituximab/cyclophosphamide/doxorubicin/vincristine/prednisone or rituximab/cyclophosphamide/vincristine/prednisone, possibly with a better therapeutic index. Bendamustine is therefore increasingly used in clinical practice. Because bendamustine has been used for many years in Germany and in Switzerland, our institutions have had extensive experience with bendamustine, both as a single agent and in combination with rituximab. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the most important clinical data from phase II/III trials with bendamustine in patients with indolent NHL and MCL, both in the relapsed/refractory setting and in the first-line setting. In addition, this review provides practical advice on how to optimally manage bendamustine therapy in patients with NHL.
Project description:Infusional chemotherapy is efficacious in patients with AIDS-related lymphoma, but it may be difficult to administer. We studied standard agents with rituximab plus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DR-COP) in an attempt to provide a more practical approach to therapy while ascertaining rates of response, potential infectious complications, and prognostic role of biologic markers.We conducted a prospective, multi-institutional phase II trial, employing (day 1) pegylated liposomal doxorubicin 40 mg/m(2), rituximab 375 mg/m(2), cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2), vincristine 1.4 mg/m(2) (not > 2 mg), and prednisone 100 mg orally on days 1 through 5, with concomitant antiretroviral therapy.In 40 evaluable patients, median CD4 cells was 114/?L (range, 5 to 1,026/?L), and median HIV-1 viral load (VL) was 25,000 copies/mL. High or intermediate/high age-adjusted International Prognostic Index was present in 28%. Overall response was 67.5%, with complete remission in 47.5% (95% CI, 31.5 to 63.9). Of 19 complete responders, 84% had extranodal disease, 47% had CD4 < 100/?L, and 47% had VL > 50,000 copies/mL; one relapsed. With 25.5-month median follow-up, 62% (95% CI, 44 to 75) of patients remain alive. Sixteen patients (40%) experienced 22 infections, with grade 4 in only two (5%). No patient died as a result of infection during treatment; one had opportunistic infection.Profound immunodeficiency and high HIV-1 viral load do not preclude attainment of complete response after DR-COP with highly active antiretroviral therapy. The regimen is tolerable, and use of rituximab was not associated with death as a result of infection during treatment. This approach may be useful in patients in whom the more intensive infusional regimens are impractical.
Project description:Limited comparative data exist for the treatment of HIV-associated non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We analyzed pooled individual patient data for 1546 patients from 19 prospective clinical trials to assess treatment-specific factors (type of chemotherapy, rituximab, and concurrent combination antiretroviral [cART] use) and their influence on the outcomes complete response (CR), progression free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). In our analysis, rituximab was associated with a higher CR rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.89; P < .001), improved PFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.50; P < .001), and OS (HR 0.51; P < .0001). Compared with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP), initial therapy with more dose-intense regimens resulted in better CR rates (ACVBP [doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin and prednisolone]: OR 1.70; P < .04), PFS (ACVBP: HR 0.72; P = .049; "intensive regimens": HR 0.35; P < .001) and OS ("intensive regimens": HR 0.54; P < .001). Infusional etoposide, prednisone, infusional vincristine, infusional doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide (EPOCH) was associated with significantly better OS in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (HR 0.33; P = .03). Concurrent use of cART was associated with improved CR rates (OR 1.89; P = .005) and trended toward improved OS (HR 0.78; P = .07). These findings provide supporting evidence for current patterns of care where definitive evidence is unavailable.
Project description:Anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity influences treatment selection and may negatively affect clinical outcomes in lymphoma patients. While epirubicin induced cardiotoxicity less often than the same dose of doxorubicin in breast cancer, higher doses of epirubicin are required in lymphoma regimens for equivalent efficacy. Whether a higher dosage of epirubicin also induces cardiotoxicity less often than doxorubicin in lymphoma remains unknown. We therefore administered 6-8 cycles of cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (CEpOP) +/- rituximab (R) with either epirubicin (CEpOP) or doxorubicin (CHOP) to patients (N=398) with untreated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) or follicular lymphoma grade 3 (FLG3). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and high-sensitivity serum cardiac troponin T (HsTnT) were assessed at baseline and after 4 cycles of treatment. Epirubicin (70 mg/m2/dose) was equivalent to doxorubicin (50 mg/m2/dose) in terms of 3-year progression-free survival. The risk of decreased LVEF was similar between the two regimens. CEpOP+/-R induced HsTnT elevation less often than CHOP+/-R. We conclude that CEpOP+/-R is a more acceptable regimen with short-term efficacy similar to CHOP+/-R in lymphoma patients. Longer follow-up is needed to monitor the risk of cardiac dysfunction and determine whether differences in the induction of elevated HsTnT between epirubicin and doxorubicin justify changes in clinical practice.
Project description:In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, first-line treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone; salvage with cisplatin-based regimens for relapsing patients; and autologous stem cell therapy are standards of care. Treatment approaches are less clear for patients who are refractory or who are not candidates for autologous stem cell therapy. Options may include palliative regimens or clinical trial enrollment. One therapy under investigation in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent with antiangiogenic activity.We present the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian male patient diagnosed with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma who had an early relapse after treatment with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone. He then had a subsequent early relapse after cisplatin-based salvage consolidated with autologous stem cell therapy. The efficacy of gemcitabine-cisplatin-rituximab was limited to five months, followed by systemic and central nervous system progression. Fourth-line treatment with lenalidomide plus rituximab and involved-field radiotherapy followed by lenalidomide monotherapy greatly improved this patient's quality of life and performance status, allowing over two years of progression-free survival to date (excluding a brief relapse due to treatment interruption).A lenalidomide-based regimen was highly effective in this patient with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.