Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages.
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia.
Project description:It is well established that various extraction factors, including the method, temperature, time, and solvent system, significantly influence the antioxidant quality of plant-derived products. Previously, we observed that extraction of <i>Pinus densiflora</i> bark (PDB) by the most common traditional Soxhlet method using water at two different temperature conditions 60°C and 100°C for 6-15 h noticeably altered their antioxidant quality. In this study, we examined the impact of different extraction solvents such as ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, acetonitrile, and acetone at a different percentage with water (vol/vol) on antioxidant efficiency as well as the total phenolic content (TPC) of PDB extracts. Among the fourteen different PDB extracts, the extracts obtained from 20% ethanol (E20), 40% ethanol (E40), and 20% acetonitrile (ACN20) showed more significant antioxidant potential, as well as high total phenol content (TPC). Extracts from other aqueous mixtures of organic solvents such as isopropanol, acetone, and methanol, as well as water, showed lesser antioxidant capacity and also had less TPC compared to these three most active extracts, E20, E40, and ACN20. Moreover, using ethanol at 100% for extraction significantly decreased the TPC and antioxidant capacity of PDB extracts. Data are implicating that an increased phenolic content in PDB extracts proportionally increases their antioxidant efficiency.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extracts of <i>Scutellaria baicalensis</i> root (SBR) and <i>Magnolia officinalis</i> barks (MOB) possess significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties; however, these also exert adverse effects such as cytotoxicity. To overcome the adverse effects, we formulated a combination of the extracts, named GenoTX-407, with SBR and MOB extracts mixed in 5:1 ratio. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of SBR and MOB extracts and GenoTX-407 were evaluated. METHODS:To optimize the extraction conditions of SBR and MOB, different ethanol concentrations and extraction times and treatments of the extracts with different solvents for varying time periods were tested. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed via NO scavenging assay and analysis of anti-inflammatory activity-related gene expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Agar disk diffusion and microdilution assays were used to determine the antimicrobial activity. Antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH assay and analyses of peroxidation and antioxidant-related protein expression in HeLa cells. RESULTS:Extraction with 0% ethanol for 2 h and 1.5% phosphoric acid for 0.5 h yielded maximum SBR extracts. For MOB, 50% ethanol extraction for 2 h followed by further extraction in hexane for 0.5 h yielded the highest extracts. SBR (46.1 ± 0.9 %) and MOB (48.9 ± 1.0 %) extracts effectively inhibited NO production, and dose-dependently reduced the expression of <i>TNF-?</i>, <i>iNOS</i>, <i>NF-?B</i>, <i>COX2</i>, and <i>IL-6</i>. MOB and GenoTX-407 inhibited the growth of <i>Escherichia coli</i>, <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i>, <i>Candida albicans</i>, and <i>Propionibacterium acnes</i>, as evidenced in disk diffusion and microdilution assays. SBR (EC50, 107.7 µg/mL and 38.3 µg/mL), MOB (62.41 µg/mL and 72.45 µg/mL), and GenoTX-407 (7.7 µg/mL and 26.4 µg/mL) exhibited excellent antioxidant potency and could scavenge free radicals of DPPH and lipid peroxidation; additionally, SOD, CAT, HO-1, and Nrf2 expression was increased in HeLa cells. SBR showed more potent antioxidant activity than MOB. Contrastingly, MOB exhibited more potent anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities than SBR. Interestingly, GenoTX-407 was the most efficient in all the assays, compared with SBR and MOB. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrated that GenoTX-407, the combination of SBR and MOB, is a potential drug candidate exerting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects via the Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-?B signaling pathways.
Project description:This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and nutritional composition of Artemisia annua leaves in addition to determination of antioxidant potential of their extracts prepared in different solvents. Chemical composition was determined by quantifying fat, protein, carbohydrate, fiber, tocopherol, phytate, and tannin contents. Extraction of A. annua leaves, for antioxidant potential evaluation, was carried out using five solvents of different polarities, i.e., hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Antioxidant potential was evaluated by estimating total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation. Efficiency of different solvents was compared for the yield of antioxidant extracts from leaf samples and a clear variation was observed. The highest TPC, TFC, TEAC, DPPH radical scavenging and lowest lipid peroxidation were observed in MeOH extracts, whereas aqueous extract exhibited high ferric reducing antioxidant power; suggesting MeOH to be the most favorable extractant.
Project description:The polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity of hyperforin and hypericin-standardized H. perforatum L. extracts may vary due to the harvest time. In this work, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of air-dried and lyophilized flowers of H. perforatum L., collected throughout a vegetation season in central Poland, were studied. Air-dried flowers extracts had higher polyphenol (371 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (160 mg CAE/g) content, DPPH radical scavenging (1672 mg DPPH/g), ORAC (5214 µmol TE/g) and FRAP (2.54 mmol Fe<sup>2+</sup>/g) than lyophilized flowers extracts (238 mg GAE/g, 107 mg CAE/g, 1287 mg DPPH/g, 3313 µmol TE/g and 0.31 mmol Fe<sup>2+</sup>/g, respectively). Principal component analysis showed that the collection date influenced the flavonoid and polyphenol contents and FRAP of ethanol extracts, and DPPH and ORAC values of ethanol-water extracts. The ethanol extracts with the highest polyphenol and flavonoid content protected human erythrocytes against bisphenol A-induced damage. Both high field and benchtop NMR spectra of selected extracts, revealed differences in composition caused by extraction solvent and raw material collection date. Moreover, we have shown that benchtop NMR can be used to detect the compositional variation of extracts if the assignment of signals is done previously.
Project description:Backgroud:Rhododendron przewalskii Maxim. is an evergreen shrub that is used as a traditional medicine in China. However, the modern pharmacology and the chemical components of this plant has not been studied. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the antifungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and underlying mechanism of its aqueous and ethanol extracts, and analyze their chemical composition and active compounds of R. przewalskii. Methods: The antifungal activity was determined in vitro, and anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities and underlying mechanism of its aqueous and ethanol extracts were evaluated in vitro and in RAW 264.7 cells. The chemical composition were analyzed using UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS, and the contents of six compounds were determined via HPLC. Results: Both extracts of R. przewalskii showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in vitro; decreased the production of four inflammatory cytokines, namely, nitric oxide, IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?, in RAW 264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide; and exhibited weak cytotoxicity. The extracts significantly scavenged DPPH radicals, superoxide radicals and hydroxyl radicals to exert antioxidant effects in vitro. The two extracts also exhibited cellular antioxidant activity by increasing superoxide dismutase and CAT activities and decreasing malondialdehyde content in RAW 264.7 cells induced by LPS. However, the antifungal activity of the two extracts was weak. Nine flavonoids were identified by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS. Of these, six compounds were analyzed quantitatively, including avicularin, quercetin, azaleatin, astragalin and kaempferol, and five compounds (myricetin 3-O-galactoside, paeoniflorin, astragalin, azaleatin and kaempferol) were found in this species for the first time. These compounds demonstrated antioxidant activities that were similar to those of the R. przewalskii extracts and were thought to be the active compounds in the extracts. Conclusion:R. przewalskii extracts presented promising anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The extracts contained amounts of valuable flavonoids (8.98 mg/g fresh material) that were likely the active compounds in the extract contributing to the potential antioxidant activity. These results highlight the potential of R. przewalskii as a source of natural antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents for the pharmaceutical industry.
Project description:Secondary metabolites and their biological activity have pharmacological relevance in the prevention and therapeutic management of disease, including the facilitation of normal physiological processes through biochemical mechanisms. In this study, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity were evaluated quantitatively on the acetone, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of the flesh, and peel, as well as the boiled peel extract compartments of Musa sinensis L. and Musa paradisiaca L. fruits. Total phenol, proanthocyanidin, and flavonoid contents were estimated and measured spectrophotometrically. The free radical scavenging antioxidant capacity of the extracts was tested on DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl ethanol), ABTS (2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)), and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) assay models. Correlation between phytoconstituents and antioxidant activity was analysed using Pearson's coefficient. The results showed varying amounts of phytochemicals in the solvent extracts of the flesh and peel, including the boiled peel extract of M. sinensis and M. paradisiaca. All acetone extracts of M. sinensis flesh, M. paradisiaca flesh, and M. paradisiaca peel had the highest phytochemical contents, with the exception of the ethanol extract of M. sinensis peel which had the highest phenol content; just as on the overall scale, the peel compartments had generally higher phytochemical profiles than the soft flesh in both fruits. The boiled peel extracts of M. sinensis and M. paradisiaca had the highest ABTS (0.03?mg/mL) and DPPH (0.03?mg/mL) activity. Ferric reducing power (FRAP) was the highest in the ethanol extracts of M. sinensis flesh and peel, and M. paradisiaca flesh, while it was the highest in the acetone extract of M. paradisiaca at the peak concentration used (0.1?mg/mL). There was a significant negative correlation between the total phenol and flavonoid contents of M. sinensis flesh with its DPPH radical scavenging activity and proanthocyanidin content of M. paradisiaca flesh with its DPPH radical scavenging activity. The correlation outcomes indicate that none of the phytochemical constituents solely affected antioxidant activity; instead, a combination of the polyphenolic constituents contributed to antioxidant activity. This study shows the therapeutic potentials of the flesh and, importantly, the peel of M. sinensis and M. paradisiaca fruits on the basis of the polyphenolic constitution against free radicals and oxidative stress.
Project description:This study aims at investigating the contribution of two classes of compounds, flavonoids and iridoids, to the bioactivity of Arbutus unedo L. leaves and fruits. The impact of different extraction procedures on phytochemicals content and hypoglycemic, antioxidant, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities of A. unedo fresh and dried plant materials was investigated. Ellagic acid 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, and norbergenin were identified for the first time in this genus by using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Three iridoids (gardenoside, geniposide, unedoside) are specifically identified in the leaves. Interestingly, asperuloside was extracted only from dried fruits by ethanol with Soxhlet apparatus. Extracts were screened for their potential antioxidant activities by using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Ferric Reducing Activity Power (FRAP), and ?-carotene bleaching tests. Based on the Global Antioxidant Score (GAS) calculation, the most promising antioxidant extract was obtained by hydroalcoholic maceration of dried leaves that showed half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.42 and 0.98 ?g/mL in ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively. The hypoglycaemic activity was investigated by ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibition tests. Extracts obtained by ethanol ultrasound extraction of fresh leaves and hydroalcoholic maceration of fresh fruits (IC50 of 19.56 and 28.42 ?g/mL, respectively) are more active against ?-glucosidase than the positive control acarbose (IC50 of 35.50 ?g/mL). Fruit extracts exhibited the highest anti-inflammatory activity.
Project description:Background: Heteromorpha arborescens (Spreng.) Cham. and Schltdl (Apiaceae) is widely used traditionally for the treatment of a wide range of diseases in Southern and Eastern Africa. Although previous studies have reported the biological activities of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of H. arborescens leaves, there is no scientific information on the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetone, ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts. This study is therefore aimed to investigate and compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of acetone, ethanol, aqueous and blanched extracts of H. arborescens leaves. Methods: Phytochemical analysis for the total phenolic, flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, alkaloid and saponin contents of all the fractions were determined by spectroscopic methods, while the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts were evaluated using DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity assays. Micro dilution method was used to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of H. arborescens leaf extracts against Bacillus pumilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results: Total phenol content of the extracts ranged between 15.10 mg GAE/g- 42.50 mg GAE/g, proanthocyanidin was 459-8402.1 mg QE/g, and flavonoid content of 109.24-235.79 mg QE/g. In addition, alkaloids (5.59%) and saponins (23.33%) were present in significant amounts. Based on the IC 50 values, the ethanol extract exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (0.013 mg/mL) with highest inhibition against DPPH and ABTS radicals (0.06 and 0.049 mg/mL respectively). Considerable antibacterial activities were observed in the acetone, ethanol and blanched extracts with MIC values ranging from 1.563-12.5 mg/mL; however, the aqueous extract was inactive against all the bacteria strains. Conclusion: The study suggests that H. arborescens leaves could be a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Although the blanching process significantly decreased polyphenolic contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts, it increased the antibacterial compounds.
Project description:It was purposed to evaluate the biological potential of ethanol and isopropanol crude extracts of ripe Physalis peruviana fruits. Cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of the expression of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were evaluated on human cervical cancer (HeLa) and murine fibroblast (L929) cells. The composition was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography diode-array detection and high-performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet/visible detection. The presence of ursolic acid and rosmarinic acid was found in both solvents. However, gallic acid, quercetin, and epicatechin were higher in isopropanol extracts ( P < .05). The results indicated a relationship among the total polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, and cytotoxic activity that was dependent on the solvent used. Isopropanol extracts presented a half-maximal inhibition concentration value (IC<sub>50</sub>) of 60.48 ± 3.8 ?g/mL for HeLa cells and 66.62 ± 2.67 ?g/mL for L929 fibroblasts. The extracts reduced the release of interleukin-6, interleukin-8, and MCP-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Extracts showed anticancer and immunomodulatory potential for new complementary pharmaceutical products development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Opuntia spp. have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries. It is used in the management of diseases that involves oxidative stress, especially diabetes, obesity and cancer. Opuntia stricta (Haw) is one of the relatively unknown species in South Africa where it is regarded more as a weed. Because of this, not much is known about its chemical composition. AIM:To determine the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities of Opuntia stricta cladodes. METHODS:The phytochemical composition of acetone, aqueous and ethanol extract of cladodes of Opuntia stricta (Haw), as well as the vitamins A, C and E of its dried weight cladodes and the antioxidant activities, were evaluated using standard in vitro methods. The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities were evaluated using cell-based assays. The phytochemical composition and vitamins were determined spectrophotometrically, while the antioxidant activities were determined by DPPH, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and phosphomolybdenum (total) antioxidant activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was determined using RAW 264.7 cells, while cytotoxicity was determined using U937 cells. RESULTS:The phytochemical composition showed a significant difference in the various extracts. The total phenolics were higher than other phytochemicals in all the extracts used. All the extracts displayed antioxidant activity, while most of the extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity. Only one extract showed cytotoxicity, and it was mild. CONCLUSION:The results show that the Opuntia stricta is rich in polyphenolic compounds and has good antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory activities.