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Characterizing heart failure in the ventricular volume domain.


ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) may be accompanied by considerable alterations of left ventricular (LV) volume, depending on the particular phenotype. Two major types of HF have been identified, although heterogeneity within each category may be considerable. All variants of HF show substantially elevated LV filling pressures, which tend to induce changes in LV size and shape. Yet, one type of HF is characterized by near-normal values for LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and even a smaller end-systolic volume (ESV) than in matched groups of persons without cardiac disease. Furthermore, accumulating evidence indicates that, both in terms of shape and size, in men and women, the heart reacts differently to adaptive stimuli as well as to certain pharmacological interventions. Adjustments of ESV and EDV such as in HF patients are associated with (reverse) remodeling mechanisms. Therefore, it is logical to analyze HF subtypes in a graphical representation that relates ESV to EDV. Following this route, one may expect that the two major phenotypes of HF are identified as distinct entities localized in different areas of the LV volume domain. The precise coordinates of this position imply unique characteristics in terms of the actual operating point for LV volume regulation. Evidently, ejection fraction (EF; equal to 1 minus the ratio of ESV and EDV) carries little information within the LV volume representation. Thus far, classification of HF is based on information regarding EF combined with EDV. Our analysis shows that ESV in the two HF groups follows different patterns in dependency of EDV. This observation suggests that a superior HF classification system should primarily be founded on information embodied by ESV.

SUBMITTER: Kerkhof PL 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4345934 | BioStudies | 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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