Measuring coping in parents of children with disabilities: a rasch model approach.
ABSTRACT: Parents of a child with disability must cope with greater demands than those living with a healthy child. Coping refers to a person's cognitive or behavioral efforts to manage the demands of a stressful situation. The Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP) is a well-recognized measure of coping among parents of chronically ill children and assesses different coping patterns using its three subscales. The purpose of this study was to provide further insights into the psychometric properties of the CHIP subscales in a sample of parents of children with disabilities.In this cross-sectional study, 220 parents (mean age, 33.4 years; 85% mothers) caring for a child with disability enrolled in special schools as well as in mainstream schools completed the 45-item CHIP. Rasch analysis was applied to the CHIP data and the psychometric performance of each of the three subscales was tested. Subscale revision was performed in the context of Rasch analysis statistics.Response categories were not used as intended, necessitating combining categories, thereby reducing the number from 4 to 3. The subscale - 'maintaining social support' satisfied all the Rasch model expectations. Four item misfit the Rasch model in the subscale -maintaining family integration', but their deletion resulted in a 15-item scale with items that fit the Rasch model well. The remaining subscale - 'understanding the healthcare situation' lacked adequate measurement precision (<2.0 logits).The current Rasch analyses add to the evidence of measurement properties of the CHIP and show that the two of its subscales (one original and the other revised) have good psychometric properties and work well to measure coping patterns in parents of children with disabilities. However the third subscale is limited by its inadequate measurement precision and requires more items.
Project description:The Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP) evaluates coping patterns of parents of chronically ill children and assesses different coping strategies using three subscales. This study aimed to translate and transculturally adapt the CHIP for a Brazilian sample and investigate the preliminary psychometrics of the scale. Rating scale Rasch analysis was performed on CHIP responses, and the psychometric performance of each of the three subscales was tested. Two hundred twenty parents of individuals with health problems participated in the study, answering a sociodemographic questionnaire-the Brazilian version of the CHIP-and Folkman and Lazarus's coping questionnaire. All items exhibited good fit to the measurement model, although response categories were not used as intended and little variability on person parameter estimates was obtained. These preliminary results suggested that each construct being measured by the three subscales should be treated separately, corroborating the theoretical model of the original instrument. Suggestions to address the psychometric limitations of the instrument were made in order to improve measurement precision.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Experiencing parental stress is common among parents of children of all ages and is elevated in families characterized by stressors such as poverty, mental health problems, and developmental problems. The Parental Stress Scale (PSS) is a short measure for the assessment of perceived stress resulting from being a parent. METHODS:This study examines the construct validity and psychometric properties of the Danish PSS using Rasch and graphical loglinear Rasch models in a sample of parents of 2-18-year-old children with and without known behavior problems. We emphasized analyses of differential item functioning, to ascertain whether the scale yields unbiased scores for subgroups of parents. RESULTS:The 18-item PSS did not fit the Rasch model or a graphical loglinear Rasch model. After dichotomizing item responses and eliminating items 2 and 11, we found the PSS to consist of two distinct subscales measuring parental stress and lack of parental satisfaction. For the total sample, the Parental Stress subscale fit a very complex graphical loglinear Rasch model with differential item functioning relative to parental education and whether children had behavior problems or not. The Lack of Parental Satisfaction subscale fit a simple graphical loglinear Rasch model with differential item functioning only relative to subsample. When dividing into subsamples of parents of children with and without behavior problems, the Parental Stress subscale fit a simple graphical loglinear Rasch model, though still with differential item functioning, while the Lack of Parental Satisfaction subscale fit the Rasch model in each subsample of parents. Both subscales performed best for parents of children with behavior problems. CONCLUSIONS:The PSS should be used in a 16-item version and scored as two subscales. The PSS appears better suited for use among parents of children with behavior problems than within a sample without any known difficulties.
Project description:To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Adult Strabismus-20 (AS-20)- a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) questionnaire in adults with strabismus, and if flawed, to revise the AS-20 and its subscales creating valid measurement scales.584 adults (meanage, 27.5 years) with strabismus were recruited from an outpatient clinic at a South Indian tertiary eye care centre and were administered the AS-20 questionnaire.The AS-20 was translated and back translated into two Indian languages. The AS-20 and its two 10-item subscales - 'psychosocial' and 'function'were assessed separately for fit to the Rasch model, including an assessment of the rating scale, unidimensionality (by principal components analysis), measurement precision by person separation reliability, PSR, targeting, and differential item functioning (DIF; notable > 1.0 logits).Response categories were not used as intended, thereby, required re-organization and reducing their number from 5 to 3. The AS-20 had adequate measurement precision (PSR = 0.87) but lacked unidimensionality; however, deletion of the six multi-dimensionality causing items and an additional three misfitting items resulted in 11-item unidimensional questionnaire (AS-11). Two items failed to satisfy the model expectations in the 'psychosocial' subscale and were deleted - resulting in an 8-item unidimensional scale with adequate PSR (0.81) and targeting (0.23 logits). One item misfit in the 'function' subscale and was deleted-resulting in a 9 item Rasch-revised unidimensional subscale with acceptable PSR (0.80) and targeting (0.97 logits).None of the items displayed notable DIF by age, gender and level of education.The AS-11 and its two Rasch-revised subscales - 8-item psychosocial and 9-item function subscale may be more appropriate than the original AS-20 and its two 10-item subscales for use as unidimensional measures of HRQoL in adults with strabismus in India. Further work is required to establish the validity of the revised rating scale.
Project description:The Intermittent Exotropia Questionnaire (IXTQ) is a patient, proxy, and parental report of quality of life specific to children with intermittent exotropia. We refine the IXTQ using Rasch analysis to improve reliability and validity.Rasch analysis was performed on responses of 575 patients with intermittent exotropia enrolled from May 15, 2008, through July 24, 2013, and their parents from each of the 4 IXTQ health-related quality-of-life questionnaires (child 5 through 7 years of age and child 8 through 17 years of age, proxy, and parent questionnaires). Questionnaire performance and structure were confirmed in a separate cohort of 379 patients with intermittent exotropia. One item was removed from the 12-item child and proxy questionnaires, and response options in the 8- to 17-year-old child IXTQ and proxy IXTQ were combined into 3 response options for both questionnaires. Targeting was relatively poor for the child and proxy questionnaires. For the parent questionnaire, 3 subscales (psychosocial, function, and surgery) were evident. One item was removed from the psychosocial subscale. Resulting subscales had appropriate targeting.The Rasch-revised IXTQ may be a useful instrument for determining how intermittent exotropia affects health-related quality of life of children with intermittent exotropia and their parents, particularly for cohort studies.
Project description:The Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QoL) is considered the gold standard for assessing health-related QoL in oropharyngeal dysphagia. The Dutch translation (DSWAL-QoL) and its adjusted version (aDSWAL-QoL) have been validated using classical test theory (CTT). However, these scales have not been tested against the Rasch measurement model, which is required to establish the structural validity and objectivity of the total scale and subscale scores. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of these scales using item analysis according to the Rasch model.Item analysis with the Rasch model was performed using RUMM2030 software with previously collected data from a validation study of 108 patients. The assessment included evaluations of overall model fit, reliability, unidimensionality, threshold ordering, individual item and person fits, differential item functioning (DIF), local item dependency (LID) and targeting.The analysis could not establish the psychometric properties of either of the scales or their subscales because they did not fit the Rasch model, and multidimensionality, disordered thresholds, DIF, and/or LID were found. The reliability and power of fit were high for the total scales (PSI?=?0.93) but low for most of the subscales (PSI?<?0.70). The targeting of persons and items was suboptimal. The main source of misfit was disordered thresholds for both the total scales and subscales. Based on the results of the analysis, adjustments to improve the scales were implemented as follows: disordered thresholds were rescaled, misfit items were removed and items were split for DIF. However, the multidimensionality and LID could not be resolved. The reliability and power of fit remained low for most of the subscales.This study represents the first analyses of the DSWAL-QoL and aDSWAL-QoL with the Rasch model. Relying on the DSWAL-QoL and aDSWAL-QoL total and subscale scores to make conclusions regarding dysphagia-related HRQoL should be treated with caution before the structural validity and objectivity of both scales have been established. A larger and well-targeted sample is recommended to derive definitive conclusions about the items and scales. Solutions for the psychometric weaknesses suggested by the model and practical implications are discussed.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Electronic health (eHealth) strategies are evolving making it important to have valid scales to assess eHealth and health literacy. Item response theory methods, such as the Rasch measurement model, are increasingly used for the psychometric evaluation of scales. This paper aims to examine the internal construct validity of an eHealth and health literacy scale using Rasch analysis in a population with moderate to high cardiovascular disease risk.<h4>Methods</h4>The first 397 participants of the CONNECT study completed the electronic health Literacy Scale (eHEALS) and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). Overall Rasch model fit as well as five key psychometric properties were analysed: unidimensionality, response thresholds, targeting, differential item functioning and internal consistency.<h4>Results</h4>The eHEALS had good overall model fit (?2 = 54.8, p = 0.06), ordered response thresholds, reasonable targeting and good internal consistency (person separation index (PSI) 0.90). It did, however, appear to measure two constructs of eHealth literacy. The HLQ subscales (except subscale 5) did not fit the Rasch model (?2: 18.18-60.60, p: 0.00-0.58) and had suboptimal targeting for most subscales. Subscales 6 to 9 displayed disordered thresholds indicating participants had difficulty distinguishing between response options. All subscales did, nonetheless, demonstrate moderate to good internal consistency (PSI: 0.62-0.82).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Rasch analyses demonstrated that the eHEALS has good measures of internal construct validity although it appears to capture different aspects of eHealth literacy (e.g. using eHealth and understanding eHealth). Whilst further studies are required to confirm this finding, it may be necessary for these constructs of the eHEALS to be scored separately. The nine HLQ subscales were shown to measure a single construct of health literacy. However, participants' scores may not represent their actual level of ability, as distinction between response categories was unclear for the last four subscales. Reducing the response categories of these subscales may improve the ability of the HLQ to distinguish between different levels of health literacy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health related quality of life is a critical concept during the perinatal period but remains under-researched. The International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement have included the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Global Short Form (GSF) in their core outcome set for pregnancy and childbirth to measure health related quality of life. The PROMIS GSF has not been fully evaluated as a valid and reliable instrument in this population. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the PROMIS GSF during pregnancy and postpartum period. METHODS:PROMIS GSF was administered to a sample of 309 pregnant women at four time-points during pregnancy (??27 and 36-weeks) and postpartum (6- and 26-weeks). The structural validity, internal consistency reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the PROMIS GSF were evaluated. The internal structure of the PROMIS GSF was explored using Rasch Measurement Theory. Response format, item fit, differential item functioning (item bias), dimensionality of the scale and its targeting were assessed. RESULTS:Two revised subscales (Mental Health: four items; and Physical Health: five items) showed good fit to the Rasch model. The revised mental health subscale demonstrated good internal consistency reliability during pregnancy and postpartum period (??=?.88 and .87, respectively). The internal consistency reliability of the physical health subscale was adequate (??=?.76 and .75, respectively). The revised mental health subscale was sensitive to group differences according to a history of mental health disorder, income, smoking status, drug use, stress levels and planned versus unplanned pregnancy. Differences in scores on the revised physical subscale were detected for groups based on obesity, income, drug use, smoking status, stress, and history of mental health disorders. Scores on both subscales recorded significant changes across the four time-points, spanning pregnancy and postpartum period. CONCLUSIONS:The revised version of the PROMIS GSF was better able to measure mental and physical health during pregnancy and postpartum period compared to the original version. Findings support the clinical and research application of the PROMIS GSF within the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement Standard Set of Outcome Measures for Pregnancy and Childbirth. Ongoing psychometric analysis of the PROMIS GSF is recommended in other maternity populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Australia, the stress levels have increased over the years, impacting on the physical and mental health of the general population. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the PSS-14 in an Australian population. METHODS:The PSS-14 was applied to a large national sample comprising 3857 Australians in the population-based cross-sectional study Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006. The psychometric properties analyzed with the Rasch model and Graphical Log-linear Rasch models were: model fit, item fit, local dependence, differential item functioning, unidimensionality, reliability, targeting and criterion validity. RESULTS:The PSS-14 did not fit the pure RM (?2 (55)?=?3828.3, p?=?<?0.001) and the unidimensionality of the whole scale was rejected (p?=?<?0.001). The Perceived Stress (?2 (27)?=?1409.7, p?=?<?0.001) and Perceived Control (?2 (27)?=?713.4, p?=?<?0.001) subscales did not fit the pure RM. After the deletion of two items, the Perceived Stress subscale (?2 (96)?=?94.4, p?=?0.440) fitted a GLLRM, while the Perceived Control scale (?2 (55)?=?62.50, p?=?0.224) fitted a GLLRM after the exclusion of four misfitting items. CONCLUSIONS:The Perceived Stress subscale displayed adequate psychometric properties after the deletion of two items; however, the majority of problems centered around the Perceived Control subscale. The presence of differential item functioning among four items indicates that adjustment of total scores is required to avoid measurement bias. Recommendations for future applications in Australia are provided.
Project description:The Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) assesses Thwarted Belongingness (TB) and Perceived Burdensomeness (PB), two predictors of suicidal thoughts. Up to now, the use of item response theory (IRT) for the evaluation of the INQ has been restricted to a single study with clinically depressed and suicidal youth. Therefore, the psychometric properties of the two INQ-15-subscales TB and PB were now evaluated in a general population sample (N = 2508) and a clinical adult population sample (N = 185) using IRT, specifically the Rasch model (RM) and the graphical log-linear Rasch model (GLLRM). Of special interest was whether the INQ-subscales displayed differential item functioning (DIF) across the two different samples and how well the subscales were targeted to the two sample populations. For the clinical sample, fit to a GLLRM could be established for the PB-subscale and fit to a RM was established for a five-item version of the TB-subscale. In contrast, for the general population sample fit to a GLLRM could only be achieved for the PB-subscale. Overall, there was strong evidence of local dependence (LD) across items and of some age- and gender-related DIF. Both subscales exhibited massive DIF related to the sample, indicating that they don't work the same across the general population and clinical sample. As expected, targeting of both INQ-subscales was much better for the clinical population. Further investigations of the INQ-15 under the Rasch approach in a large clinical population are recommended to determine and optimize the scale performance.
Project description:The Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation (PRWE) was developed as a wrist joint specific measure of pain and disability and evidence of sound validity has been accumulated through classical psychometric methods. Rasch analysis (RA) has been endorsed as a newer method for analyzing the clinical measurement properties of self-report outcome measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the PRWE using Rasch modeling.We employed the Rasch model to assess overall fit, response scaling, individual item fit, differential item functioning (DIF), local dependency, unidimensionality and person separation index (PSI). A convenience sample of 382 patients with distal radius fracture was recruited from the hand and upper limb clinic at large academic healthcare organization, London, Ontario, Canada, 6-month post-injury scores of the PRWE was used. RA was conducted on the 3 subscales (pain, specific activities, and usual activities) of the PRWE separately.The pain subscale adequately fit the Rasch model when item 4 "Pain - When it is at its worst" was deleted to eliminate non-uniform DIF by age group, and item 5 "How often do you have pain" was rescored by collapsing into 8 intervals to eliminate disordered thresholds. Uniform DIF for "Use my affected hand to push up from the chair" (by work status) and "Use bathroom tissue with my affected hand" (by injured hand) was addressed by splitting the items for analysis. After background rescoring of 2 items in pain subscale, 2 items in specific activities and 3 items in usual activities, all three subscales of the PRWE were well targeted and had high reliability (PSI?=?0.86). These changes provided a unidimensional, interval-level scaled measure.Like a previous analysis of the Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation, this study found the PRWE could be fit to the Rasch model with rescoring of multiple items. However, the modifications required to achieve fit were not the same across studies, our fit statistics also suggested one of the pain items should be deleted. This study adds to the pool of evidence supporting the PRWE, but cannot confidently provide a Rasch-based scoring algorithm.