Small heterodimer partner interacts with NLRP3 and negatively regulates activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
ABSTRACT: Excessive activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome results in damaging inflammation, yet the regulators of this process remain poorly defined. Herein, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP) is a negative regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. NLRP3 inflammasome activation leads to an interaction between SHP and NLRP3, proteins that are both recruited to mitochondria. Overexpression of SHP competitively inhibits binding of NLRP3 to apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). SHP deficiency results in increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18, and excessive pathologic responses typically observed in mouse models of kidney tubular necrosis and peritoneal gout. Notably, the loss of SHP results in accumulation of damaged mitochondria and a sustained interaction between NLRP3 and ASC in the endoplasmic reticulum. These data are suggestive of a role for SHP in controlling NLRP3 inflammasome activation through a mechanism involving interaction with NLRP3 and maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis.
Project description:Th2 cytokine IL-4 has been previously shown to suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines in monocytes. However, the underlying molecular mechanism by which IL-4 signaling antagonizes proinflammatory responses is poorly characterized. In particular, whether IL-4 can modulate inflammasome signaling remains unknown. Here, we provide evidence that IL-4 suppresses NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation and the subsequent IL-1? secretion but does not inhibit absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)- or NLRC4 (NOD-like receptor family, CARD domain-containing 4)-dependent caspase-1 activation in THP-1 and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS/ATP stimulation, IL-4 markedly inhibited the assembly of NLRP3 inflammasome, including NLRP3-dependent ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain) oligomerization, NLRP3-ASC interaction and NLRP3 speck-like oligomeric structure formation. The negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by IL-4 was not due to the impaired mRNA or protein production of NLRP3 and proinflammatory cytokines. Supporting this observation, IL-4 attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation even in reconstituted NLRP3-expressing macrophages in which NLRP3 expression is not transcriptionally regulated by TLR-NF-?B signaling. Furthermore, the IL-4-mediated suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome was independent of STAT6-dependent transcription and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Instead, IL-4 inhibited subcellular redistribution of NLRP3 into mitochondria and microtubule polymerization upon NLRP3-activating stimulation. Our results collectively suggest that IL-4 could suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a transcription-independent manner, thus providing an endogenous regulatory machinery to prevent excessive inflammasome activation.
Project description:The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in response to microbial and danger signals, resulting in caspase-1-dependent secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Canonical NLRP3 inflammasome activation is a two-step process requiring both priming and activation signals. During inflammasome activation, NLRP3 associates with mitochondria; however, the role for this interaction is unclear. In this article, we show that mouse NLRP3 and caspase-1 independently interact with the mitochondrial lipid cardiolipin, which is externalized to the outer mitochondrial membrane at priming in response to reactive oxygen species. An NLRP3 activation signal is then required for the calcium-dependent association of the adaptor molecule ASC with NLRP3 on the mitochondrial surface, resulting in inflammasome complex assembly and activation. These findings demonstrate a novel lipid interaction for caspase-1 and identify a role for mitochondria as supramolecular organizing centers in the assembly and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the interstitial deposition of amyloid ? (A?) plaque, which is thought to be related to chronic neuroinflammation. A? is known to make fibrils via oligomers from monomers. A? has been reported to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in infiltrated macrophages. NLRP3, an intracellular pattern recognition receptor, has been reported to recognize numerous pathogens and/or metabolites and form complexes with adopter protein ASC to make the inflammasome, an interleukin (IL)-1?-processing platform. Although reactive oxygen species from mitochondria have been reported to be involved in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in microglial cells upon the deposition of A?, whether A? directly or indirectly activates the NLRP3 inflammasome remains unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>We prepared monomers, oligomers, and fibrils of A?, which promoted the interaction between NLRP3 and each form of A? and analyzed the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC induced by each form of A? in a cell-free system with the amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay. We also confirmed the physiological relevance in a cell-based assay using human embryonic kidney 293T cells and human peripheral mononuclear cells.<h4>Results</h4>Monomers, oligomers, and fibrils of A? were successfully prepared. A? oligomers and fibrils interacted with NLRP3. A? oligomers and fibrils induced the interaction between NLRP3 and ASC. However, A? monomers did not interact with NLRP3 or induce interaction between NLRP3 and ASC in the cell-free system, and IL-1? was not secreted according to the cell-based assay.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Oligomerized A? originating from non-toxic A? monomers directly interacted with NLRP3, leading to the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. This may be an attractive target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Project description:NLRP3 is a key component of the macromolecular signaling complex called the inflammasome that promotes caspase 1-dependent production of IL-1?. The adaptor ASC is necessary for NLRP3-dependent inflammasome function, but it is not known whether ASC is a sufficient partner and whether inflammasome formation occurs in the cytosol or in association with mitochondria is controversial. Here, we show that the mitochondria-associated adaptor molecule, MAVS, is required for optimal NLRP3 inflammasome activity. MAVS mediates recruitment of NLRP3 to mitochondria, promoting production of IL-1? and the pathophysiologic activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome in vivo. Our data support a more complex model of NLRP3 inflammasome activation than previously appreciated, with at least two adapters required for maximal function. Because MAVS is a mitochondria-associated molecule previously considered to be uniquely involved in type 1 interferon production, these findings also reveal unexpected polygamous involvement of PYD/CARD-domain-containing adapters in innate immune signaling events.
Project description:A key process underlying an innate immune response to pathogens or cellular stress is activation of members of the NOD-like receptor family, such as NLRP3, to assemble caspase-1-activating inflammasome complexes. Activated caspase-1 processes proinflammatory cytokines into active forms that mediate inflammation. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is also associated with common diseases including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and Alzheimer disease. However, the molecular details of NLRP3 inflammasome assembly are not established. The adaptor protein ASC plays a key role in inflammasome assembly. It is composed of an N-terminal pyrin domain (PYD) and a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain, which are protein interaction domains of the death fold superfamily. ASC interacts with NLRP3 via a homotypic PYD interaction and recruits procaspase-1 via a homotypic caspase recruitment domain interaction. Here we demonstrate that ASC PYD contains two distinct binding sites important for self-association and interaction with NLRP3 and the modulatory protein POP1. Modeling of the homodimeric ASC PYD complex formed via an asymmetric interaction using both sites resembles a type I interaction found in other death fold domain complexes. This interaction mode also permits assembly of ASC PYDs into filaments. Furthermore, a type I binding mode is likely conserved in interactions with NLRP3 and POP1, because residues critical for interaction of ASC PYD are conserved in these PYDs. We also demonstrate that ASC PYD can simultaneously self-associate and interact with NLRP3, rationalizing the model whereby ASC self-association upon recruitment to NLRP3 promotes clustering and activation of procaspase-1.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Stimulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by metabolic byproducts is known to result in inflammatory responses and metabolic diseases. However, how the host controls aberrant NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. PPAR?, a known regulator of energy metabolism, plays an anti-inflammatory role through the inhibition of NF-?B activation and additionally attenuates NLRP3-dependent IL-1? and IL-18 production. Therefore, we hypothesized that PPAR? serves as an endogenous modulator that attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. <b>Methods:</b> Mouse peritoneal macrophages with exposure to a PPAR? agonist at different stages and the NLRP3 inflammasome-reconstituted system in HEK293T cells were used to investigate the additional anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR? on NLRP3 inflammasome regulation. Circulating mononuclear cells of obese patients with weight-loss surgery were used to identify the <i>in vivo</i> correlation between PPAR? and the NLRP3 inflammasome. <b>Results:</b> Exposure to the PPAR? agonist, rosiglitazone, during the second signal of NLRP3 inflammasome activation attenuated caspase-1 and IL-1? maturation. Moreover, PPAR? interfered with NLRP3 inflammasome formation by decreasing NLRP3-ASC and NLRP3-NLRP3 interactions as well as NLRP3-dependent ASC oligomerization, which is mediated through interaction between the PPAR? DNA-binding domain and the nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domains of NLRP3. Furthermore, PPAR? was required to limit metabolic damage-associated molecular pattern-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in mouse macrophages. Finally, the mature caspase-1/PPAR? ratio was reduced in circulating mononuclear cells of obese patients after weight-loss surgery, which we define as an "NLRP3 accelerating index". <b>Conclusions:</b> These results revealed an additional anti-inflammatory role for PPAR? in suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation through interaction with NLRP3. Thus, our study highlights that PPAR? agonism may be a therapeutic option for targeting NLRP3-related metabolic diseases.
Project description:The mechanisms leading to NOD-leucine rich repeat and pyrin containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation are still debated. It is well established that oligomerized NLRP3 interacts with apoptosis associated Speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC) which polymerizes into filaments recruiting procaspase-1, leading to its activation. However, pathways triggering NLRP3 activation, such as potassium efflux, ROS production or lysosomal permeabilization, can be required or not, depending on the activators used. Here we proposed to evaluate the importance of Cathepsin B on NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation. Using Cathepsin B-/- BMDMs (Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages), we first show that Cathepsin B is required for caspase-1 activation, IL-1? production and ASC speck formation, upon treatment with different types of NLRP3 activators, i.e., ATP, nigericin or crystals. Moreover, in these conditions, Cathepsin B interacts with NLRP3 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) level. To conclude, different NLRP3 activators lead to Cathepsin B interaction with NLRP3 at the ER level and to subsequent caspase-1 activation.
Project description:Virus infected immune cells can rapidly respond to the invader by activating the inflammasome and as a consequence release proinflammatory cytokines and eventually die by pyroptosis. In human adenovirus-5 (Ad5) infected THP-1 cells, inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation was demonstrated by a decreased secretion of HMGB1 and matured forms of caspase-1and IL-1ß. An Ad5 mutant virus defective in expression of the non-coding VA RNAI failed to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome and in addition displayed formation of ASC specks and increased cell lysis. Importantly, in vitro synthesized VA RNAI was able to inhibit the NLRP3 inflammasome activity in THP-1 cells in the absence of an Ad5 infection, suggesting that VA RNAI binding to PKR and blocking its function is sufficient for inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Although the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation required the phylogenetically conserved base paired tetranucleotide sequence in the central stem of VA RNAI, we demonstrate that PKR binding to VA RNAI primarily protected the apical stem, but not the tetranucleotide sequence itself. VA RNAI did not influence the interaction between PKR and NLRP3. In contrast, we describe a novel interaction between PKR and ASC and further show that VA RNAI inhibited ASC phosphorylation and oligomerization. Collectively, our results indicate a novel role for Ad5 VA RNAI as an inhibitor of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by targeting the cellular pro-inflammatory protein PKR.
Project description:Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a major cytokine that initiates and enhances inflammatory responses. Excessive IL-1? production is a characteristic of most chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and obesity, which affect a large proportion of the global population. The production of bioactive IL-1? is mediated by a caspase-1-activating complex known as an 'inflammasome'. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been associated with several human inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and represents a potential therapeutic target for disrupting IL-1? production. We used molecular modeling guided by molecular dynamics simulations to design ?-helical stapled peptides targeting the pyrin domain of the adaptor protein ASC to interrupt the development of its filament, which is crucial for NLRP3 inflammasome formation. The peptides were effectively internalized by human monocytic cells and efficiently suppressed the release of the inflammasome-regulated cytokines IL-1? and IL-18, following exogenous activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The peptides reduced ASC speck formation and caspase-1 processing thereby suppressing pro-IL-1? processing and release of active IL-1?. This is the first demonstration of the successful use of stapled peptides designed to target the adaptor protein ASC, and can be extended to other inflammatory pathways to disrupt excessive IL-1? production.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is observed in many human diseases, often associated with inflammation. ER stress can trigger inflammation through nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLRP3) inflammasome, which might stimulate inflammasome formation by association with damaged mitochondria. How ER stress triggers mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammasome activation is ill defined. Here we have used an infection model to show that the IRE1? ER stress sensor regulates regulated mitochondrial dysfunction through an NLRP3-mediated feed-forward loop, independently of ASC. IRE1? activation increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, promoting NLRP3 association with mitochondria. NLRP3 was required for ER stress-induced cleavage of caspase-2 and the pro-apoptotic factor, Bid, leading to subsequent release of mitochondrial contents. Caspase-2 and Bid were necessary for activation of the canonical inflammasome by infection-associated or general ER stress. These data identify an NLRP3-caspase-2-dependent mechanism that relays ER stress to the mitochondria to promote inflammation, integrating cellular stress and innate immunity.