Performance of BinaxNOW G6PD deficiency point-of-care diagnostic in P. vivax-infected subjects.
ABSTRACT: Accurate diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is required to avoid the risk of acute hemolysis associated with 8-aminoquinoline treatment. The performance of the BinaxNOW G6PD test compared with the quantitative spectrophotometric analysis of G6PD activity was assessed in 356 Plasmodium vivax-infected subjects in Brazil, Peru, Thailand, and India. In the quantitative assay, the median G6PD activity was 8.81 U/g hemoglobin (range = 0.05-20.19), with 11 (3%) subjects identified as deficient. Sensitivity of the BinaxNOW G6PD to detect deficient subjects was 54.5% (6 of 11), and specificity was 100% (345 of 345). Room temperatures inadvertently falling outside the range required to perform the rapid test (18-25°C) together with subtlety of color change and insufficient training could partially explain the low sensitivity found. Ensuring safe use of 8-aminoquinolines depends on additional development of simple, highly sensitive G6PD deficiency diagnostic tests suitable for routine use in malaria-endemic areas.
Project description:The proportion of Plasmodium vivax malaria among all malarias is increasing worldwide. Treatment with 8-aminoquinolines remain the only radical cure. However, 8-aminoquinolines can cause severe hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient patients. The population of the multi-ethnic Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) carry the highest malaria burden within Bangladesh. As in many countries the national treatment guidelines recommend 8-aminoquinoline based radical cure without routine G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) testing to guide treatment. Aim of this study was to determine the need for routine testing within a multi-ethnic population by assessing the prevalence of G6PDd among the local population. Participants from 11 ethnicities were randomly selected and malaria status was assessed by microscopy, rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). G6PD status was determined by spectrophotometry and G6PD genotyping. The adjusted male median (AMM) was defined as 100% G6PD activity, participants were categorized as G6PD deficient (<30% activity), G6PD intermediate (30% to 70% activity) or G6PD normal (>70% activity). Median G6PD activities between ethnicities were compared and the association between G6PD activity and malaria status was assessed. 1002 participants were enrolled and tested for malaria. G6PD activity was measured by spectrophotometry in 999 participants and host G6PD genotyping undertaken in 323 participants. Seven participants (0.7%) had peripheral parasitaemia detected by microscopy or RDT and 42 by PCR (4.2%). Among 106 participants (32.8%) with confirmed genotype, 99 (93.4%) had the Mahidol variant. The AMM was 7.03U/gHb with 90 (9.0%) G6PD deficient participants and 133 (13.3%) with intermediate G6PD activity. Median G6PD activity differed significantly between ethnicities (p<0.001), proportions of G6PD deficient individuals ranged from 2% to 26% but did not differ between participants with and without malaria. The high G6PDd prevalence and significant variation between ethnicities suggest routine G6PDd testing to guide 8-aminoquinoline based radical in the CHT and comparable settings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tafenoquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is now indicated for causal prophylaxis against all human malarias and as radical curative (anti-relapse) treatment against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale. As with other 8-aminoquinolines, tafenoquine causes hemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (hemizygous males and homozygous females) and is contraindicated in this population. Those with intermediate G6PD activity (heterozygous females) are also at risk for hemolysis. Awareness of how to prescribe tafenoquine in relation to G6PD status is needed so it can be used safely. METHODS:A standard literature search was performed on varying combinations of the terms tafenoquine, Arakoda, Kodatef, Krintafel, Kozenis, primaquine, G6PD deficiency, malaria prophylaxis and radical cure. The data were gathered and interpreted to review how tafenoquine should be prescribed in consideration of the G6PD status of an individual and traveller. RESULTS:Tafenoquine should only be given to those with G6PD activity >70% of the local population median. Qualitative G6PD tests are sufficient for diagnosing G6PD deficiency in males. However, in females quantitative G6PD testing is necessary to differentiate deficient, intermediate and normal G6PD statuses. Testing for G6PD deficiency is mandatory before tafenoquine prescription. Measures can be taken to avoid tafenoquine administration to ineligible individuals (i.e. due to G6PD status, age, pregnancy and lactation). Primaquine is still necessary for some of these cases. This review provides actions that can be taken to diagnose and manage hemolysis when tafenoquine is given inadvertently to ineligible individuals. CONCLUSION:Attention to G6PD status is required for safe prescription of tafenoquine. A high index of suspicion is needed if hemolysis occurs. Clinicians should seek evidence-based information for the management and treatment of iatrogenicy hemolysis caused by 8-aminoquinolines.
Project description:Tafenoquine is an 8-aminoquinoline under investigation for the prevention of relapse in Plasmodium vivax malaria. This open-label, dose-escalation study assessed quantitatively the hemolytic risk with tafenoquine in female healthy volunteers heterozygous for the Mahidol487A glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient variant versus G6PD-normal females, and with reference to primaquine. Six G6PD-heterozygous subjects (G6PD enzyme activity 40-60% of normal) and six G6PD-normal subjects per treatment group received single-dose tafenoquine (100, 200, or 300 mg) or primaquine (15 mg × 14 days). All participants had pretreatment hemoglobin levels ? 12.0 g/dL. Tafenoquine dose escalation stopped when hemoglobin decreased by ? 2.5 g/dL (or hematocrit decline ? 7.5%) versus pretreatment values in ? 3/6 subjects. A dose-response was evident in G6PD-heterozygous subjects (N = 15) receiving tafenoquine for the maximum decrease in hemoglobin versus pretreatment values. Hemoglobin declines were similar for tafenoquine 300 mg (-2.65 to -2.95 g/dL [N = 3]) and primaquine (-1.25 to -3.0 g/dL [N = 5]). Two further cohorts of G6PD-heterozygous subjects with G6PD enzyme levels 61-80% (N = 2) and > 80% (N = 5) of the site median normal received tafenoquine 200 mg; hemolysis was less pronounced at higher G6PD enzyme activities. Tafenoquine hemolytic potential was dose dependent, and hemolysis was greater in G6PD-heterozygous females with lower G6PD enzyme activity levels. Single-dose tafenoquine 300 mg did not appear to increase the severity of hemolysis versus primaquine 15 mg × 14 days.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Plasmodium vivax malaria elimination can only be achieved by the deployment of 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine and tafenoquine) in combination with ACT to kill both blood and liver-stage parasites. However, primaquine and the other 8-aminoquinolines cause dose-dependent haemolysis in subjects with G6PD deficiency, an X-linked disorder of red blood cells that is very common in populations living in tropical and subtropical areas. In order to inform safer use of 8-aminoquinolines in the Greater Mekong Subregion, a multi-centre study was carried out to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and to identify the main G6PD variants in samples collected in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. METHODS:Blood samples were collected in the five countries during National Malaria Surveys or during Population Surveys. During Population Surveys samples were characterized for G6PD phenotype using the Fluorescent Spot Test. Samples were then genotyped for a panel of G6PD mutations. RESULTS:G6PD deficiency was found to be common in the region with an overall mean prevalence of deficient or mutated hemizygous males of 14.0%, ranging from a mean 7.3% in Thailand, 8.1% in Lao PDR, 8.9% in Vietnam, 15.8% in Myanmar and 18.8% in Cambodia. Mahidol and Viangchan mutations were the most common and widespread variants found among the nine investigated. CONCLUSIONS:Owing to the high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the Greater Mekong Subregion, strategies for vivax malaria elimination should include point-of-care G6PD testing (both qualitative and quantitative) to allow safe and wide treatment with 8-aminoquinolines.
Project description:Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is essential for redox equilibrium of red blood cells (RBCs) and, when compromised, the RBCs are more susceptible to haemolysis. 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine and tafenoquine) are used for the radical curative treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria and can cause haemolysis in G6PD deficient subjects. Haemolytic risk is dependent on treatment dose and patient G6PD status but ultimately it correlates with the number of G6PD deficient RBCs. The G6PD spectrophotometric assay reliably identifies deficient subjects but is less reliable in heterozygous females, especially when other blood conditions are present. In this work we analysed samples with a range of G6PD phenotypes and haematologic conditions from 243 healthy volunteers of Asian or African-American heritage using both the spectrophotomeric assay and the G6PD flow-cytometric assay. Overall 18.5% of subjects (29.3% of Asian females) presented with anaemia, associated with decreased RBCs volume (MCV) and reticulocytosis; the flow-cytometric assay showed good correlation with the spectrophotometric assay (Pearson's r 0.918-0.957) and was less influenced by haemoglobin concentration, number of RBCs and number of reticulocytes. This resulted in more precise quantification of the number of G6PD deficient RBCs and presumably higher predictive power of drug induced haemolytic risk.
Project description:Safe access to the most effective treatment options for Plasmodium vivax malaria are limited by the absence of accurate point-of-care testing to detect glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, the most common human genetic disorder. G6PD-deficient patients are at risk of life-threatening hemolysis when exposed to 8-aminoquinolines, the only class of drugs efficacious against P. vivax hypnozoites. Until recently, only qualitative tests were available in most settings. These accurately identify patients with severe G6PD deficiency (mostly male) but not patients with intermediate G6PD deficiency (always female). This has led to and reinforced a gap in awareness in clinical practice of the risks and implications of G6PD deficiency in females-who, unlike males, can have a heterozygous genotype for G6PD. Increasing recognition of the need for radical cure of P. vivax, first for patients' health and then for malaria elimination, is driving the development of new point-of-care tests for G6PD deficiency and their accessibility to populations in low-resource settings. The availability of simple, affordable, and accurate point-of-care diagnostics for the precise classification of the three G6PD phenotypes can reduce sex-linked disparities by ensuring safe and effective malaria treatment, providing opportunities to develop supportive counseling to enhance understanding of genetic test results, and improving the detection of all G6PD deficiency phenotypes in newborns and their family members.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines (primaquine or tafenoquine) is complicated by haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. G6PD heterozygous females, because of individual variation in the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation (Lyonisation) in erythroid cells, may have low G6PD activity in the majority of their erythrocytes, yet are usually reported as G6PD "normal" by current phenotypic screening tests. Their haemolytic risk when treated with 8-aminoquinolines has not been well characterized.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>In a cohort study nested within a randomised clinical trial that compared different treatment regimens for P. vivax malaria, patients with a normal standard NADPH fluorescent spot test result (?30%-40% of normal G6PD activity) were randomised to receive 3 d of chloroquine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in combination with primaquine, either the standard high dose of 0.5 mg base/kg/day for 14 d or a higher dose of 1 mg base/kg/d for 7 d. Patterns of haemolysis were compared between G6PD wild-type and G6PD heterozygous female participants. Between 21 February 2012 and 04 July 2014, 241 female participants were enrolled, of whom 34 were heterozygous for the G6PD Mahidol variant. Haemolysis was substantially greater and a larger proportion of participants reached the threshold of clinically significant haemolysis (fractional haematocrit reduction >25%) in G6PD heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d) primaquine dose (9/17 [53%]) compared with G6PD heterozygotes taking the standard high (14 d) dose (2/16 [13%]; p = 0.022). In heterozygotes, the mean fractional haematocrit reductions were correspondingly greater with the higher primaquine dose (7-d regimen): -20.4% (95% CI -26.0% to -14.8%) (nadir on day 5) compared with the standard high (14 d) dose: -13.1% (95% CI -17.6% to -8.6%) (nadir day 6). Two heterozygotes taking the higher (7 d) primaquine dose required blood transfusion. In wild-type participants, mean haematocrit reductions were clinically insignificant and similar with both doses: -5.8 (95% CI -7.2% to -4.4%) (nadir day 3) compared with -5.5% (95% CI -7.4% to -3.7%) (nadir day 4), respectively. Limitations to this nested cohort study are that the primary objective of the trial was designed to measure efficacy and not haemolysis in relation to G6PD genotype and that the heterozygote groups were small.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Higher daily doses of primaquine have the potential to cause clinically significant haemolysis in G6PD heterozygous females who are reported as phenotypically normal with current point of care tests.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01640574.
Project description:Control of malaria increasingly involves administration of 8-aminoquinolines, with accompanying risk of haemolysis in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Few data on the prevalence and genotypic basis of G6PD deficiency are available from Bangladesh, where malaria remains a major problem in the South (Chittagong Division). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency, and associated G6PD genotypes, in adults with falciparum malaria in southern Bangladesh.G6PD status was assessed via a combination of fluorescent spot testing (FST) and genotyping in 141 Bengali patients admitted with falciparum malaria to two centres in Chittagong Division from 2012 to 2014. In addition, an analysis of genomic data from 1000 Genomes Project was carried out among five healthy Indian subcontinent populations.One male patient with uncomplicated malaria was found to have G6PD deficiency on FST and a genotype associated with deficiency (hemizygous Orissa variant). In addition, there were two female patients heterozygous for deficiency variants (Orissa and Kerala-Kalyan). These three patients had a relatively long duration of symptoms prior to admission compared to G6PD normal cases, possibly suggesting an interaction with parasite multiplication rate. In addition, one of 27 healthy local controls was deficient on FST and hemizygous for the Mahidol variant of G6PD deficiency. Examination of 1000 Genomes Project sequencing data across the Indian subcontinent showed that 19/723 chromosomes (2.63%) carried a variant associated with deficiency. In the Bengali from Bangladesh 1000 Genomes population, three of 130 chromosomes (2.31%) carried deficient alleles; this included single chromosomes carrying the Kerala-Kalyan and Orissa variants.In line with other recent work, G6PD deficiency is uncommon in Bengalis in Bangladesh. Further studies of particular ethnic groups are needed to evaluate the potential risk of wide deployment of primaquine in malaria control efforts in Bangladesh.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The study aimed to gain first data on the prevalence of G6PD enzyme deficiency measured by spectrophotometry and associated genetic variants in Jimma and surroundings, Ethiopia. The area is a Plasmodium vivax endemic region, but 8-aminoquinolines such as primaquine are not recommended as G6PD testing is not available. METHODS:Healthy volunteers were recruited at Jimma University, Ethiopia. Enzyme activity was tested by spectrophotometry at the University of Ulm, Germany. A G6PD RDT (Binax NOW® G6PD, Alere, USA) was additionally performed. The G6PD gene was analysed for polymorphisms in a sub-population. Tests for haemoglobinopathies and the presence of malaria parasites were conducted. RESULTS:No severe or moderate (cut-off 60%) G6PD deficiency was found in 206 volunteers. Median male activity was 6.1 U/g Hb. Eleven participants (5.4%) showed activities between 70 and 80%. No haemoglobinopathy was detected. None of the subjects showed asymptomatic parasitaemia. One G6PD-A+ variant (A376G) and one new non-synonymous mutation (G445A) were found. CONCLUSIONS:As the prevalence of G6PD deficiency seems low in this area, the use of 8-aminoquinolines should be encouraged. However, reliable G6PD testing methods have to be implemented and safe cut-off levels need to be defined.
Project description:<b>Introduction: </b>Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the human population affecting an estimated 8% of the world population, especially those living in areas of past and present malaria endemicity. Decreased G6PD enzymatic activity is associated with drug-induced hemolysis and increased risk of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia leading to brain damage. The G6PD gene is on the X chromosome therefore mutations cause enzymatic deficiency in hemizygote males and homozygote females while the majority of heterozygous females have an intermediate activity (between 30-80% of normal) with a large distribution into the range of deficiency and normality. Current G6PD qualitative tests are unable to diagnose G6PD intermediate activities which could hinder wide use of 8-aminoquinolines for Plasmodium vivax elimination. The aim of the study was to assess the diagnostic performances of the new Carestart G6PD quantitative biosensor.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A total of 150 samples of venous blood with G6PD deficient, intermediate and normal phenotypes were collected among healthy volunteers living along the north-western Thailand-Myanmar border. Samples were analyzed by complete blood count, by gold standard spectrophotometric assay using Trinity kits and by the latest model of Carestart G6PD biosensor which analyzes both G6PD and hemoglobin.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Bland-Altman comparison of the CareStart normalized G6PD values to that of the gold standard assay showed a strong bias in values resulting in poor area under-the-curve values for both 30% and 80% thresholds. Performing a receiver operator curve identified threshold values for the CareStart product equivalent to the 30% and 80% gold standard values with good sensitivity and specificity values, 100% and 92% (for 30% G6PD activity) and 92% and 94% (for 80% activity) respectively.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>The Carestart G6PD biosensor represents a significant improvement for quantitative diagnosis of G6PD deficiency over previous versions. Further improvements and validation studies are required to assess its utility for informing radical cure decisions in malaria endemic settings.