Association of polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products gene and susceptibility to sporadic abdominal aortic aneurysm.
ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence has suggested that receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is involved in the development and progression of human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). However, the association between RAGE gene polymorphisms and AAA has not yet been determined. The present study was aimed at analyzing the potential association between the RAGE gene polymorphisms and AAAs. A cohort of 381 patients and 436 age-matched healthy controls were genotyped to detect the three RAGE polymorphisms (-374 T/A, -429 T/C, and G82S) using SNaPshot. Our study demonstrated a significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of the RAGE G82S polymorphism between the AAA patients and the controls. Further stratification by gender and smoking status revealed that the presence of the RAGE 82S allele confers a higher risk for developing AAA in men and smokers. Moreover, AAA patients with the variant 82S allele of RAGE presented with reduced serum soluble RAGE (sRAGE) production, and this decrease was more significant in men and smokers with AAA. Our study provides preliminary evidence that the 82S allele of RAGE is a risk factor for AAA. This new piece of knowledge regarding RAGE may be clinically important for the prevention and therapy of AAAs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study investigated the association between polymorphisms in the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene and the susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy (DR) in a Chinese population and identified a correlation between serum-soluble RAGE (sRAGE) levels and DR risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We enrolled 1040 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: 372 patients with DR and 668 without retinopathy (NDR). All polymorphisms were genotyped by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Serum levels of sRAGE were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The interaction of SNPs was analyzed by multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR). RESULTS:The frequency of the SS genotype for the G82S polymorphism was 12.4% in the DR group and 6.6% in the NDR group; this difference was significant. G82S was associated with sRAGE levels. Specifically, after adjustments for age, sex, duration, and glucose metabolism, serum sRAGE levels were significantly higher in DR subjects with the S/S genotype than in NDR subjects in general. In the DR group, subjects with the G/S genotype had lower sRAGE levels than subjects with the G/G or S/S genotype (P < 0.01). The best multilocus genetic interaction model was assessed using the MDR method; 2184A/G, 1704G/T, G82S, and -429T/C were identified. CONCLUSIONS:The findings suggest that the G82S polymorphism in the RAGE gene is associated with DR risk, and G82S was associated with circulating levels of sRAGE. The mechanism by which G82S polymorphism modulates the sRAGE levels remains to be elucidated.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and major cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries. Its prevalence is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. As the liver is central to the clearance and catabolism of circulating advanced glycosylation end-products (AGEs), AGEs and their cognate receptors-RAGE (receptor for AGEs) system might be involved in NAFLD in obese patients. To examine this, we investigated four common polymorphisms of RAGE gene: 1704G/T (rs184003), G82S (rs2070600), -374T/A (rs1800624) and -429T/C (rs1800625) in 340 obese patients with metabolic syndrome. and protein levels of AGE and RAGE. This is the first study to describe association of 4 common polymorphisms with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) as well as to examine protein levels of RAGE and AGE. Univariate analysis showed patients carrying the rs1800624 heterozygote genotype (AT) exhibited 2.36-fold increased risk of NASH (odds ratio (OR) = 2.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.35-4.19) after adjusting for confounders. The minor allele -374 A has been shown to suppress the expression of RAGE protein. The protein levels of esRAGE, total sRAGE and AGE protein levels did not correlate with each other in obese patients with no liver disease, indicative of RAGE signaling playing an independent role in liver injury. In obese patients with non-NASH NAFLD and NASH respectively, esRAGE protein showed strong positive correlation with total sRAGE protein. Further, haplotype analysis of the 4 SNPs, indicated that haplotype G-A-T-G was significantly associated with 2-fold increased risk for NASH (OR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.21-3.5; P = 0.006) after adjusting for confounders. In conclusion, the presented data indicate that the G-A-T-G haplotype containing minor allele at position -374 A and major allele at position -429T, 1704G, and G82S G could be regarded as a marker for NASH.
Project description:The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is shown to mitigate pro-inflammatory effects triggered by ligation of RAGE with N(?)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML)-AGE or other ligands. We examined the associations among host, lifestyle, and genetic determinants of CML-AGE or sRAGE and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prospective ATBC Study. We obtained baseline exposure information, data on serological and genetic biomarkers from 141 patients with pancreatic cancer and 141 subcohort controls. Stepwise linear and logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that CML-AGE concentrations were independently inversely correlated with the minor allele of rs640742 of DDOST, physical activity, alcohol consumption, diastolic blood pressure (BP), and positively correlated with heart rate, serum sRAGE and HDL concentrations (P < 0.05). sRAGE concentrations were independently inversely correlated with the 82Ser allele of rs2070600 of RAGE, age, body mass index, heart rate, and serum HDL; and positively correlated with serum CML-AGE, sucrose consumption, and diastolic BP (P < 0.05). The minor allele of rs1035786 of RAGE was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer (any T compared with CC: multivariate OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). We identified host metabolic profile, lifestyle and genetic factors that explained approximately 50% of variability of CML-AGE or sRAGE in Finnish men smokers. The association between RAGE SNPs and pancreatic cancer risk warrants further investigation.
Project description:The interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) with its cell-bound receptor RAGE increases gene expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Circulating receptors, soluble RAGE (sRAGE), and endosecretory RAGE (esRAGE) by binding with RAGE ligands have protective effects against AGE-RAGE interaction. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. This article reviews; if the AGE-RAGE axis is involved in the cigarette smoke-induced cardiovascular diseases. There are various sources of AGEs in smokers including, gas/tar of cigarette, activation of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, uncoupling of endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and xanthine oxidase. The levels of AGEs are elevated in smokers. Serum levels of sRAGE have been reported to be reduced, elevated, or unchanged in smokers. Mostly the levels are reduced. There is one article which shows an elevation of levels of sRAGE in smokers. Serum levels of esRAGE are unaltered in smokers. Mechanism of AGE-RAGE-induced atherosclerosis has been discussed. Atherosclerosis leads to the cardiovascular diseases. It has been suggested that ratio of AGE/sRAGE or AGE/esRAGE is useful in determining the deleterious effects of AGE-RAGE interaction in smokers. sRAGE alone is not a good marker for smoke-induced cardiovascular disease. In conclusion cigarette smoke induces formation of AGEs and reduces sRAGE resulting in the development of atherosclerosis and related coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease. Ratio of AGEs/sRAGE is a better marker for cardiovascular disease than AGEs or sRAGE alone in smokers.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is highly expressed in the lung, where it is believed to have a homeostatic role. Reduced plasma levels of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) have been reported in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of plasma sRAGE levels with a longitudinal decline of lung function. We have also measured plasma levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a RAGE ligand which has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including COPD.<h4>Methods</h4>Baseline plasma concentrations of sRAGE and HMGB1 were measured in non-smokers (n = 32), smokers without COPD (n = 212), and smokers with COPD (n = 51), and the associations of the plasma sRAGE and HMGB1 levels with longitudinal declines of lung function during a 4-year follow-up period were analysed.<h4>Results</h4>The plasma levels of sRAGE were significantly lower in smokers without COPD and in smokers with COPD, as compared to those of non-smokers. Plasma sRAGE levels positively correlated with FVC and FEV1 and inversely correlated with BMI and pack-years. Lower sRAGE levels were associated with greater declines of FEV1/FVC over 4 years in all participants. Moreover, multivariate regression analysis indicated that the baseline plasma sRAGE concentration was an independent predictor of FEV1/FVC decline in all groups. A subgroup analysis showed that decreased sRAGE levels are significantly associated with a more rapid decline of FEV1/FVC in smokers with COPD. There was no significant correlation between plasma HMGB1 levels and longitudinal decline of lung function.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Lower plasma concentrations of sRAGE were associated with greater progression of airflow limitations over time, especially in smokers with COPD, suggesting that RAGE might have a protective role in the lung.
Project description:Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily that binds diverse ligands involved in the development of inflammatory damage and diverse chronic diseases including schizophrenia. Here, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (G82S, -374T/A, and -429T/C) in the RAGE gene were genotyped in 923 patients with schizophrenia and 874 healthy-matched controls in a Han Chinese population using the SNaPshot technique. Additionally, we investigated the association among aforementioned SNPs with the clinical psychotic symptoms of the patients and neurocognitive function. Our study demonstrated that the frequencies of the TC + CC genotypes and the C allele in the -429T/C polymorphism were significantly lower in the patients compared with the controls (p = 0.031 and p = 0.034, resp.). However, the significant effect disappeared when using Bonferroni correction (p = 0.093 and p = 0.102, resp.). And there were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between the patients and the controls for G82S and -374T/A polymorphisms. Additionally, the -429T/C C allele carriers had marginally higher Symbol coding scores than the subjects with the TT genotypes [p = 0.031 and p (corr) = 0.093]. Our data indicate that the RAGE -429T/C polymorphism may be associated with the susceptibility of schizophrenia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition associated with progressive loss of kidney function and kidney damage. The two common causes of CKD are diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Other causes of CKD also include polycystic kidney disease, obstructive uropathy and primary glomerulonephritis. The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand cell surface receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily and it has been associated with kidney disease in both non-diabetic and diabetic patients. Presently, data on the association between RAGE polymorphisms and CKD in the Malaysian population is limited, while numerous studies have reported associations of RAGE polymorphisms with diabetic complications in other populations. The present study aims to explore the possibility of using RAGE polymorphisms as candidate markers of CKD in Malaysian population by using association analysis. METHODS:A total of 102 non-diabetic CKD patients, 204 diabetic CKD patients and 345 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. DNA isolated from blood samples were subjected to genotyping of RAGE G82S, -374T/A, -429T/C, 1704G/T and 2184A/G polymorphisms using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The 63-bp deletion, a polymorphism in the RAGE gene promoter, was genotyped using conventional PCR method and visualized using agarose gel electrophoresis. The collective frequencies of genotypes with at least one copy of the minor alleles of the four polymorphisms were compared between the non-diabetic CKD patients, diabetic CKD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS:After adjustment of age, gender and ethnic groups in binary logistic regression analysis, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared with diabetic CKD patients (p = 0.015, OR = 1.896, 95% CI = 1.132-3.176). After further adjustment of CKD comorbidities, the G82S CT + TT genotypes were still associated with non-diabetic CKD patients when compared with diabetic CKD patients (p = 0.011, OR = 2.024, 95% CI = 1.178-3.476). However, it cannot be suggested that G82S polymorphism was associated with CKD in non-diabetic patients in this study. This is because there were no significant differences in the frequencies of G82S CT + TT genotypes between non-diabetic CKD patients and healthy controls. In addition, the RAGE -374T/A, -429T/C, 1704G/T, 2184A/G and 63-bp deletion polymorphisms were also not associated with non-diabetic CKD patients and diabetic CKD patients in this study. CONCLUSION:The G82S, -374T/A, -429T/C, 1704G/T, 2184A/G and 63-bp deletion polymorphisms examined in this study were not associated with chronic kidney disease in the Malaysian patients.
Project description:Abstract Background. RAGE, a multi-ligand type 1 transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, transduces biological signals associated with chronic cellular stress related with inflammatory responses, tissue damage, chronic and degenerative diseases (1). sRAGE is a variant of RAGE derived from cell surface cleavage mechanisms that could potentially act as endogenous inhibitors of RAGE activity (2). RAGE gene is highly polymorphic, with polymorphisms that could be responsible for disease development, like -374T/A (rs1800624) and -429T/C (rs1800625) polymorphisms. These are located in the promoter region and have marked effect on transcriptional activity. However, there have been conflicting findings between the potential association of RAGE polymorphisms and the development of diseases. In this work, we evaluated -374T/A (rs1800624) and -429T/C (rs1800625) polymorphisms and measured serum sRAGE levels in Mexican population with MS. Methods. A group of healthy men without any component of the MS (n=80), and a group of men with the MS (n=80) according to the harmonized criteria for the MS were included in this study. Blood genomic DNA was isolated and genotyped by RT-PCR for the -374T/A and -429T/C polymorphisms of RAGE gene. sRAGE in serum was measured with an ELISA kit. Results. The studied population complied with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p=0.58 for -374T/A, and p=0.79 for -429T/C). Differences were observed in all the components of the MS between the two groups (MS vs. healthy subjects, p<0.000). However, there were no differences in the population according to their genotype for the -374T/A (p=0.57) and -429T/C (p=0.59) polymorphisms. There was no difference in glucose (p=0.22), triglycerides (p=0.99), and cHDL (p=0.88) levels, or waist circumference (p=0.84) according to the genotype for the -374T/A polymorphism. The same was observed for the -429T/C polymorphism (glucose p=0.57, triglycerides p=0.69, cHDL p=0.77, waist circumference p=0.99). No association of MS with the -374T/A nor 429T/C polymorphism was found. There were no differences between groups in circulating sRAGE levels (p=0.132). Conclusion. According to our results, the -374T/A and -429T/C polymorphisms of RAGE gene are not associated with the MS in Mexican population, and have no influence on serum sRAGE levels. Some other factors could be playing a role for the high prevalence of the MS, such as eating habits. Gender should be taken into consideration, for our study was performed in men exclusively. References. (1) Serveaux-Dancer M et al., Dis Markers. 2019 Feb 4;2019:2067353. (2) Schmidt AM. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;72:1-8.
Project description:Interaction between the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands amplifies the proinflammatory response. N-Linked glycosylation of RAGE plays an important role in the regulation of ligand binding. Two potential sites for N-linked glycosylation, at Asn(25) and Asn(81), are implicated, one of which is potentially influenced by a naturally occurring polymorphism that substitutes Gly(82) with Ser. This G82S polymorphic RAGE variant displays increased ligand binding and downstream signaling. We hypothesized that the G82S polymorphism affects RAGE glycosylation and thereby affects ligand binding. WT or various mutant forms of RAGE protein, including N25Q, N81Q, N25Q/G82S, and N25Q/N81Q, were produced by transfecting HEK293 cells. The glycosylation patterns of expressed proteins were compared. Enzymatic deglycosylation showed that WT RAGE and the G82S polymorphic variant are glycosylated to the same extent. Our data also revealed N-linked glycosylation of N25Q and N81Q mutants, suggesting that both Asn(25) and Asn(81) can be utilized for N-linked glycosylation. Using mass spectrometry analysis, we found that Asn(81) may or may not be glycosylated in WT RAGE, whereas in G82S RAGE, Asn(81) is always glycosylated. Furthermore, RAGE binding to S100B ligand is affected by Asn(81) glycosylation, with consequences for NF-κB activation. Therefore, the G82S polymorphism promotes N-linked glycosylation of Asn(81), which has implications for the structure of the ligand binding region of RAGE and might explain the enhanced function associated with the G82S polymorphic RAGE variant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although several studies showed that decreased soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS), inflammation level has not been considered, even though ligand-RAGE interaction induces inflammation. The objective of the study was to determine the association between sRAGE and MetS among Japanese adult in a cross-sectional survey, taking the level of low grade inflammation into consideration. METHODS:Serum soluble RAGE (sRAGE) were measured in 712 men and 176 women aged 30-83 years with serum C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration below 3 mg/L. MetS was defined using the criteria of the American Heart Association Scientific Statements of 2009. RESULTS:After multivariable adjustment, among men, higher sRAGE levels were associated with lower odds of MetS as well as central obesity and elevated blood pressure. Comparing the extreme tertiles of sRAGE, odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 0.58 (0.36-0.95; P for trend?=?0.001) for MetS; 0.41 (0.25-0.52; P for trend?<?0.001) for central obesity; and 0.45 (0.29-0.70; P for trend?<?0.001) for elevated blood pressure. Moreover, participants were categorized according to their median hsCRP and sRAGE values. Men in the higher hsCRP/higher sRAGE category had a 40% lower odds ratio for MetS than those in the higher hsCRP/lower sRAGE category (P?=?0.031). Among women, there was no association between sRAGE levels and the prevalence of MetS. CONCLUSIONS:Higher circulating RAGE concentrations were associated with lower prevalence of MetS and its components among Japanese men.