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The DNA damage response and checkpoint adaptation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: distinct roles for the replication protein A2 (Rfa2) N-terminus.

ABSTRACT: In response to DNA damage, two general but fundamental processes occur in the cell: (1) a DNA lesion is recognized and repaired, and (2) concomitantly, the cell halts the cell cycle to provide a window of opportunity for repair to occur. An essential factor for a proper DNA-damage response is the heterotrimeric protein complex Replication Protein A (RPA). Of particular interest is hyperphosphorylation of the 32-kDa subunit, called RPA2, on its serine/threonine-rich amino (N) terminus following DNA damage in human cells. The unstructured N-terminus is often referred to as the phosphorylation domain and is conserved among eukaryotic RPA2 subunits, including Rfa2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An aspartic acid/alanine-scanning and genetic interaction approach was utilized to delineate the importance of this domain in budding yeast. It was determined that the Rfa2 N-terminus is important for a proper DNA-damage response in yeast, although its phosphorylation is not required. Subregions of the Rfa2 N-terminus important for the DNA-damage response were also identified. Finally, an Rfa2 N-terminal hyperphosphorylation-mimetic mutant behaves similarly to another Rfa1 mutant (rfa1-t11) with respect to genetic interactions, DNA-damage sensitivity, and checkpoint adaptation. Our data indicate that post-translational modification of the Rfa2 N-terminus is not required for cells to deal with "repairable" DNA damage; however, post-translational modification of this domain might influence whether cells proceed into M-phase in the continued presence of unrepaired DNA lesions as a "last-resort" mechanism for cell survival.

SUBMITTER: Ghospurkar PL 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4349066 | BioStudies | 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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