N-linked (N-) glycoproteomics of urinary exosomes. [Corrected].
ABSTRACT: Epithelial cells lining the urinary tract secrete urinary exosomes (40-100 nm) that can be targeted to specific cells modulating their functionality. One potential targeting mechanism is adhesion between vesicle surface glycoproteins and target cells. This makes the glycopeptide analysis of exosomes important. Exosomes reflect the physiological state of the parent cells; therefore, they are a good source of biomarkers for urological and other diseases. Moreover, the urine collection is easy and noninvasive and urinary exosomes give information about renal and systemic organ systems. Accordingly, multiple studies on proteomic characterization of urinary exosomes in health and disease have been published. However, no systematic analysis of their glycoproteomic profile has been carried out to date, whereas a conserved glycan signature has been found for exosomes from urine and other sources including T cell lines and human milk. Here, we have enriched and identified the N-glycopeptides from these vesicles. These enriched N-glycopeptides were solved for their peptide sequence, glycan composition, structure, and glycosylation site using collision-induced dissociation MS/MS (CID-tandem MS) data interpreted by a publicly available software GlycopeptideId. Released glycans from the same sample was also analyzed with MALDI-MS. We have identified the N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes. In total 126 N-glycopeptides from 51 N-glycosylation sites belonging to 37 glycoproteins were found in our results. The peptide sequences of these N-glycopeptides were identified unambiguously and their glycan composition (for 125 N-glycopeptides) and structures (for 87 N-glycopeptides) were proposed. A corresponding glycomic analysis with released N-glycans was also performed. We identified 66 unique nonmodified N-glycan compositions and in addition 13 sulfated/phosphorylated glycans were also found. This is the first systematic analysis of N-glycoproteome of urinary exosomes.
Project description:Urine is a complex mixture of proteins and waste products and a challenging biological fluid for biomarker discovery. Previous proteomic studies have identified more than 2800 urinary proteins but analyses aimed at unraveling glycan structures and glycosylation sites of urinary glycoproteins are lacking. Glycoproteomic characterization remains difficult because of the complexity of glycan structures found mainly on asparagine (N-linked) or serine/threonine (O-linked) residues. We have developed a glycoproteomic approach that combines efficient purification of urinary glycoproteins/glycopeptides with complementary MS-fragmentation techniques for glycopeptide analysis. Starting from clinical sample size, we eliminated interfering urinary compounds by dialysis and concentrated the purified urinary proteins by lyophilization. Sialylated urinary glycoproteins were conjugated to a solid support by hydrazide chemistry and trypsin digested. Desialylated glycopeptides, released through mild acid hydrolysis, were characterized by tandem MS experiments utilizing collision induced dissociation (CID) and electron capture dissociation fragmentation techniques. In CID-MS(2), Hex(5)HexNAc(4)-N-Asn and HexHexNAc-O-Ser/Thr were typically observed, in agreement with known N-linked biantennary complex-type and O-linked core 1-like structures, respectively. Additional glycoforms for specific N- and O-linked glycopeptides were also identified, e.g. tetra-antennary N-glycans and fucosylated core 2-like O-glycans. Subsequent CID-MS(3), of selected fragment-ions from the CID-MS(2) analysis, generated peptide specific b- and y-ions that were used for peptide identification. In total, 58 N- and 63 O-linked glycopeptides from 53 glycoproteins were characterized with respect to glycan- and peptide sequences. The combination of CID and electron capture dissociation techniques allowed for the exact identification of Ser/Thr attachment site(s) for 40 of 57 putative O-glycosylation sites. We defined 29 O-glycosylation sites which have, to our knowledge, not been previously reported. This is the first study of human urinary glycoproteins where "intact" glycopeptides were studied, i.e. the presence of glycans and their attachment sites were proven without doubt.
Project description:Protein glycosylation, one of the most heterogeneous post-translational modifications, can play a major role in cellular signal transduction and disease progression. Traditional mass spectrometry (MS)-based large-scale glycoprotein sequencing studies heavily rely on identifying enzymatically released glycans and their original peptide backbone separately, as there is no efficient fragmentation method to produce unbiased glycan and peptide product ions simultaneously in a single spectrum, and that can be conveniently applied to high throughput glycoproteome characterization, especially for N-glycopeptides, which can have much more branched glycan side chains than relatively less complex O-linked glycans. In this study, a redefined electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD) fragmentation scheme is applied to incorporate both glycan and peptide fragments in one single spectrum, enabling complete information to be gathered and great microheterogeneity details to be revealed. Fetuin was first utilized to prove the applicability with 19 glycopeptides and corresponding five glycosylation sites identified. Subsequent experiments tested its utility for human plasma N-glycoproteins. Large-scale studies explored N-glycoproteomics in rat carotid arteries over the course of restenosis progression to investigate the potential role of glycosylation. The integrated fragmentation scheme provides a powerful tool for the analysis of intact N-glycopeptides and N-glycoproteomics. We also anticipate this approach can be readily applied to large-scale O-glycoproteome characterization. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Lectin affinity chromatography (LAC) can provide a valuable front-end enrichment strategy for the study of N-glycoproteins and has been used to characterize a broad range eukaryotic N-glycoproteomes. Moreover, studies with mammalian systems have suggested that the use of multiple lectins with different affinities can be particularly effective. A multi-lectin approach has also been reported to provide a significant benefit for the analysis of plant N-glycoproteins; however, it has yet to be determined whether certain lectins, or combinations of lectins are optimal for plant N-glycoproteome profiling; or whether specific lectins show preferential association with particular N-glycosylation sites or N-glycan structures. We describe here a comparative study of three mannose-binding lectins, concanavalin A, snowdrop lectin, and lentil lectin, to profile the N-glycoproteome of mature green stage tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit pericarp. Through coupling lectin affinity chromatography with a shotgun proteomics strategy, we identified 448 putative N-glycoproteins, whereas a parallel lectin affinity chromatography plus hydrophilic interaction chromatography analysis revealed 318 putative N-glycosylation sites on 230 N-glycoproteins, of which 100 overlapped with the shotgun analysis, as well as 17 N-glycan structures. The use of multiple lectins substantially increased N-glycoproteome coverage and although there were no discernible differences in the structures of N-glycans, or the charge, isoelectric point (pI) or hydrophobicity of the glycopeptides that differentially bound to each lectin, differences were observed in the amino acid frequency at the -1 and +1 subsites of the N-glycosylation sites. We also demonstrated an alternative and complementary in planta recombinant expression strategy, followed by affinity MS analysis, to identify the putative N-glycan structures of glycoproteins whose abundance is too low to be readily determined by a shotgun approach, and/or combined with deglycosylation for predicted deamidated sites, using a xyloglucan-specific endoglucanase inhibitor protein as an example.
Project description:Chemical tools have accelerated progress in glycoscience, reducing experimental barriers to studying protein glycosylation, the most widespread and complex form of posttranslational modification. For example, chemical glycoproteomics technologies have enabled the identification of specific glycosylation sites and glycan structures that modulate protein function in a number of biological processes. This field is now entering a stage of logarithmic growth, during which chemical innovations combined with mass spectrometry advances could make it possible to fully characterize the human glycoproteome. In this review, we describe the important role that chemical glycoproteomics methods are playing in such efforts. We summarize developments in four key areas: enrichment of glycoproteins and glycopeptides from complex mixtures, emphasizing methods that exploit unique chemical properties of glycans or introduce unnatural functional groups through metabolic labeling and chemoenzymatic tagging; identification of sites of protein glycosylation; targeted glycoproteomics; and functional glycoproteomics, with a focus on probing interactions between glycoproteins and glycan-binding proteins. Our goal with this survey is to provide a foundation on which continued technological advancements can be made to promote further explorations of protein glycosylation.
Project description:Glycosylation is one of the most common protein modifications, and it is essential for mammalian cell survival. It often determines protein folding and trafficking, and regulates nearly every extracellular activity, including cell-cell communication and cell-matrix interactions. Aberrant protein glycosylation events are hallmarks of human diseases such as cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, glycoproteins can serve as effective biomarkers for disease detection and targets for drug and vaccine development. Despite the importance of glycoproteins, global analysis of protein glycosylation (either glycoproteins or glycans) in complex biological samples has been a daunting task, and here we mainly focus on glycoprotein analysis using mass spectrometry (MS)-based bottom-up proteomics. Although the emergence of MS-based proteomics has provided a great opportunity to analyze glycoproteins globally, the low abundance of many glycoproteins and the heterogeneity of glycans dramatically increase the technical difficulties. In order to overcome these obstacles, considerable progress has been made in recent years, which has contributed to comprehensive analysis of glycoproteins. In our lab, we developed effective MS-based chemical and enzymatic methods to (1) globally analyze glycoproteins in complex biological samples, (2) target glycoproteins specifically on the surface of human cells, (3) systematically quantify glycoprotein and surface glycoprotein dynamics (the abundance changes of glycoproteins as a function of time), and (4) selectively characterize glycoproteins with a particular and important glycan. In this Account, we first briefly describe the glycopeptide/protein enrichment methods in the literature and then discuss the developments of boronic acid-based methods to enrich glycopeptides for large-scale analysis of protein glycosylation. Boronic acids can form reversible covalent interactions with sugars, but the low binding affinity of normal boronic acid-based methods prevents us from capturing glycoproteins with low abundance, which often contain more valuable information. We enhanced the boronic acid-glycan interactions by using a boronic acid derivative (benzoboroxole) and conjugating it onto a dendrimer to allow synergistic interactions between the boronic acid derivative and sugars. The new method is capable of globally analyzing protein glycosylation with site and glycan structure information, especially for those with low abundance. In the next part, we discuss the combination of metabolic labeling, click chemistry and enzymatic reactions, and MS-based proteomics as a very powerful approach for surface glycoproteome analysis in human cells. The methods enable us to specifically identify surface glycoproteins and to quantify their abundance changes and dynamics together with quantitative proteomics. The last section of this Account focuses on chemical and enzymatic methods to study glycoproteins containing a particular and important glycan (the Tn antigen, i.e., O-GalNAc). Although not comprehensive, this Account provides an overview of chemical and enzymatic methods to characterize protein glycosylation in combination with MS-based proteomics. These methods will have extensive applications in the fields of biology and biomedicine, which will lead to a better understanding of glycoprotein functions and the molecular mechanisms of diseases. Eventually, glycoproteins will be identified as effective biomarkers for disease detection and drug targets for disease treatment.
Project description:Large-scale identification of N-linked intact glycopeptides by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in human serum is challenging because of the wide dynamic range of serum protein abundances, the lack of a complete serum N-glycan database and the existence of proteoforms. In this regard, a spectral library search method was presented for the identification of N-linked intact glycopeptides from N-linked glycoproteins in human serum with target-decoy and motif-specific false discovery rate (FDR) control. Serum proteins were firstly separated into low-abundance and high-abundance proteins by acetonitrile (ACN) precipitation. After digestion, the N-linked intact glycopeptides were enriched by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and a portion of the enriched N-linked intact glycopeptides were processed by Peptide-N-Glycosidase F (PNGase F) to generate N-linked deglycopeptides. Both N-linked intact glycopeptides and deglycopeptides were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. From N-linked deglycopeptides data sets, 764 N-linked glycoproteins, 1699 N-linked glycosites and 3328 unique N-linked deglycopeptides were identified. Four types of N-linked glycosylation motifs (NXS/T/C/V, X?P) were used to recognize the N-linked deglycopeptides. The spectra of these N-linked deglycopeptides were utilized for N-linked deglycopeptides library construction and identification of N-linked intact glycopeptides. A database containing 739 N-glycan masses was constructed and utilized during spectral library search for the identification of N-linked intact glycopeptides. In total, 526 N-linked glycoproteins, 1036 N-linked glycosites, 22,677 N-linked intact glycopeptides and 738 N-glycan masses were identified under 1% FDR, representing the most in-depth serum N-glycoproteome identified by LC-MS/MS at N-linked intact glycopeptide level.
Project description:Using prostatic fluids rich in glycoproteins like prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), the goal of this study was to identify the structural types and relative abundance of glycans associated with prostate cancer status for subsequent use in emerging MS-based glycopeptide analysis platforms.A series of pooled samples of expressed prostatic secretions (EPS) and exosomes reflecting different stages of prostate cancer disease were used for N-linked glycan profiling by three complementary methods, MALDI-TOF profiling, normal-phase HPLC separation, and triple quadropole MS analysis of PAP glycopeptides.Glycan profiling of N-linked glycans from different EPS fluids indicated a global decrease in larger branched tri- and tetra-antennary glycans. Differential exoglycosidase treatments indicated a substantial increase in bisecting N-acetylglucosamines correlated with disease severity. A triple quadrupole MS analysis of the N-linked glycopeptides sites from PAP in aggressive prostate cancer pools was done to cross-reference with the glycan profiling data.Changes in glycosylation as detected in EPS fluids reflect the clinical status of prostate cancer. Defining these molecular signatures at the glycopeptide level in individual samples could improve current approaches of diagnosis and prognosis.
Project description:Site-specific glycosylation analysis is key to investigate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins, e.g. in the context of antigenicity and disease progression. The analysis, though, is quite challenging and time consuming, in particular for O-glycosylated proteins. In consequence, despite their clinical and biopharmaceutical importance, many human blood plasma glycoproteins have not been characterized comprehensively with respect to their O-glycosylation. Here, we report on the site-specific O-glycosylation analysis of human blood plasma glycoproteins. To this end pooled human blood plasma of healthy donors was proteolytically digested using a broad-specific enzyme (Proteinase K), followed by a precipitation step, as well as a glycopeptide enrichment and fractionation step via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, the latter being optimized for intact O-glycopeptides carrying short mucin-type core-1 and -2 O-glycans, which represent the vast majority of O-glycans on human blood plasma proteins. Enriched O-glycopeptide fractions were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled online to an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in positive-ion mode. Peptide identity and glycan composition were derived from low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragment spectra acquired in multistage mode. To pinpoint the O-glycosylation sites glycopeptides were fragmented using electron transfer dissociation. Spectra were annotated by database searches as well as manually. Overall, 31 O-glycosylation sites and regions belonging to 22 proteins were identified, the majority being acute-phase proteins. Strikingly, also 11 novel O-glycosylation sites and regions were identified. In total 23 O-glycosylation sites could be pinpointed. Interestingly, the use of Proteinase K proved to be particularly beneficial in this context. The identified O-glycan compositions most probably correspond to mono- and disialylated core-1 mucin-type O-glycans (T-antigen). The developed workflow allows the identification and characterization of the major population of the human blood plasma O-glycoproteome and our results provide new insights, which can help to unravel structure-function relationships. The data were deposited to ProteomeXchange PXD003270.
Project description:Protein glycosylation can have an enormous variety of biological consequences, reflecting the molecular diversity encoded in glycan structures. This same structural diversity has imposed major challenges on the development of methods to study the intact glycoproteome. We recently introduced a method termed isotope-targeted glycoproteomics (IsoTaG), which utilizes isotope recoding to characterize azidosugar-labeled glycopeptides bearing fully intact glycans. Here, we describe the broad application of the method to analyze glycoproteomes from a collection of tissue-diverse cell lines. The effort was enabled by a new high-fidelity pattern-searching and glycopeptide validation algorithm termed IsoStamp v2.0, as well as by novel stable isotope probes. Application of the IsoTaG platform to 15 cell lines metabolically labeled with Ac4GalNAz or Ac4ManNAz revealed 1375 N- and 2159 O-glycopeptides, variously modified with 74 discrete glycan structures. Glycopeptide-bound glycans observed by IsoTaG were found to be comparable to released N-glycans identified by permethylation analysis. IsoTaG is therefore positioned to enhance structural understanding of the glycoproteome.
Project description:N-glycosylation has a great impact on glycoprotein structure, conformation, stability, solubility, immunogenicity and enzyme activity. Structural characterization of N-glycoproteome has been challenging but can provide insights into the extent of protein folding and surface topology. We describe a highly sensitive proteomics method for large-scale identification and quantification of glycoproteins in Arabidopsis through (15) N-metabolic labeling, selective enrichment of glycopeptides, data-dependent MS/MS analysis and automated database searching. In-house databases of Arabidopsis glycoproteins and glycopeptides containing Asn-X-Ser/Thr/Cys motifs were constructed by reducing 20% and 90% of the public database size, respectively, to enable a rapid analysis of large datasets for comprehensive identification and quantification of glycoproteins and heterogeneous N-glycans in a complex mixture. Proteome-wide analysis identified c. 100 stress-related N-glycoproteins, of which the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins were examined to be up-regulated. Quantitative measurements provided a molecular signature specific to glycoproteins for determining the degree of plant stress at low temperature. Structural N-glycoproteomics following time-course cold treatments revealed the stress-responsive degradation of high-mannose type N-glycans in ER in response to chilling stress, which may aid in elucidating the cellular mechanisms of protein relocation, transport, trafficking, misfolding and degradation under stress conditions.