Preprocessing significantly improves the peptide/protein identification sensitivity of high-resolution isobarically labeled tandem mass spectrometry data.
ABSTRACT: Isobaric labeling techniques coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry have been widely employed in proteomic workflows requiring relative quantification. For each high-resolution tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS), isobaric labeling techniques can be used not only to quantify the peptide from different samples by reporter ions, but also to identify the peptide it is derived from. Because the ions related to isobaric labeling may act as noise in database searching, the MS/MS spectrum should be preprocessed before peptide or protein identification. In this article, we demonstrate that there are a lot of high-frequency, high-abundance isobaric related ions in the MS/MS spectrum, and removing isobaric related ions combined with deisotoping and deconvolution in MS/MS preprocessing procedures significantly improves the peptide/protein identification sensitivity. The user-friendly software package TurboRaw2MGF (v2.0) has been implemented for converting raw TIC data files to mascot generic format files and can be downloaded for free from https://github.com/shengqh/RCPA.Tools/releases as part of the software suite ProteomicsTools. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000994.
Project description:Isobaric labelling technique coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry has been widely employed in the proteomics workflows requiring relative quantification. For each high resolution tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS), it can be used not only to quantify the peptide from different samples by reporter ions，but also to identify the peptide it derived from. Since isobaric related ions act as noises in database searching, the MS/MS spectrum should be preprocessed before peptide/protein identification. In this paper, we demonstrated that there were a lot of high frequency, high abundance isobaric related ions in MS/MS spectrum. By combining removing isobaric related ions with deisotoping and deconvolution in MS/MS preprocessing procedure, the peptide/protein identification sensitivity improved significantly. A user-friendly software TurboRaw2MGF (v2.0) has been implemented for converting raw TIC data files to mascot generic format files which can be downloaded for free from https://github.com/shengqh/RCPA.Tools/releases as part of the software suite ProteomicsTools.
Project description:Here we present the Coon OMSSA Proteomic Analysis Software Suite (COMPASS): a free and open-source software pipeline for high-throughput analysis of proteomics data, designed around the Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm. We detail a synergistic set of tools for protein database generation, spectral reduction, peptide false discovery rate analysis, peptide quantitation via isobaric labeling, protein parsimony and protein false discovery rate analysis, and protein quantitation. We strive for maximum ease of use, utilizing graphical user interfaces and working with data files in the original instrument vendor format. Results are stored in plain text comma-separated value files, which are easy to view and manipulate with a text editor or spreadsheet program. We illustrate the operation and efficacy of COMPASS through the use of two LC-MS/MS data sets. The first is a data set of a highly annotated mixture of standard proteins and manually validated contaminants that exhibits the identification workflow. The second is a data set of yeast peptides, labeled with isobaric stable isotope tags and mixed in known ratios, to demonstrate the quantitative workflow. For these two data sets, COMPASS performs equivalently or better than the current de facto standard, the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline.
Project description:Isobaric labeling quantification by mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a powerful technology for multiplexed large-scale protein profiling, but measurement accuracy in complex mixtures is confounded by the interference from coisolated ions, resulting in ratio compression. Here we report that the ratio compression can be essentially resolved by the combination of pre-MS peptide fractionation, MS2-based interference detection, and post-MS computational interference correction. To recapitulate the complexity of biological samples, we pooled tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeled Escherichia coli peptides at 1:3:10 ratios and added in ?20-fold more rat peptides as background, followed by the analysis of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. Systematic investigation shows that quantitative interference was impacted by LC fractionation depth, MS isolation window, and peptide loading amount. Exhaustive fractionation (320 × 4 h) can nearly eliminate the interference and achieve results comparable to the MS3-based method. Importantly, the interference in MS2 scans can be estimated by the intensity of contaminated y1 product ions, and we thus developed an algorithm to correct reporter ion ratios of tryptic peptides. Our data indicate that intermediate fractionation (40 × 2 h) and y1 ion-based correction allow accurate and deep TMT profiling of more than 10?000 proteins, which represents a straightforward and affordable strategy in isobaric labeling proteomics.
Project description:Improving analytical precision is a major goal in quantitative differential proteomics as high precision ensures low numbers of outliers, a source of false positives with regard to quantification. In addition, higher precision increases statistical power, i.e., the probability to detect significant differences. With chemical labeling using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) or tandem mass tag (TMT) reagents, quantification is based on the extraction of reporter ions from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra. We compared the performance of two versions of the LTQ Orbitrap higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) cell with and without an axial electric field with regard to reporter ion quantification. The HCD cell with the axial electric field was designed to push fragment ions into the C-trap and this version is mounted in current Orbitrap XL ETD and Orbitrap Velos instruments. Our goal was to evaluate whether the purported improvement in ion transmission had a measurable impact on the precision of MS/MS based quantification using peptide labeling with isobaric tags. We show that the axial electric field led to an increased percentage of HCD spectra in which the complete set of reporter ions was detected and, even more important, to a reduction in overall variance, i.e., improved analytical precision of the acquired data. Notably, adequate precision of HCD-based quantification was maintained even for low precursor ion intensities of a complex biological sample. These findings may help researchers in their design of quantitative proteomics studies using isobaric tags and establish HCD-based quantification on the LTQ Orbitrap as a highly precise approach in quantitative proteomics.
Project description:Isotope labeling combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) provides a robust platform for analyzing differential protein expression in proteomics research. We present a web service, called MaXIC-Q Web (http://ms.iis.sinica.edu.tw/MaXIC-Q_Web/), for quantitation analysis of large-scale datasets generated from proteomics experiments using various stable isotope-labeling techniques, e.g. SILAC, ICAT and user-developed labeling methods. It accepts spectral files in the standard mzXML format and search results from SEQUEST, Mascot and ProteinProphet as input. Furthermore, MaXIC-Q Web uses statistical and computational methods to construct two kinds of elution profiles for each ion, namely, PIMS (projected ion mass spectrum) and XIC (extracted ion chromatogram) from MS data. Toward accurate quantitation, a stringent validation procedure is performed on PIMSs to filter out peptide ions interfered with co-eluting peptides or noise. The areas of XICs determine ion abundances, which are used to calculate peptide and protein ratios. Since MaXIC-Q Web adopts stringent validation on spectral data, it achieves high accuracy so that manual validation effort can be substantially reduced. Furthermore, it provides various visualization diagrams and comprehensive quantitation reports so that users can conveniently inspect quantitation results. In summary, MaXIC-Q Web is a user-friendly, interactive, robust, generic web service for quantitation based on ICAT and SILAC labeling techniques.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) has become an accessible tool for whole proteome quantitation with the ability to characterize protein expression across thousands of proteins within a single experiment. A subset of MS quantification methods (e.g., SILAC and label-free) monitor the relative intensity of intact peptides, where thousands of measurements can be made from a single mass spectrum. An alternative approach, isobaric labeling, enables precise quantification of multiple samples simultaneously through unique and sample specific mass reporter ions. Consequently, in a single scan, the quantitative signal comes from a limited number of spectral features (?11). The signal observed for these features is constrained by automatic gain control, forcing codependence of concurrent signals. The study of constrained outcomes primarily belongs to the field of compositional data analysis. We show experimentally that isobaric tag proteomics data are inherently compositional and highlight the implications for data analysis and interpretation. We present a new statistical model and accompanying software that improves estimation accuracy and the ability to detect changes in protein abundance. Finally, we demonstrate a unique compositional effect on proteins with infinite changes. We conclude that many infinite changes will appear small and that the magnitude of these estimates is highly dependent on experimental design.
Project description:Mass spectrometry (MS) is an essential analytical tool in proteomics. Many existing algorithms for peptide detection are based on isotope template matching and usually work at different charge states separately, making them ineffective to detect overlapping peptides and low abundance peptides.We present BPDA, a Bayesian approach for peptide detection in data produced by MS instruments with high enough resolution to baseline-resolve isotopic peaks, such as MALDI-TOF and LC-MS. We model the spectra as a mixture of candidate peptide signals, and the model is parameterized by MS physical properties. BPDA is based on a rigorous statistical framework and avoids problems, such as voting and ad-hoc thresholding, generally encountered in algorithms based on template matching. It systematically evaluates all possible combinations of possible peptide candidates to interpret a given spectrum, and iteratively finds the best fitting peptide signal in order to minimize the mean squared error of the inferred spectrum to the observed spectrum. In contrast to previous detection methods, BPDA performs deisotoping and deconvolution of mass spectra simultaneously, which enables better identification of weak peptide signals and produces higher sensitivities and more robust results. Unlike template-matching algorithms, BPDA can handle complex data where features overlap. Our experimental results indicate that BPDA performs well on simulated data and real MS data sets, for various resolutions and signal to noise ratios, and compares very favorably with commonly used commercial and open-source software, such as flexAnalysis, OpenMS, and Decon2LS, according to sensitivity and detection accuracy.Unlike previous detection methods, which only employ isotopic distributions and work at each single charge state alone, BPDA takes into account the charge state distribution as well, thus lending information to better identify weak peptide signals and produce more robust results. The proposed approach is based on a rigorous statistical framework, which avoids problems generally encountered in algorithms based on template matching. Our experiments indicate that BPDA performs well on both simulated data and real data, and compares very favorably with commonly used commercial and open-source software. The BPDA software can be downloaded from http://gsp.tamu.edu/Publications/supplementary/sun10a/bpda.
Project description:Isobaric labeling has become a widespread tool for quantitative proteomic studies. Here, we report the development and evaluation of several dimethylated amino acids as novel isobaric tags for quantitative proteomics. Four-plex dimethylated alanine (DiAla), valine (DiVal), and leucine (DiLeu) have been synthesized, sharing common features of peptide tagging and reporter ion production. DiAla and DiLeu are shown to achieve complete labeling. These two tags' impacts on peptide fragmentation and quantitation are further evaluated using HEK293 cell lysate. DiAla labeling generates more abundant backbone fragmentation whereas DiLeu labeling produces more intense reporter ions. Nonetheless, both tags enable accurate quantitative analysis of HEK293 cell proteomes. DiAla and DiLeu tags are then applied to study the TGF-?/Smad3 pathway with four differentially treated mouse vascular smooth muscle (MOVAS) cells. Our MS data reveal proteome-wide changes of AdSmad3 as compared to the GFP control, consistent with previous findings of causing smooth muscle cell (SMC) dedifferentiation.1 Additionally, the other two novel mutations on the hub protein Smad3, Y226A, and D408H, show compromised TGF-?/Smad3-dependent gene transcription and reversed phenotypic switch. These results are further corroborated with Western blotting and demonstrate that the novel DiAla and DiLeu isobaric tagging reagents provide useful tools for multiplex quantitative proteomics.
Project description:Isobaric tandem mass tags are an attractive alternative to mass difference tags and label-free approaches for quantitative proteomics due to the high degree of multiplexing that can be performed with their implementation. A drawback of tandem mass tags are that the co-isolation and co-fragmentation of labeled peptide precursors can result in chimeric tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra that can underestimate the fold-change expression of each peptide. Ion mobility (IM) separations coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) instruments have the potential to mitigate MS/MS spectra chimeracy since IM-MS has the ability to separate ions based on charge, m/z, and collision cross section (CCS).Two complex protein mixtures, labeled with DiLeu isobaric tandem mass tags in opposite ratios, were mixed together and analyzed by data-dependent LC/IM-MS/MS. The accuracy of reporters from interfering pairs was compared with and without IM separation.IM separation was able to mitigate isobaric interference from differentially charged interfering ion pairs, as well as pairs of the same charge. Of the eight example precursors shown, only one had reporters that remained compressed below the significance threshold after IM separation.The results of this investigation demonstrate proof-of-principle that IM separation of tagged precursors prior to MS/MS fragmentation can help mitigate quantitative inaccuracies caused by isobaric interference. Future improvements of the method would include software for automated correction and use of higher resolution IM instrumentations.
Project description:Comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of small populations of cells remains a daunting task due primarily to the insufficient MS signal intensity from low concentrations of enriched phosphopeptides. Isobaric labeling has a unique multiplexing feature where the "total" peptide signal from all channels (or samples) triggers MS/MS fragmentation for peptide identification, while the reporter ions provide quantitative information. In light of this feature, we tested the concept of using a "boosting" sample (e.g., a biological sample mimicking the study samples but available in a much larger quantity) in multiplexed analysis to enable sensitive and comprehensive quantitative phosphoproteomic measurements with <100?000 cells. This simple boosting to amplify signal with isobaric labeling (BASIL) strategy increased the overall number of quantifiable phosphorylation sites more than 4-fold. Good reproducibility in quantification was demonstrated with a median CV of 15.3% and Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.95 from biological replicates. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrated the ability of BASIL to distinguish acute myeloid leukemia cells based on the phosphoproteome data. Moreover, in a pilot application, this strategy enabled quantitative analysis of over 20?000 phosphorylation sites from human pancreatic islets treated with interleukin-1? and interferon-?. Together, this signal boosting strategy provides an attractive solution for comprehensive and quantitative phosphoproteome profiling of relatively small populations of cells where traditional phosphoproteomic workflows lack sufficient sensitivity.