Comparison of antiviral activity of lambda-interferons against HIV replication in macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Lambda-interferons (IFN-?s) have been demonstrated as having the ability to inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. However, specific differences in signaling transduction and anti-HIV activity in macrophages between different IFN-?s are unclear. Here, we showed that although all 3 members of (IFN-?1, ?2, and ?3) IFN-? family induced the expression of a number of genes of janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway in monocyte-derived macrophages, IFN-?1 or IFN-?3 induced higher levels of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression than did IFN-?2. In addition, IFN-?1 or IFN-?3 induced higher levels of several pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) than did IFN-?2. Incubation of IFN-?s with HIV-infected macrophages showed that IFN-?1 or IFN-?3 is more potent in anti-HIV activity than IFN-?2. We also showed that IFN-? treatment before HIV infection was more potent in HIV inhibition than that after HIV infection. Further investigations showed that the inductions of ISGs and PPRs expression by IFN-?s were largely compromised by HIV infection. These findings provide further experimental evidence that IFN-?s have therapeutic potential in treatment of HIV infection.
Project description:Immediately after viral infections, innate immune sensors recognize viruses and lead to the production of type I interferon (IFN-I). IFN-I upregulates various genes, referred to as IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), and some ISGs inhibit viral replication. HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, mainly infects CD4+ T cells and macrophages and triggers the IFN-I-mediated signaling cascade. Certain ISGs are subsequently upregulated by IFN-I stimulus and potently suppress HIV-1 replication. HIV-1 cell biology has shed light on the molecular understanding of the IFN-I production triggered by HIV-1 infection and the antiviral roles of ISGs. However, the differences in the gene expression patterns following IFN-I stimulus among HIV-1 target cell types are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesize that the expression profiles of ISGs are different among HIV-1 target cells and address this question by utilizing public transcriptome datasets and bioinformatic techniques. We focus on three cell types intrinsically targeted by HIV-1, including CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and macrophages, and comprehensively compare the expression patterns of ISGs among these cell types. Furthermore, we use the datasets of the differentially expressed genes by HIV-1 infection and the evolutionarily conserved ISGs in mammals and perform comparative transcriptome analyses. We defined 104 'common ISGs' that were upregulated by IFN-I stimulus in CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and macrophages. The ISG expression patterns were different among these three cell types, and intriguingly, both the numbers and the magnitudes of upregulated ISGs by IFN-I stimulus were greatest in macrophages. We also found that the upregulated genes by HIV-1 infection included most 'common ISGs.' Moreover, we determined that the 'common ISGs,' particularly those with antiviral activity, were evolutionarily conserved in mammals. To our knowledge, this study is the first investigation to comprehensively describe (i) the different expression patterns of ISGs among HIV-1 target cells, (ii) the overlap in the genes modulated by IFN-I stimulus and HIV-1 infection and (iii) the evolutionary conservation in mammals of the antiviral ISGs that are expressed in HIV-1 target cells. Our results will be useful for deeply understanding the relationship of the effect of IFN-I and the modulated gene expression by HIV-1 infection.
Project description:The innate immune system recognizes virus infection and evokes antiviral responses which include producing type I interferons (IFNs). The induction of IFN provides a crucial mechanism of antiviral defense by upregulating interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) that restrict viral replication. ISGs inhibit the replication of many viruses by acting at different steps of their viral cycle. Specifically, IFN treatment prior to in vitro human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection stops or significantly delays HIV-1 production indicating that potent inhibitory factors are generated. We report that HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages decreases tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and virus-induced signaling adaptor (VISA) expression, which are both components of the IFN signaling pathway controlling viral replication. Knocking down the expression of TRAF6 in macrophages increased HIV-1 replication and augmented the expression of IRF7 but not IRF3. Suppressing VISA had no impact on viral replication. Overexpression of IRF7 resulted in enhanced viral replication while knocking down IRF7 expression in macrophages significantly reduced viral output. These findings are the first demonstration that TRAF6 can regulate HIV-1 production and furthermore that expression of IRF7 promotes HIV-1 replication.
Project description:HIV is able to outpace the innate immune response, including that mediated by interferon (IFN), to establish a productive infection. Primary macrophages, however, may be protected from HIV infection by treatment with type I IFN before virus exposure. The ability of HIV to modulate the type I IFN-mediated innate immune response when it encounters a cell that has already been exposed to IFN remains poorly defined. The optimal pretreatment time (12 h) and the most potent HIV-inhibitors (e.g., IFN-?2 and -?) were identified to investigate the ability of HIV to modulate an established type I IFN response. Gene expression at the level of the entire transcriptome was then compared between primary macrophages treated with type I IFNs, as opposed to treated with IFNs and then infected with HIV. Although HIV was not able to establish a robust infection, the virus was able to downregulate a number of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with a fold change greater than 1.5 (i.e., AXL, IFI27, IFI44, IFI44L, ISG15, OAS1, OAS3, and XAF1). The downregulation of OAS1 by the presence of HIV was confirmed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, even though HIV replication is significantly inhibited by IFN pretreatment, the virus is able to downregulate the transcription of known antiviral ISGs (e.g., IFI44, ISG15, and OAS1).
Project description:As a rich source of CD4+ T cells and macrophages, the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a major target site for HIV infection. The interplay between GI-resident macrophages and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) constitutes an important element of GI innate immunity against pathogens. In this study, we investigated whether human IECs have the ability to produce antiviral factors that can inhibit HIV infection of macrophages. We demonstrated that IECs possess functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), the activation of which resulted in induction of key interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRF3 and IRF7), IFN-?, IFN-?, and CC chemokines (MIP-1?, MIP-1?, RANTES), the ligands of HIV entry co-receptor CCR5. In addition, TLR3-activated IECs release exosomes that contained the anti-HIV factors, including IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs: ISG15, ISG56, MxB, OAS-1, GBP5, and Viperin) and HIV restriction miRNAs (miRNA-17, miRNA-20, miRNA-28, miRNA-29 family members, and miRNA-125b). Importantly, treatment of macrophages with supernatant (SN) from the activated IEC cultures inhibited HIV replication. Further studies showed that IEC SN could also induce the expression of antiviral ISGs and cellular HIV restriction factors (Tetherin and APOBEC3G/3F) in HIV-infected macrophages. These findings indicated that IECs might act as an important element in GI innate immunity against HIV infection/replication.
Project description:Ebola viruses (EBOV) can cause severe hemorrhagic disease with high case fatality rates. Currently, no vaccines or therapeutics are approved for use in humans. Ebola virus-like particles (eVLP) comprising of virus protein (VP40), glycoprotein, and nucleoprotein protect rodents and nonhuman primates from lethal EBOV infection, representing as a candidate vaccine for EBOV infection. Previous reports have shown that eVLP stimulate the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (M?s) in vitro. However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways through which eVLP induce innate immune responses remain obscure. In this study, we show that eVLP stimulate not only the expression of proinflammatory cytokines but also the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in murine bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) and M?s. Our data indicate that eVLP trigger host responses through toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway utilizing 2 distinct adaptors, MyD88 and TRIF. More interestingly, eVLP activated the IFN signaling pathway by inducing a set of potent antiviral ISGs. Last, eVLP and synthetic adjuvants, Poly I:C and CpG DNA, cooperatively increased the expression of cytokines and ISGs. Further supporting this synergy, eVLP when administered together with Poly I:C conferred mice enhanced protection against EBOV infection. These results indicate that eVLP stimulate early innate immune responses through TLR and type I IFN signaling pathways to protect the host from EBOV infection.
Project description:The interferon (IFN)-? family of type III cytokines includes the closely related interleukin (IL)-28A (IFN-?2), IL-28B (IFN-?3), and IL-29 (IFN-?1). They signal through the Janus kinases (JAK)-signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway and promote an antiviral state by the induction of expression of several interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Contrary to type I IFNs, the effect of IFN-? cytokines is largely limited to epithelial cells due to the restricted pattern of expression of their specific receptor. Several genome-wide association studies have established a strong correlation between polymorphism in the region of IL-28B gene (encoding for IFN-?3) and both spontaneous and therapeutic IFN-mediated clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the mechanism(s) underlying this enhanced viral clearance are not fully understood. IFN-?3 directly inhibits HCV replication, and in vitro studies suggest that polymorphism in the IFN-?3 and its recently identified overlapping IFN-?4 govern the pattern of ISGs induced upon HCV infection of hepatocytes. IFN-? can also be produced by dendritic cells, and apart from its antiviral action on hepatocytes, it can regulate the inflammatory response of monocytes/macrophages, thus acting at the interface between innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about the role of IFN-? cytokines in mediating and regulating the immune response during acute and chronic HCV infections.
Project description:HIV is able to outpace the innate immune response, including the response mediated by interferon (IFN), to establish a productive infection. However, monocyte derived macrophages (MDMs) may be protected from HIV infection by treatment with type I IFN before virus exposure. The ability of HIV to modulate the type I IFN-mediated innate immune response when it encounters a cell that has already been exposed to IFN was investigated. To investigate the presence of HIV on an established IFN response, MDMs were subjected to four different conditions: (1) IFN-treated only, (2) IFN-treated followed by HIV infection, (3) HIV infected only, and (4) a mock-treated and mock-infected control. Microarray gene expression analysis was performed on a total of 24 samples derived from the 4 conditions assessed at 3 time points (1, 4 and 8 days following treatment/infection) for both IFN-α2 or -ω. Initially, ISGs were identified as those that were upregulated greater than 2-fold by IFN alone (condition 1) at both Days 4 and 8. Then, the IFN-treated condition was compared to the IFN-treated followed by HIV-infection condition in order to identify those ISGs that were downregulated at least 1.5-fold by the presence of HIV at both days. Assuming that it would be counterproductive for HIV infection by itself to induce the expression of ISGs with putative anti-HIV effects, those ISGs that were upregulated greater than 2-fold in the HIV control were removed. Finally, ISGs that passed these filters and were concordant with both IFN-treatments (IFN-α2 and -ω) were identified and corresponded to the following 8 ISGs: AXL receptor tyrosine kinase (AXL), interferon-alpha inducible protein 27 (IFI27), interferon-induced protein 44 (IFI44), interferon-induced protein 44-like (IFI44L), ISG15, OAS1, OAS3 and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1). It should be noted that the IFN-α2 and -ω microarray experiments were performed in different batches but batch effects were not corrected since genes were identified by the filtering approach just described within each batch.
Project description:BACKGROUND & AIMS:Polymorphisms in the IL28B gene have been associated with clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV), indicating a role for type III interferons (IFNs) in HCV infection. Little is known about the function of type III IFNs in intrinsic antiviral innate immunity. METHODS:We used in vivo and in vitro models to characterize the role of the type III IFNs in HCV infection and analyzed gene expression in liver biopsy samples from HCV-infected chimpanzees and patients. Messenger RNA and protein expression were studied in HCV-infected hepatoma cell lines and primary human hepatocytes. RESULTS:HCV infection of primary human hepatocytes induced production of chemokines and type III IFNs, including interleukin (IL)-28, and led to expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Chimpanzees infected with HCV showed rapid induction of hepatic type III IFN, associated with up-regulation of ISGs and minimal induction of type I IFNs. In liver biopsy specimens from HCV-infected patients, hepatic expression of IL-28 correlated with levels of ISGs but not of type I IFNs. HCV infection produced extensive changes with gene expression in addition to ISGs in primary human hepatocytes. The induction of type III IFNs is regulated by IFN regulatory factor 3 and nuclear factor ?B. Type III IFNs up-regulate ISGs with a different kinetic profile than type 1 IFNs and induce a distinct set of genes, which might account for their functional differences. CONCLUSIONS:HCV infection results predominantly in induction of type III IFNs in livers of humans and chimpanzees; the level of induction correlates with hepatic levels of ISGs. These findings might account for the association among IL-28, level of ISGs, and recovery from HCV infection and provide a therapeutic strategy for patients who do not respond to IFN therapy.
Project description:Viruses manipulate the complex interferon and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) system in different ways. We have previously shown that HIV inhibits type I and III interferons in its key target cells but directly stimulates a subset of >20 ISGs in macrophages and dendritic cells, many of which are antiviral. Here, we examine the mechanism of induction of ISGs and show this occurs in two phases. The first phase was transient (0 to 24 h postinfection [hpi]), induced mainly by extracellular vesicles and one of its component proteins, HSP90?, contained within the HIV inoculum. The second, dominant, and persistent phase (>48 hpi) was induced via newly transcribed HIV RNA and sensed via RIGI, as shown by the reduction in ISG expression after the knockdown of the RIGI adaptor, MAVS, by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and the inhibition of both the initiation and elongation of HIV transcription by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) transcriptional silencing. We further define the induction pathway, showing sequential HIV RNA stimulation via Tat, RIGI, MAVS, IRF1, and IRF7, also identified by siRNA knockdown. IRF1 also plays a key role in the first phase. We also show that the ISGs IFIT1 to -3 inhibit HIV production, measured as extracellular infectious virus. All induced antiviral ISGs probably lead to restriction of HIV replication in macrophages, contributing to a persistent, noncytopathic infection, while the inhibition of interferon facilitates spread to adjacent cells. Both may influence the size of macrophage HIV reservoirs in vivo Elucidating the mechanisms of ISG induction may help in devising immunotherapeutic strategies to limit the size of these reservoirs.IMPORTANCE HIV, like other viruses, manipulates the antiviral interferon and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) system to facilitate its initial infection and establishment of viral reservoirs. HIV specifically inhibits all type I and III interferons in its target cells, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells. It also induces a subset of over 20 ISGs of differing compositions in each cell target. This occurs in two temporal phases in macrophages. Extracellular vesicles contained within the inoculum induce the first, transient phase of ISGs. Newly transcribed HIV RNA induce the second, dominant ISG phase, and here, the full induction pathway is defined. Therefore, HIV nucleic acids, which are potent inducers of interferon and ISGs, are initially concealed, and antiviral ISGs are not fully induced until replication is well established. These antiviral ISGs may contribute to persistent infection in macrophages and to the establishment of viral reservoirs in vivo.
Project description:Many viruses have developed mechanisms to evade the IFN response. Here, HIV-1 was shown to induce a distinct subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs), without detectable type I or II IFN. These ISGs all contained an IFN regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binding site in their promoters, and their expression was shown to be driven by IRF-1, indicating this subset was induced directly by viral infection by IRF-1. IRF-1 and -7 protein expression was enriched in HIV p24 antigen-positive DCs. A HIV deletion mutant with the IRF-1 binding site deleted from the long terminal repeat showed reduced growth kinetics. Early and persistent induction of IRF-1 was coupled with sequential transient up-regulation of its 2 inhibitors, IRF-8, followed by IRF-2, suggesting a mechanism for IFN inhibition. HIV-1 mutants with Vpr deleted induced IFN, showing that Vpr is inhibitory. However, HIV IFN inhibition was mediated by failure of IRF-3 activation rather than by its degradation, as in T cells. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 2 markedly induced IFN? and a broader range of ISGs to higher levels, supporting the hypothesis that HIV-1 specifically manipulates the induction of IFN and ISGs to enhance its noncytopathic replication in DCs.