Annotated differentially expressed salivary proteins of susceptible and insecticide-resistant mosquitoes of Anopheles stephensi.
ABSTRACT: Vector control is one of the major global strategies for control of malaria. However, the major obstacle for vector control is the development of multiple resistances to organochlorine, organophosphorus insecticides and pyrethroids that are currently being used in public health for spraying and in bednets. Salivary glands of vectors are the first target organ for human-vector contact during biting and parasite-vector contact prior to parasite development in the mosquito midguts. The salivary glands secrete anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory biologically active molecules to facilitate blood feeding from the host and also inadvertently inject malaria parasites into the vertebrate host. The Anopheles stephensi mosquito, an urban vector of malaria to both human and rodent species has been identified as a reference laboratory model to study mosquito-parasite interactions. In this study, we adopted a conventional proteomic approach of 2D-electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and bioinformatics to identify putative differentially expressed annotated functional salivary proteins between An. stephensi susceptible and multiresistant strains with same genetic background. Our results show 2D gel profile and MALDI-TOF comparisons that identified 31 differentially expressed putative modulated proteins in deltamethrin/DDT resistant strains of An. stephensi. Among these 15 proteins were found to be upregulated and 16 proteins were downregulated. Our studies interpret that An. stephensi (multiresistant) caused an upregulated expression of proteins and enzymes like cytochrome 450, short chain dehyrdogenase reductase, phosphodiesterase etc that may have an impact in insecticide resistance and xenobiotic detoxification. Our study elucidates a proteomic response of salivary glands differentially regulated proteins in response to insecticide resistance development which include structural, redox and regulatory enzymes of several pathways. These identified proteins may play a role in regulating mosquito biting behavior patterns and may have implications in the development of malaria parasites in resistant mosquitoes during parasite transmission.
Project description:Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis, and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE), ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers, namely, MASCOT and OMSSA algorithms, identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialotranscriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins in concept of blood feeding, biting behavior, and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.
Project description:Malaria is an important global public health challenge, and is transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes during blood feeding. Mosquito vector control is one of the most effective methods to control malaria, and population replacement with genetically engineered mosquitoes to block its transmission is expected to become a new vector control strategy. The salivary glands are an effective target tissue for the expression of molecules that kill or inactivate malaria parasites. Moreover, salivary gland cells express a large number of molecules that facilitate blood feeding and parasite transmission to hosts. In the present study, we adapted a functional deficiency system in specific tissues by inducing cell death using the mouse Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) to the Asian malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. We applied this technique to salivary gland cells, and produced a transgenic strain containing extremely low amounts of saliva. Although probing times for feeding on mice were longer in transgenic mosquitoes than in wild-type mosquitoes, transgenic mosquitoes still successfully ingested blood. Transgenic mosquitoes also exhibited a significant reduction in oocyst formation in the midgut in a rodent malaria model. These results indicate that mosquito saliva plays an important role in malaria infection in the midgut of anopheline mosquitoes. The dysfunction in the salivary glands enabled the inhibition of malaria transmission from hosts to mosquito midguts. Therefore, salivary components have potential in the development of new drugs or genetically engineered mosquitoes for malaria control.
Project description:Salivary gland proteins of Anopheles mosquitoes offer attractive targets to understand interactions with sporozoites, blood feeding behavior, homeostasis and immunological evaluation of malaria vectors and parasite interactions. To date limited studies have been carried out to elucidate salivary proteins of An. stephensi salivary glands. The aim of the present study was to provide detailed analytical attributives of functional salivary gland proteins of urban malaria vector An. stephensi. A proteomic approach combining one-dimensional electrophoresis (1DE), ion trap liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and computational bioinformatic analysis was adopted to provide the first direct insight into identification and functional characterization of known salivary proteins and novel salivary proteins of An. stephensi. Computational studies by online servers namely, Mascot and OMSSA algorithms identified a total of 36 known salivary proteins and 123 novel proteins analysed by LC/MS/MS. This first report describes a baseline proteomic catalogue of 159 salivary proteins belonging to various categories of signal transduction, regulation of blood coagulation cascade, and various immune and energy pathways of An. stephensi sialo-transcriptome by mass spectrometry. Our results may serve as basis to provide a putative functional role of proteins into concept of blood feeding, biting behavior and other aspects of vector-parasite host interactions for parasite development in anopheline mosquitoes.
Project description:Adult traits of holometabolous insects are shaped by conditions experienced during larval development, which might impact interactions between adult insect hosts and parasites. However, the ecology of larval insects that vector disease remains poorly understood. Here, we used Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, to investigate whether larval conditions affect the capacity of adult mosquitoes to transmit malaria. We reared larvae in two groups; one group received a standard laboratory rearing diet, whereas the other received a reduced diet. Emerging adult females were then provided an infectious blood meal. We assessed mosquito longevity, parasite development rate and prevalence of infectious mosquitoes over time. Reduced larval food led to increased adult mortality and caused a delay in parasite development and a slowing in the rate at which parasites invaded the mosquito salivary glands, extending the time it took for mosquitoes to become infectious. Together, these effects increased transmission potential of mosquitoes in the high food regime by 260-330%. Such effects have not, to our knowledge, been shown previously for human malaria and highlight the importance of improving knowledge of larval ecology to better understand vector-borne disease transmission dynamics.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to ITN effectiveness.<h4>Methods</h4>Entomological surveys were carried out using different catching methods to identify potential malaria vector species and characterise their biting habits. The salivary glands were dissected from all female anophelines caught to identify sporozoites by microscopy.<h4>Findings</h4>Between 1995 and 2000 a total of 4,824 female anopheline mosquitoes were caught with various catching methods. A total of 916 person nights yielded 3,009 female anopheline mosquitoes between 6 pm and 6 am. Except for Anopheles annularis, which showed no apparent preference (51% outdoor biting), all major species showed a strong preference for outdoor biting; Anopheles epiroticus (79%), Anopheles subpictus (72%), Anopheles maculatus (92%), Anopheles aconitus (85%) and Anopheles vagus (72%). Most human biting occurred in the early evening with the peak biting time between 6 pm and 7 pm (35%). Overall 51% (1447/2837) of all bites recorded were between 6 pm and 8 pm. A large proportion of children were not sleeping under an ITN during peak biting times. Only one An. annularis mosquito (0.02%) had malaria sporozoites identified in the salivary glands.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Peak vector biting occurred early in the evening and mainly occurred outdoors. The limited efficacy of ITN in this area of Western Myanmar may be explained by the biting behaviour of the prevalent Anopheles mosquito vectors in this area.
Project description:The endosymbiont <i>Wolbachia w</i>AlbB induces refractoriness to <i>Plasmodium falciparum</i> in <i>Anopheles stephensi</i>, the primary mosquito vector of human malaria in the Middle East and South Asia. However, it remains unknown whether such refractoriness can be extended to other malaria species. In particular, it was reported that under very specific conditions, <i>w</i>AlbB can enhance <i>Plasmodium</i> infection in some hosts. Here, we measured the impact of <i>w</i>AlbB on the rodent malaria parasite <i>Plasmodium berghei</i> in <i>A. stephensi</i> by comparing the load of oocysts and sporozoites in midguts and salivary glands, respectively, between <i>w</i>AlbB-infected and -uninfected mosquitoes. To investigate whether <i>w</i>AlbB modulated mosquito immune defense against parasites, we compared the expression of the immune genes, which were previously reported to involve in antimalarial response, in both midguts and the remaining carcass tissues of mosquitoes. The stable association of <i>w</i>AlbB with <i>A. stephensi</i> resulted in reduction of parasites by more than half at the oocyst stage, and up to 91.8% at the sporzoite stage. The anti-<i>plasmodium</i> immune genes, including <i>TEP1</i>, <i>LRIM1</i>, Toll pathway gene <i>Rel1</i> and the effector <i>Defensin 1</i>, were induced by <i>w</i>AlbB in different mosquito body tissues. These findings suggest that immune priming is a potential cause of <i>w</i>AlbB-mediated antimalarial response in <i>A. stephensi</i>. More importantly, no evidence was found for any enhancement of <i>Plasmodium</i> infection in <i>A. stephensi</i> stably infected with <i>w</i>AlbB. We discuss these findings with possible implementations of <i>Wolbachia</i> for malaria control in disease endemic areas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malaria is the most important vector-borne disease in the world. Epidemiological and ecological studies of malaria traditionally utilize detection of Plasmodium sporozoites in whole mosquitoes or salivary glands by microscopy or serological or molecular assays. However, these methods are labor-intensive, and can over- or underestimate mosquito transmission potential. To overcome these limitations, alternative sample types have been evaluated for the study of malaria. It was recently shown that Plasmodium could be detected in saliva expectorated on honey-soaked cards by Anopheles stephensi, providing a better estimate of transmission risk. We evaluated whether excretion of Plasmodium falciparum nucleic acid by An. stephensi correlates with expectoration of parasites in saliva, thus providing an additional sample type for estimating transmission potential. Mosquitoes were exposed to infectious blood meals containing cultured gametocytes, and excreta collected at different time points post-exposure. Saliva was collected on honey-soaked filter paper cards, and salivary glands were dissected and examined microscopically for sporozoites. Excreta and saliva samples were tested by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-rtPCR). RESULTS:Plasmodium falciparum RNA was detected in mosquito excreta as early as four days after ingesting a bloodmeal containing gametocytes. Once sporogony (the development of sporozoites) occurred, P. falciparum RNA was detected concurrently in both excreta and saliva samples. In the majority of cases, no difference was observed between the Ct values obtained from matched excreta and saliva samples, suggesting that both samples provide equally sensitive results. A positive association was observed between the molecular detection of the parasites in both samples and the proportion of mosquitoes with sporozoites in their salivary glands from each container. No distinguishable parasites were observed when excreta samples were stained and microscopically analyzed. CONCLUSIONS:Mosquito saliva and excreta are easily collected and are promising for surveillance of malaria-causing parasites, especially in low transmission settings or in places where arboviruses co-circulate.
Project description:The data article reports data of the proteins expressed in female Anopheles stephensi salivary glands. Proteomic data were acquired using high-resolution mass spectrometers - Orbitrap-Velos and Orbitrap-Elite. Samples derived from adult female A. stephensi salivary glands led to the identification of 4390 proteins. Mass spectrometry data were analyzed on Proteome Discoverer (Version 2.1) platform with Sequest and Mascot search engines. The identified proteins were analyzed for their Gene Ontology annotation, interaction network and their possible roles in vector-parasite interaction. The data provided here are related to our published article "Integrating transcriptomics and proteomics data for accurate assembly and annotation of genomes" (Prasad et al., 2017) .
Project description:Malaria is caused by mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp. parasites that must infect and survive within mosquito salivary glands (SGs) prior to host transmission. Recent advances in transcriptomics and the complete genome sequencing of mosquito vectors have increased our knowledge of the SG genes and proteins involved in pathogen infection and transmission. Membrane solute carriers are key proteins involved in drug transport and are useful in the development of new interventions for transmission blocking. Herein, we applied transcriptomics analysis to compare SGs mRNA levels in Anopheles stephensi fed on non-infected and P. berghei-infected mice. The A. stephensi solute carriers prestinA and NDAE1 were up-regulated in response to infection. These molecules are predicted to interact with each other, and are reportedly involved in the maintenance of cell homeostasis. To further evaluate their functions in mosquito survival and parasite infection, these genes were knocked down by RNA interference. Knockdown of prestinA and NDAE1 resulted in reduction of the number of sporozoites in mosquito SGs. Moreover, NDAE1 knockdown strongly impacted mosquito survival, resulting in the death of half of the treated mosquitoes. Overall, our findings indicate the importance of prestinA and NDAE1 in interactions between mosquito SGs and Plasmodium, and suggest the need for further research.
Project description:Malaria transmission depends on infective stages in the mosquito salivary glands. Plasmodium sporozoites that mature in midgut oocysts must traverse the hemocoel and invade the mosquito salivary glands in a process thought to be mediated by parasite ligands. MAEBL, a homologue of the transmembrane EBP ligands essential in merozoite invasion, is expressed abundantly in midgut sporozoites. Alternative splicing generates different MAEBL isoforms and so it is unclear what form is functionally essential. To identify the MAEBL isoform required for P. falciparum (NF54) sporozoite invasion of salivary glands, we created knockout and allelic replacements each carrying CDS of a single MAEBL isoform. Only the transmembrane form of MAEBL is essential and is the first P. falciparum ligand validated as essential for invasion of Anopheles salivary glands. MAEBL is the first P. falciparum ligand experimentally determined to be essential for this important step in the life cycle where the vector becomes infectious for transmitting sporozoites to people. With an increasing emphasis on advancing vector-based transgenic methods for suppression of malaria, it is important that this type of study, using modern molecular genetic tools, is done with the agent of the human disease. Understanding what P. falciparum sporozoite ligands are critical for mosquito transmission will help validate targets for vector-based transmission-blocking strategies.