ABSTRACT: The period covered by this update can be considered as the most exciting period in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) research. It started with the identification of genetic variants that are associated with IPF in the majority of patients and continued with discovery of molecular and genetic biomarkers that predict distinct clinical presentations of patients with IPF and potential new biological mechanisms. More importantly, the period ends with the publication of two groundbreaking studies that confirmed that two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, slowed disease progression, leading to a historic approval by the FDA. In this update, we describe these key advances, their scientific and significant clinical implications, and future directions.
Project description:We assessed safety and tolerability of treatment with pirfenidone (1602-2403 mg·day-1) and nintedanib (200-300 mg·day-1) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).This 24-week, single-arm, open-label, phase IV study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02598193) enrolled patients with IPF with forced vital capacity % pred ≥50% and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide % pred ≥30%. Before initiating nintedanib, patients had received pirfenidone for ≥16 weeks and tolerated a stable dose of ≥1602 mg·day-1 for ≥28 days. The primary end-point was the proportion of patients who completed 24 weeks of combination treatment on pirfenidone (1602-2403 mg·day-1) and nintedanib (200-300 mg·day-1). Investigators recorded treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), attributing them to pirfenidone, nintedanib, both or neither.89 patients were enrolled; 73 completed 24 weeks of treatment (69 meeting the primary end-point) and 16 discontinued treatment prematurely (13 due to TEAEs). 74 patients had 418 treatment-related TEAEs, of which diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting were the most common. Two patients had serious treatment-related TEAEs.Combined pirfenidone and nintedanib use for 24 weeks was tolerated by the majority of patients with IPF and associated with a similar pattern of TEAEs expected for either treatment alone. These results encourage further study of combination treatment with pirfenidone and nintedanib in patients with IPF.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by a progressive and irreversible respiratory failure. Non-invasive markers of disease activity are essential for prognosis and evaluation of early response to anti-fibrotic treatments. OBJECTIVES:The aims of this study were to determine whether fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) lung uptake is reduced after initiation of pirfenidone or nintedanib and to assess its possible use as a prognostic factor. METHODS:[18F]-FDG PET/CT was performed in IPF patients and in a murine model of pulmonary fibrosis. PET/CTs were performed at day 8 and day 15 post-instillation of bleomycin in pirfenidone- or vehicule-treated mice. In IPF patients, PET-CT was performed before and 3?months after the initiation of pirfenidone or nintedanib. RESULTS:In bleomycin-treated mice, pirfenidone significantly reduced the [18F]-FDG uptake compared to vehicule-treated mice at day 15 (p?<?0.001), whereas no difference was observed at day 8 after bleomycin administration. In IPF patients, [18F]-FDG lung uptake before and after 3?months of treatment by nintedanib (n?=?11) or pirfenidone (n?=?14) showed no significant difference regardless the antifibrotic treatment. Moreover, no difference was noticed between patients with progressive or non-progressive disease at one year of follow up. CONCLUSIONS:Pirfenidone significantly reduces the lung [18F]-FDG uptake during the fibrotic phase in a mouse model of IPF. However, these preclinical data were not confirmed in IPF patients 3?months after the initiation of antifibrotic therapy. [18F]-FDG seems therefore not useful in clinical practice to assess the early response of IPF patients to nintedanib or pirfenidone.
Project description:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an advancing and fatal lung disease with increasing incidence and prevalence. Nintedanib and pirfenidone were approved by the FDA for the treatment of IPF in 2014 based on positive phase 3 trials, and both of these antifibrotic drugs are conditionally recommended in the 2015 ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT Clinical Practice Guideline. Although an improvement over previously suggested therapies, their capacity to reduce, but not completely arrest or improve, lung function over time presents an opportunity for novel or add-on pharmacologic agents. The purpose of this review is to deliver a brief overview of the results of phase 3/4 IPF trials with pirfenidone and nintedanib, as well as highlight encouraging results of phase 1/2 trials with novel therapies. Long-term studies indicate that pirfenidone and nintedanib are effective IPF treatments, with acceptable safety and tolerability. The combination of pirfenidone and nintedanib appear safe. Promising results have recently been made public for several phase 2 trials with novel targets, including the autotaxin-lysophosphatidic acid (ATX/LPA) pathway, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), pentraxin-2, G protein-coupled receptor agonists/antagonists, αvβ6 integrin, and galectin-3. Results of treatments directed at gastro-esophageal reflux in patients with IPF have also been published. Currently, monotherapy with pirfenidone or nintedanib is the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for IPF. Innovative therapies along with combinations of pharmacological agents hold great promise for the future.
Project description:PBI-4050 is a novel orally active small-molecule compound with demonstrated anti-fibrotic activity in several models of fibrosis, including lung fibrosis. We present results from our first clinical study of PBI-4050 in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).This 12-week open-label study explored the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of daily oral doses of 800 mg PBI-4050 alone and in combination with nintedanib or pirfenidone in patients with predominantly mild or moderate IPF. Nine patients received PBI-4050 alone, 16 patients received PBI-4050 with nintedanib and 16 patients received PBI-4050 with pirfenidone.PBI-4050 alone or in combination with nintedanib or pirfenidone was well tolerated. Pharmacokinetic profiles for PBI-4050 were similar in the PBI-4050 alone and PBI-4050+nintedanib groups but reduced in the PBI-4050+pirfenidone group, suggesting a drug-drug interaction. There were no significant changes in forced vital capacity (FVC), either in % predicted or mL, from baseline to week 12 for PBI-4050 alone or PBI-4050+nintedanib. In contrast, a statistically significant reduction (p<0.024) in FVC % pred was seen for PBI-4050+pirfenidone after 12 weeks.There were no safety concerns with PBI-4050 alone or in combination with nintedanib or pirfenidone in IPF patients. The stability of FVC between baseline and week 12 looked encouraging for PBI-4050 alone and in combination with nintedanib.
Project description:International guidelines recommend nintedanib (OFEV®) as an option for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).The objective of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of nintedanib versus pirfenidone, N-acetylcysteine and best supportive care (BSC) for the treatment of IPF from a UK payer's perspective.A Markov model was designed to capture the changes in the condition of adults with IPF. Efficacy outcomes included mortality, lung function decline and acute exacerbations. Treatment safety (serious adverse events) and tolerability (overall discontinuation) were also considered. The baseline risk of these events was derived from patient-level data from the placebo arms of nintedanib clinical trials (TOMORROW, INPULSIS-1, INPULSIS-2). A network meta-analysis (NMA) was conducted to estimate the relative effectiveness of the comparator treatments. Quality of life and healthcare resource use data from the clinical trials were also incorporated in the economic model.Nintedanib showed statistically significant differences against placebo on acute exacerbation events avoided and lung function decline. In the cost-effectiveness analysis, the results were split between two treatments with relative low costs and modest effectiveness (BSC and N-acetylcysteine) and two that showed improved effectiveness (lung function) and higher costs (nintedanib and pirfenidone). All comparators were assumed to have similar projected survival and the difference in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) was driven by the acute exacerbations and lung function estimates. In the base-case deterministic pairwise comparison with pirfenidone, nintedanib was found to have fewer acute exacerbations and resulted in less costs and more QALYs gained.Compared with BSC (placebo), nintedanib and pirfenidone were the only treatments to show statistical significance in the efficacy parameters. We found substantial uncertainty in the overall cost-effectiveness results between nintedanib and pirfenidone. N-Acetylcysteine was largely similar to BSC but with a worse survival profile. INPULSIS-1 and INPULSIS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01335464 and NCT01335477.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Nintedanib, a tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, may be associated with increased bleeding risk. Thus, patients with an inherited predisposition to bleeding, or those receiving therapeutic doses of anticoagulants or high-dose antiplatelet therapy, have been excluded from clinical trials of nintedanib in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to examine real-world bleeding events in patients with IPF treated with antifibrotics, including those receiving anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet therapy. METHODS:The European MultiPartner IPF Registry (EMPIRE) enrolled 2794 patients with IPF: group A (1828: no anticoagulant or antiplatelet treatment), group B (227: anticoagulant treatment), group C (659: antiplatelet treatment), and group D (80: anticoagulant and antiplatelet treatment). Overall, 673 (24.1%) received nintedanib and 933 (33.4%) received pirfenidone. Bleeding events and their relationship to antifibrotic and anticoagulation treatment were characterized. RESULTS:Group A patients, versus those in groups B, C, and D, were typically younger and generally had the lowest comorbidity rates. A higher proportion of patients in groups A and C, versus group B, received nintedanib. Pirfenidone, most common in group D, was more evenly balanced across groups. In patients with reported bleeding events, seven of eight received nintedanib (groups A, C, and D). Bleeding incidence was 3.0, 0, 1.3, and 18.1 per 10,000 patient-years (groups A, B, C, and D, respectively). CONCLUSION:Real-world data from EMPIRE showed that patients on anticoagulant medications received nintedanib less frequently, perhaps based on its mechanism of action. Overall, bleeding incidence was low (0.29%: nintedanib 0.25%; pirfenidone 0.04%) and irrespective of anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy received (P?=?0.072).
Project description:Background: Clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) currently recommend pirfenidone and nintedanib. However, there is a lack of evidence from head-to-head comparisons. Objectives: To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis (NMA) to access the efficacy and tolerability of two new treatments for IPF, pirfenidone and nintedanib. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) selection (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase), data extraction, risk of bias analysis, and GRADE assessment were carried out by two authors separately. Direct estimates were calculated using standard pairwise meta-analysis. A Bayesian mixed treatment comparison approach for NMA estimates, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), was used to compare the treatments, calculating odds ratios (OR) and number needed to treat (NNTB) or harm (NNTH). Results: The NMA on 10 randomized controlled trials showed that each drug had a positive effect on percentage of forced vital capacity (FVC) decline ≥ 10% (pirfenidone OR = 0.54 [95% CI = 0.37-0.80], NNTB = 9 [95% CI = 7-22]; nintedanib OR = 0.59 [95% CI = 0.41-0.84], NNTB = 9 [95% CI = 6-23]), but no significant differences were noted when comparing pirfenidone and nintedanib with respect to acute exacerbations, mortality, and serious adverse events (FVC decline OR = 0.91 [95% CI = 0.45-2.03]) or dropouts (OR = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.33-1.27]). Nintedanib showed an effect on dropouts, OR = 1.61 (1.13-2.28) and NNTH = 14 (8-61). Conclusions: Based on RCTs of 12 month duration in patients with IPF, a positive effect on FVC decline was noted for both treatments and on dropouts for nintedanib, but no significant differences were noted between treatments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Two antifibrotic drugs, nintedanib and pirfenidone, are available for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Although efficacy and adverse events have been well studied, little is known about patient experiences with these drugs. We aimed to systematically and quantitatively evaluate patient expectations, experiences, and satisfaction with nintedanib and pirfenidone. Furthermore, we assessed which factors were associated with overall patient satisfaction with medication. METHODS:Outpatients with IPF prospectively completed the Patient Experiences and Satisfaction with Medication (PESaM) questionnaire before start, and after three and 6 months of antifibrotic treatment, as part of a randomized eHealth trial (NCT03420235). The PESaM questionnaire consists of an expectation module, a validated generic module evaluating patient experiences and satisfaction concerning the effectiveness, side-effects, and ease of use of a medication, and a disease-specific module about IPF. Satisfaction was scored on a scale from -?5 (very dissatisfied) to +?5 (very satisfied). RESULTS:In total, 90 patients were included, of whom 43% used nintedanib and 57% pirfenidone. After 6 months, the mean overall score for satisfaction with medication was 2.1 (SD 1.9). No differences were found in experiences and satisfaction with medication, and the number and severity of side-effects between nintedanib and pirfenidone. Perceived effectiveness of medication was rated as significantly more important than side-effects and ease of use (p?=?0.001). Expectations of patients regarding effectiveness were higher than experiences after 6 months. Self-reported experience with effectiveness was the main factor associated with overall medication satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS:Patient experiences and satisfaction with antifibrotic treatment were fairly positive, and similar for nintedanib and pirfenidone. Systematic evaluation of patient expectations, experiences, and satisfaction with medication could enhance shared-decision making and guide drug treatment decisions in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03420235 .
Project description:BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and fibrosing lung disease with poor prognosis. Pirfenidone and nintedanib are anti-fibrotic drugs used for patients with IPF. These drugs reduce the rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC). Serum surfactant protein (SP)-A, SP-D, and Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) are monitoring and prognostic biomarkers in patients with IPF; however, their relationship with the therapeutic outcomes of anti-fibrotic drugs has not been investigated. We aim to clarify whether serum SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 reflect therapeutic outcomes of pirfenidone and nintedanib administration in patients with IPF. METHODS:We retrospectively investigated patients with IPF who were initiated on pirfenidone or nintedanib administration between January 2014 and June 2018 at our hospital. Changes in clinical parameters and serum SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 levels were evaluated. Patients with ?10% decline in FVC or???15% decline in diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLco) from baseline to 6?months were classified as progression group, while the other patients were classified as stable group. RESULTS:Forty-nine patients were included (pirfenidone, 23; nintedanib, 26). Stable group comprised 32 patients, while progression group comprised 17 patients. In the stable group, changes in SP-A and KL-6 from baseline to 3 and 6?months significantly decreased compared with the progression group (SP-A: 3?months -?6.0% vs 16.7%, 6?months -?10.2% vs 20.2%, KL-6: 3?months -?9.2% vs 6.7%, 6?months -?15.0% vs 12.1%, p?<?0.05). Changes in SP-A and SP-D levels showed significant negative correlations with the change in %FVC (r?=?-?0.46 and r?=?-?0.39, p?<?0.01, respectively) and %DLco (r?=?-?0.67 and r?=?-?0.54, p?<?0.01, respectively). Similar results were also seen in subgroup analysis for both pirfenidone and nintedanib groups. On logistic regression analysis, decrease in SP-A from baseline to 3?months and 6?months was found to predict the outcomes at 6?months (odds ratios: 0.89 and 0.88, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Changes in serum SP-A reflected the outcomes of anti-fibrotic drug therapy. Serum SP-A has a potential as a biomarker of therapeutic outcomes of anti-fibrotic drugs.
Project description:The recent FDA approval of two drugs, pirfenidone and nintedanib, for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has fueled interest in the development of additional drugs to treat the disease or its major clinical complications including cough and acute exacerbations. Since 2015, there are at least a dozen active interventional studies that are testing the efficacy of novel pharmacotherapies, exercise or stem cells in modifying the disease process in IPF. Additionally, there are combinatorial studies evaluating the effectiveness of pirfenidone or nintedanib in combination with other agents. However, there remains an urgent need for clinical trials to prospectively evaluate the efficacy of existing drugs with promising retrospective data, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), in IPF. Several retrospective cohorts have provided tantalizing data supporting the beneficial effect of PPIs in patients with well-defined IPF. This review provides the general outlook of pharmacotherapies in IPF, and highlights preclinical and retrospective clinical data to make a case for randomized controlled clinical trials of PPIs in IPF.