Antiepileptic drug use by pregnant women enrolled in Florida Medicaid.
ABSTRACT: The study aims were to investigate secular trends in antiepileptic drug (AED) use in women during pregnancy, and to compare the use of first- and second-generation AEDs.Study participants consisted of female Florida Medicaid beneficiaries, older than 15 years, and pregnant within the time period 1999 to 2009. Fifteen AEDs were categorized into first and second generation of AEDs. Continuous use of AEDs was defined as at least 2 consecutive AED prescriptions totaling more than a 30-day supply. Polytherapy was defined as 2 or more AEDs continuously used for at least 30 overlapping days. Annual prevalence was estimated and compared.We included 2,099 pregnant women who were enrolled in Florida Medicaid from 1999 to 2009 and exposed to AEDs during pregnancy. Although there were fluctuations, overall AED use in the study cohort did not increase from 2000 to 2009 (? ± standard error [SE]: -0.07 ± 0.06, p = 0.31). The use of first-generation AEDs decreased (? ± SE: -6.21 ± 0.47, p < 0.0001), whereas the use of second-generation AEDs increased (? ± SE: 6.27 ± 0.52, p < 0.0001) from 2000 to 2009. AED use in polytherapy did not change through the study period. Valproate use reduced from 23% to 8% in the study population (? ± SE: -1.61 ± 0.36, p = 0.0019), but this decrease was only for women receiving an AED for epilepsy and was not present for other indications.The second-generation AEDs are replacing first-generation AEDs in both monotherapy and polytherapy. Valproate use has declined for epilepsy but not other indications. Additional changes in AED use are expected in future years.
Project description:Objective:To evaluate clinical outcomes and treatment effectiveness of status epilepticus finally resolved by nonbenzodiazepine antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods:All consecutive SE episodes observed from September 1, 2013, to September 1, 2018, and resolved by AEDs were considered. Diagnosis and classification of SE followed the 2015 ILAE proposal. Nonconvulsive status (NCSE) diagnosis was confirmed according to the Salzburg EEG criteria. The modified Rankin Scale and deaths at 30 days from onset were used to evaluate outcomes. Results:A total of 277 status episodes (mean age 71 years; 61% female) were treated and resolved by antiepileptic drugs after 382 treatment trials. 68% of the SE resolved after AED use as first/second treatment line, while subsequent trials with AEDs gave an additional 32% resolution. A return to baseline conditions was observed in 48% of the patients, while overall mortality was 19% without significant changes across the study years. Mortality was higher in NCSE than in convulsive SE (22.5% vs 12.9%; P < .05), while mortality did not differ in SE episodes resolved by a first/second AED trial (17.2%) versus SE resolved by successive treatment trials (18.9%). The resolution rate of intravenous AEDs was 82% for valproate, 77% for lacosamide, 71% for phenytoin, and 62% for levetiracetam. No significant differences were found in head-to-head comparison, but for the valproate-levetiracetam one that was related to NCSE episodes in which valproate resulted to be effective in 86% of the trials while levetiracetam in 62% (P < .002). Significance:A high short-term mortality, stable over time, was observed in SE despite resolution of seizures, especially in SE with nonconvulsive semiology. Comparative AED efficacy showed no significant differences except for higher resolution rate for valproate versus levetiracetam in NCSE.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We analyzed current prescribing patterns for antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in pregnant women with epilepsy (PWWE) at 20 USA tertiary epilepsy centers. METHODS:The Maternal Outcomes and Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (MONEAD) study is an NIH-funded, prospective, observational, multicenter investigation of pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child, which enrolled women from December 2012 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria for PWWE included ages 14-45?years and up to 20?weeks gestational age. Exclusion criteria included history of psychogenic nonepileptic spells, expected intelligence quotient (IQ) <70, other major medical illness, progressive cerebral disease, and switching AEDs in pregnancy prior to enrollment. RESULTS:Three hundred fifty-one PWWE were enrolled in the MONEAD study, which included 259 (73.8%) on monotherapy, 77 (21.9%) on polytherapy, and 15 (4.3%) on no AEDs. The most common AED monotherapy regimens were lamotrigine (42.1% of monotherapies), levetiracetam (37.5%), carbamazepine (5.4%), zonisamide (5.0%), oxcarbazepine (4.6%), and topiramate (3.1%). All other individual monotherapies were each <1%. The most common AED polytherapy combination was lamotrigine?+?levetiracetam (42.9% of polytherapies), followed by lacosamide?+?levetiracetam (6.5%), lamotrigine?+?zonisamide (5.2%), and all other remaining combinations (each <4%); only 5.2% of polytherapy subjects were on ?3 AEDs (1.1% of total PWWE). Only four subjects (1.1%) were on valproate (1 monotherapy, 3 polytherapy). CONCLUSIONS:The distribution of AED use likely reflects current prescribing patterns for PWWE cared for in USA tertiary epilepsy centers. This distribution has changed markedly since the turn of the century, but changes in the general population remain uncertain.
Project description:To reassess the evidence for management issues related to the care of women with epilepsy (WWE) during pregnancy.Systematic review of relevant articles published between January 1985 and June 2007.It is highly probable that intrauterine first-trimester valproate (VPA) exposure has higher risk of major congenital malformations (MCMs) compared to carbamazepine and possible compared to phenytoin or lamotrigine. Compared to untreated WWE, it is probable that VPA as part of polytherapy and possible that VPA as monotherapy contribute to the development of MCMs. It is probable that antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy as compared to monotherapy regimens contributes to the development of MCMs and to reduced cognitive outcomes. For monotherapy, intrauterine exposure to VPA probably reduces cognitive outcomes. Further, monotherapy exposure to phenytoin or phenobarbital possibly reduces cognitive outcomes. Neonates of WWE taking AEDs probably have an increased risk of being small for gestational age and possibly have an increased risk of a 1-minute Apgar score of <7.If possible, avoidance of valproate (VPA) and antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy during the first trimester of pregnancy should be considered to decrease the risk of major congenital malformations (Level B). If possible, avoidance of VPA and AED polytherapy throughout pregnancy should be considered to prevent reduced cognitive outcomes (Level B). If possible, avoidance of phenytoin and phenobarbital during pregnancy may be considered to prevent reduced cognitive outcomes (Level C). Pregnancy risk stratification should reflect that the offspring of women with epilepsy taking AEDs are probably at increased risk for being small for gestational age (Level B) and possibly at increased risk of 1-minute Apgar scores of <7 (Level C).
Project description:To investigate antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) prescription and pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies with epilepsy in Taiwan between 2004 and 2015. We retrospectively reviewed data from the Taiwanese Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (TREP). The TREP registry is a voluntary prospective cohort registry, which tracks pregnant women with epilepsy and AED prescription throughout pregnancy, delivery, and early childhood development. All TREP pregnancies (n = 318) that had completed questionnaires up until delivery or had had an unsuccessful pregnancy were analyzed. Over 94.7% of women had been prescribed AEDs during pregnancy, with 69.0% and 25.7% having received monotherapy, or polytherapy, respectively. Among live births, 12 (3.9%) reported malformation. Cesarean section rate was reported higher than usual (54.5%). In 2004, 73.3% of AEDs prescribed were 1st generation, with 1st generation prescription rates falling to only 8.3% of total prescribed in 2015. AED polytherapy also fell during the study period (40.0% to 20.0%). Cesarean sections were found to be higher for women over 35 years, who had generalized epilepsy, or had experienced an obstetric complication during pregnancy term. Binary logistic regression revealed that Cesarean section was associated with maternal complications (OR = 5.11, CI 95% = 1.11-23.51, p = 0.036), while malformations were associated with obstetric complication (OR = 20.46, CI 95% = 4.80-87.21, p<0.001). Both AED risk types were not associated with complications or malformations. Our sample provides a unique insight into the women with epilepsy with AED use during pregnancy. Cesarean section rate was observed to be higher than usual, but malformation rates remained low. Results indicate a decrease in both 1st generation AEDs and proportion of patients receiving polytherapy over the study period. Obstetric complications were associated with Cesarean section. Fetal malformations were significantly associated with obstetric complications. AED risk factors were not significantly associated with either complications or malformations.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To prospectively determine the nature and rate of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in children on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and to prospectively evaluate the effect of AEDs on behaviour. SETTING:A single centre prospective observational study. PARTICIPANTS:Children (<18 years old) receiving one or more AEDs for epilepsy, at each clinically determined follow-up visit. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES:Primary outcome was adverse reactions of AEDs. Behavioural and cognitive functions were secondary outcomes. RESULTS:180 children were recruited. Sodium valproate and carbamazepine were the most frequently used AEDs. A total of 114 ADRs were recorded in 56 of these children (31%). 135 children (75%) were on monotherapy. 27 of the 45 children (60%) on polytherapy had ADRs; while 29 (21%) of those on monotherapy had ADRs. The risk of ADRs was significantly lower in patients receiving monotherapy than polytherapy (RR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79, p<0.0001). Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most common ADRs. 23 children had to discontinue their AED due to an ADR. CONCLUSIONS:Behavioural problems and somnolence were the most common ADRs. Polytherapy significantly increases the likelihood of ADRs in children. TRAIL REGISTRATION NUMBER:EudraCT (2007-000565-37).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Compare the safety of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on neurodevelopment of infants/children exposed in utero or during breast feeding. DESIGN AND SETTING:Systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis (NMA). MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched until 27 April 2017. Screening, data abstraction and quality appraisal were completed in duplicate by independent reviewers. PARTICIPANTS:29 cohort studies including 5100 infants/children. INTERVENTIONS:Monotherapy and polytherapy AEDs including first-generation (carbamazepine, clobazam, clonazepam, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, valproate) and newer-generation (gabapentin, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, topiramate, vigabatrin) AEDs. Epileptic women who did not receive AEDs during pregnancy or breast feeding served as the control group. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Cognitive developmental delay and autism/dyspraxia were primary outcomes. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, language delay, neonatal seizures, psychomotor developmental delay and social impairment were secondary outcomes. RESULTS:The NMA on cognitive developmental delay (11 cohort studies, 933 children, 18 treatments) suggested that among all AEDs only valproate was statistically significantly associated with more children experiencing cognitive developmental delay compared with control (OR=7.40, 95% credible interval (CrI) 3.00 to 18.46). The NMA on autism (5 cohort studies, 2551 children, 12 treatments) suggested that oxcarbazepine (OR 13.51, CrI 1.28 to 221.40), valproate (OR 17.29, 95% CrI 2.40 to 217.60), lamotrigine (OR 8.88, CrI 1.28 to 112.00) and lamotrigine+valproate (OR 132.70, CrI 7.41 to 3851.00) were associated with significantly greater odds of developing autism compared with control. The NMA on psychomotor developmental delay (11 cohort studies, 1145 children, 18 treatments) found that valproate (OR 4.16, CrI 2.04 to 8.75) and carbamazepine+phenobarbital+valproate (OR 19.12, CrI 1.49 to 337.50) were associated with significantly greater odds of psychomotor delay compared with control. CONCLUSIONS:Valproate alone or combined with another AED is associated with the greatest odds of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes compared with control. Oxcarbazepine and lamotrigine were associated with increased occurrence of autism. Counselling is advised for women considering pregnancy to tailor the safest regimen. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:PROSPERO database (CRD42014008925).
Project description:Objective:To study the effectiveness and tolerability of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) commonly used in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Methods:People with JME were identified from a large database of individuals with epilepsy, which includes detailed retrospective information on AED use. We assessed secular changes in AED use and calculated rates of response (12-month seizure freedom) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for the five most common AEDs. Retention was modeled with a Cox proportional hazards model. We compared valproate use between males and females. Results:We included 305 people with 688 AED trials of valproate, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and topiramate. Valproate and carbamazepine were most often prescribed as the first AED. The response rate to valproate was highest among the five AEDs (42.7%), and significantly higher than response rates for lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and topiramate; the difference to the response rate to levetiracetam (37.1%) was not significant. The rates of ADRs were highest for topiramate (45.5%) and valproate (37.5%). Commonest ADRs included weight change, lethargy, and tremor. In the Cox proportional hazards model, later start year (1.10 [1.08-1.13], P < 0.001) and female sex (1.41 [1.07-1.85], P = 0.02) were associated with shorter trial duration. Valproate was associated with the longest treatment duration; trials with carbamazepine and topiramate were significantly shorter (HR [CI]: 3.29 [2.15-5.02], P < 0.001 and 1.93 [1.31-2.86], P < 0.001). The relative frequency of valproate trials shows a decreasing trend since 2003 while there is an increasing trend for levetiracetam. Fewer females than males received valproate (76.2% vs 92.6%, P = 0.001). Significance:In people with JME, valproate is an effective AED; levetiracetam emerged as an alternative. Valproate is now contraindicated in women of childbearing potential without special precautions. With appropriate selection and safeguards in place, valproate should remain available as a therapy, including as an alternative for women of childbearing potential whose seizures are resistant to other treatments.
Project description:Pregnant women with epilepsy frequently experience seizures related to pregnancy complications and are often prescribed anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to manage their symptoms. However, less is known about the comparative safety of AED exposure in utero. We aimed to compare the risk of congenital malformations (CMs) and prenatal outcomes of AEDs in infants/children who were exposed to AEDs in utero through a systematic review and Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL were searched from inception to December 15, 2015. Two reviewers independently screened titles/abstracts and full-text papers for experimental and observational studies comparing mono- or poly-therapy AEDs versus control (no AED exposure) or other AEDs, then abstracted data and appraised the risk of bias. The primary outcome was incidence of major CMs, overall and by specific type (cardiac malformations, hypospadias, cleft lip and/or palate, club foot, inguinal hernia, and undescended testes).After screening 5305 titles and abstracts, 642 potentially relevant full-text articles, and 17 studies from scanning reference lists, 96 studies were eligible (n?=?58,461 patients). Across all major CMs, many AEDs were associated with higher risk compared to control. For major CMs, ethosuximide (OR, 3.04; 95% CrI, 1.23-7.07), valproate (OR, 2.93; 95% CrI, 2.36-3.69), topiramate (OR, 1.90; 95% CrI, 1.17-2.97), phenobarbital (OR, 1.83; 95% CrI, 1.35-2.47), phenytoin (OR, 1.67; 95% CrI, 1.30-2.17), carbamazepine (OR, 1.37; 95% CrI, 1.10-1.71), and 11 polytherapies were significantly more harmful than control, but lamotrigine (OR, 0.96; 95% CrI, 0.72-1.25) and levetiracetam (OR, 0.72; 95% CrI, 0.43-1.16) were not.The newer generation AEDs, lamotrigine and levetiracetam, were not associated with significant increased risks of CMs compared to control, and were significantly less likely to be associated with children experiencing cardiac malformations than control. However, this does not mean that these agents are not harmful to infants/children exposed in utero. Counselling is advised concerning teratogenic risks when the prescription is written for a woman of childbearing age and before women continue with these agents when considering pregnancy, such as switching from polytherapy to monotherapy with evidence of lower risk and avoiding AEDs, such as valproate, that are consistently associated with CMs. These decisions must be balanced against the need for seizure control.PROSPERO CRD42014008925.
Project description:To examine outcomes at age 4.5 years and compare to earlier ages in children with fetal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure.The NEAD Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on AED monotherapy (1999-2004) to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across 4 commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate). The primary outcome is IQ at 6 years of age. Planned analyses were conducted using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID at age 2) and Differential Ability Scale (IQ at ages 3 and 4.5).Multivariate intent-to-treat (n = 310) and completer (n = 209) analyses of age 4.5 IQ revealed significant effects for AED group. IQ for children exposed to valproate was lower than each other AED. Adjusted means (95% confidence intervals) were carbamazepine 106 (102-109), lamotrigine 106 (102-109), phenytoin 105 (102-109), valproate 96 (91-100). IQ was negatively associated with valproate dose, but not other AEDs. Maternal IQ correlated with child IQ for children exposed to the other AEDs, but not valproate. Age 4.5 IQ correlated with age 2 BSID and age 3 IQ. Frequency of marked intellectual impairment diminished with age except for valproate (10% with IQ <70 at 4.5 years). Verbal abilities were impaired for all 4 AED groups compared to nonverbal skills.Adverse cognitive effects of fetal valproate exposure persist to 4.5 years and are related to performances at earlier ages. Verbal abilities may be impaired by commonly used AEDs. Additional research is needed.
Project description:Research on antiepileptic drug (AED) teratogenesis has demonstrated an increased risk for valproate. The impact of these findings on current AED prescribing patterns for women of childbearing age with epilepsy is uncertain. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective multicenter observational investigation that enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on the most common AED monotherapies from October 1999 to February 2004 (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, valproate, and phenytoin). A 2007 survey of AED use in women of childbearing age at eight NEAD centers found a total of 932 women of childbearing age with epilepsy (6% taking no AED, 53% monotherapy, 41% polytherapy). The most common monotherapies were lamotrigine or levetiracetam. Since 2004, prescriptions of carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate have decreased, whereas those for levetiracetam have increased. Except for the top two AED monotherapies, there were marked differences in other monotherapies and in polytherapies between U.S. and UK centers. Future investigations are needed to examine reasons for drug choice.