IP3 signalling regulates exogenous RNAi in Caenorhabditis elegans.
ABSTRACT: RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread and widely exploited phenomenon. Here, we show that changing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signalling alters RNAi sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Reducing IP3 signalling enhances sensitivity to RNAi in a broad range of genes and tissues. Conversely up-regulating IP3 signalling decreases sensitivity. Tissue-specific rescue experiments suggest IP3 functions in the intestine. We also exploit IP3 signalling mutants to further enhance the sensitivity of RNAi hypersensitive strains. These results demonstrate that conserved cell signalling pathways can modify RNAi responses, implying that RNAi responses may be influenced by an animal's physiology or environment.
Project description:Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates adenylyl cyclase through type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) and potentiates the Ca(2+) signals evoked by carbachol, which stimulates formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). We confirmed that in HEK cells expressing PTH1R, acute stimulation with PTH(1-34) potentiated carbachol-evoked Ca(2+) release. This was mediated by locally delivered cyclic AMP (cAMP), but unaffected by inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA), exchange proteins activated by cAMP, cAMP phosphodiesterases (PDEs) or substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. Sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) causes internalization of PTH1R-adenylyl cyclase signalling complexes, but the consequences for delivery of cAMP to IP3R within cAMP signalling junctions are unknown. Here, we show that sustained stimulation with PTH(1-34) or with PTH analogues that do not evoke receptor internalization reduced the potentiated Ca(2+) signals and attenuated carbachol-evoked increases in cytosolic IP3. Similar results were obtained after sustained stimulation with NKH477 to directly activate adenylyl cyclase, or with the membrane-permeant analogue of cAMP, 8-Br-cAMP. These responses were independent of PKA and unaffected by substantial inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. During prolonged stimulation with PTH(1-34), hyperactive cAMP signalling junctions, within which cAMP is delivered directly and at saturating concentrations to its targets, mediate sensitization of IP3R and a more slowly developing inhibition of IP3 accumulation.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors are the channels responsible for Ca(2+)release from the endoplasmic and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Research inScience Signalingby Alzayadyet al show that all four IP3-binding sites within the tetrameric IP3R must bind IP3before the channel can open, which has important consequences for the distribution of both IP3and IP3R activity within cells.
Project description:The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is an IP3-gated ion channel that releases calcium ions (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. The IP3-binding sites in the large cytosolic domain are distant from the Ca2+ conducting pore, and the allosteric mechanism of how IP3 opens the Ca2+ channel remains elusive. Here, we identify a long-range gating mechanism uncovered by channel mutagenesis and X-ray crystallography of the large cytosolic domain of mouse type 1 IP3R in the absence and presence of IP3 Analyses of two distinct space group crystals uncovered an IP3-dependent global translocation of the curvature ?-helical domain interfacing with the cytosolic and channel domains. Mutagenesis of the IP3R channel revealed an essential role of a leaflet structure in the ?-helical domain. These results suggest that the curvature ?-helical domain relays IP3-controlled global conformational dynamics to the channel through the leaflet, conferring long-range allosteric coupling from IP3 binding to the Ca2+ channel.
Project description:The building blocks of intracellular Ca2+ signals evoked by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are Ca2+ puffs, transient focal increases in Ca2+ concentration that reflect the opening of small clusters of IP3Rs. We use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and automated analyses to detect Ca2+ puffs evoked by photolysis of caged IP3 or activation of endogenous muscarinic receptors with carbachol in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Ca2+ puffs evoked by carbachol initiated at an estimated 65±7 sites/cell, and the sites remained immobile for many minutes. Photolysis of caged IP3 evoked Ca2+ puffs at a similar number of sites (100±35). Increasing the carbachol concentration increased the frequency of Ca2+ puffs without unmasking additional Ca2+ release sites. By measuring responses to sequential stimulation with carbachol or photolysed caged IP3, we established that the two stimuli evoked Ca2+ puffs at the same sites. We conclude that IP3-evoked Ca2+ puffs initiate at numerous immobile sites and the sites become more likely to fire as the IP3 concentration increases; there is no evidence that endogenous signalling pathways selectively deliver IP3 to specific sites.
Project description:We investigated the contribution of inositol(1,4,5)-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3 [IP3]) receptors (IP3-R) to disease progression in mouse models of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and pressure overload hypertrophy. Mice expressing mammalian sterile 20-like kinase and dominant-negative phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase in heart (Mst1×dn-PI3K-2Tg; DCM-2Tg) develop severe DCM and conduction block, associated with increased expression of type 2 IP3-R (IP3-R(2)) and heightened generation of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Similar increases in Ins(1,4,5)P3 and IP3-R(2) are caused by transverse aortic constriction.To evaluate the contribution of IP3-R(2) to disease progression, the DCM-2Tg mice were further crossed with mice in which the type 2 IP3-R (IP3-R(2)-/-) had been deleted (DCM-2Tg×IP3-R(2)-/-) and transverse aortic constriction was performed on IP3-R(2)-/- mice. Hearts from DCM-2Tg mice and DCM-2Tg×IP3-R(2)-/- were similar in terms of chamber dilatation, atrial enlargement, and ventricular wall thinning. Electrophysiological changes were also similar in the DCM-2Tg mice, with and without IP3-R(2). Deletion of IP3-R(2) did not alter the progression of heart failure, because DCM-2Tg mice with and without IP3-R(2) had similarly reduced contractility, increased lung congestion, and atrial thrombus, and both strains died between 10 and 12 weeks of age. Loss of IP3-R(2) did not alter the progression of hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction.We conclude that IP3-R(2) do not contribute to the progression of DCM or pressure overload hypertrophy, despite increased expression and heightened generation of the ligand, Ins(1,4,5)P3.
Project description:Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a lysosome-dependent degradation process that has been implicated in age-associated diseases. Autophagy is involved in both cell survival and cell death, but little is known about the mechanisms that distinguish its use during these distinct cell fates. Here, we identify the microRNA miR-14 as being both necessary and sufficient for autophagy during developmentally regulated cell death in Drosophila. Loss of miR-14 prevented induction of autophagy during salivary gland cell death, but had no effect on starvation-induced autophagy in the fat body. Moreover, misexpression of miR-14 was sufficient to prematurely induce autophagy in salivary glands, but not in the fat body. Importantly, miR-14 regulates this context-specific autophagy through its target, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate kinase 2 (ip3k2), thereby affecting inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signaling and calcium levels during salivary gland cell death. This study provides in vivo evidence of microRNA regulation of autophagy through modulation of IP3 signaling.
Project description:Neutrophils signal Ca2+ changes in response to occupancy of G-protein-linked receptors such as the formylated peptide receptor. This Ca2+ signal is composed of two parts, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-triggered release of Ca2+ from an intracellular store and Ca2+ influx. In order to probe the relationship between these events, cytosolic free Ca2+ changes in neutrophils were monitored after micro-injection of agents which inhibit IP3 binding. Micro-injection of heparin into neutrophils totally inhibited both formylmethionyl-leucylphenylalanine-induced Ca2+ release and the subsequent Ca2+ influx. This effect was not due to prior depletion of Ca2+ stores. Furthermore, micro-injection with anti-IP3-receptor antibody also inhibited Ca2+ release. However, anti-IP3-receptor antibody and another high-molecular-mass IP3-binding antagonist, heparin-albumin conjugate, failed to inhibit the accompanying Ca2+ influx. It was concluded that two IP3-binding sites exist in neutrophils: one accessible by both heparin and the high-molecular-mass inhibitors of IP3 binding and responsible for Ca2+ release, and another inaccessible to high-molecular-mass molecules and responsible for Ca2+ influx.
Project description:Chagas cardiomyopathy is the most severe manifestation of human Chagas disease and represents the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America. We previously demonstrated diastolic Ca2+ alterations in cardiomyocytes isolated from Chagas' patients to different degrees of cardiac dysfunction. In addition, we have found a significant elevation of diastolic [Na+]d in Chagas' cardiomyocytes (FCII>FCI) that was greater than control. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to agents that enhance inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) generation or concentration like endothelin (ET-1) or bradykinin (BK), or membrane-permeant myoinositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate hexakis(butyryloxy-methyl) esters (IP3BM) caused an elevation in diastolic [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]d) that was always greater in cardiomyocytes from Chagas' than non- Chagas' subjects, and the magnitude of the [Ca2+]d elevation in Chagas' cardiomyocytes was related to the degree of cardiac dysfunction. Incubation with xestospongin-C (Xest-C), a membrane-permeable selective blocker of the IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), significantly reduced [Ca2+]d in Chagas' cardiomyocytes but did not have a significant effect on non-Chagas' cells. The effects of ET-1, BK, and IP3BM on [Ca2+]d were not modified by the removal of extracellular [Ca2+]e. Furthermore, cardiomyocytes from Chagas' patients had a significant decrease in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+content compared to control (Control>FCI>FCII), a higher intracellular IP3 concentration ([IP3]i) and markedly depressed contractile properties compared to control cardiomyocytes. These results provide additional and convincing support about the implications of IP3 in the pathogenesis of Chagas cardiomyopathy in patients at different stages of chronic infection. Additionally, these findings open the door for novel therapeutic strategies oriented to improve cardiac function and quality of life of individuals suffering from chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CC).
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3 Rs) are intracellular Ca(2+) channels. Interactions of the commonly used antagonists of IP3Rs with IP3R subtypes are poorly understood.IP3-evoked Ca(2+) release from permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R was measured using a luminal Ca(2+) indicator. The effects of commonly used antagonists on IP3-evoked Ca(2+) release and (3) H-IP3 binding were characterized.Functional analyses showed that heparin was a competitive antagonist of all IP3R subtypes with different affinities for each (IP3R3 > IP3R1 ? IP3R2). This sequence did not match the affinities for heparin binding to the isolated N-terminal from each IP3R subtype. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and high concentrations of caffeine selectively inhibited IP3R1 without affecting IP3 binding. Neither Xestospongin C nor Xestospongin D effectively inhibited IP3-evoked Ca(2+) release via any IP3R subtype.Heparin competes with IP3, but its access to the IP3-binding core is substantially hindered by additional IP3R residues. These interactions may contribute to its modest selectivity for IP3R3. Practicable concentrations of caffeine and 2-APB inhibit only IP3R1. Xestospongins do not appear to be effective antagonists of IP3Rs.
Project description:Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) stimulates Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the response is potentiated by 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP). We investigated this interaction in HEK293 cells using carbachol and parathyroid hormone (PTH) to stimulate formation of IP3 and cAMP, respectively. PTH alone had no effect on the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, but it potentiated the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol. Surprisingly, however, the intracellular Ca2+ stores that respond to carbachol alone could be both emptied and refilled without affecting the subsequent response to PTH. We provide evidence that PTH unmasks high-affinity IP3 receptors within a discrete Ca2+ store. We conclude that Ca2+ stores within the ER that dynamically exchange Ca2+ with the cytosol maintain a functional independence that allows one store to be released by carbachol and another to be released by carbachol with PTH. Compartmentalization of ER Ca2+ stores adds versatility to IP3-evoked Ca2+ signals.