Differential reprogramming of isogenic colorectal cancer cells by distinct activating KRAS mutations.
ABSTRACT: Oncogenic mutations of Ras at codons 12, 13, or 61, that render the protein constitutively active, are found in ? 16% of all cancer cases. Among the three major Ras isoforms, KRAS is the most frequently mutated isoform in cancer. Each Ras isoform and tumor type displays a distinct pattern of codon-specific mutations. In colon cancer, KRAS is typically mutated at codon 12, but a significant fraction of patients have mutations at codon 13. Clinical data suggest different outcomes and responsiveness to treatment between these two groups. To investigate the differential effects upon cell status associated with KRAS mutations we performed a quantitative analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome of isogenic SW48 colon cancer cell lines in which one allele of the endogenous gene has been edited to harbor specific KRAS mutations (G12V, G12D, or G13D). Each mutation generates a distinct signature, with the most variability seen between G13D and the codon 12 KRAS mutants. One notable example of specific up-regulation in KRAS codon 12 mutant SW48 cells is provided by the short form of the colon cancer stem cell marker doublecortin-like Kinase 1 (DCLK1) that can be reversed by suppression of KRAS.
Project description:In non-clinical studies, the proteasome inhibitor ixazomib inhibits cell growth in a broad panel of solid tumor cell lines in vitro. In contrast, antitumor activity in xenograft tumors is model-dependent, with some solid tumors showing no response to ixazomib. In this study we examined factors responsible for ixazomib sensitivity or resistance using mouse xenograft models. A survey of 14 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 6 colon xenografts showed a striking relationship between ixazomib activity and KRAS genotype; tumors with wild-type (WT) KRAS were more sensitive to ixazomib than tumors harboring KRAS activating mutations. To confirm the association between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity, we used SW48 isogenic colon cancer cell lines. Either KRAS-G13D or KRAS-G12V mutations were introduced into KRAS-WT SW48 cells to generate cells that stably express activated KRAS. SW48 KRAS WT tumors, but neither SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors nor SW48-KRAS-G12V tumors, were sensitive to ixazomib in vivo. Since activated KRAS is known to be associated with metabolic reprogramming, we compared metabolite profiling of SW48-WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors treated with or without ixazomib. Prior to treatment there were significant metabolic differences between SW48 WT and SW48-KRAS-G13D tumors, reflecting higher oxidative stress and glucose utilization in the KRAS-G13D tumors. Ixazomib treatment resulted in significant metabolic regulation, and some of these changes were specific to KRAS WT tumors. Depletion of free amino acid pools and activation of GCN2-eIF2?-pathways were observed both in tumor types. However, changes in lipid beta oxidation were observed in only the KRAS WT tumors. The non-clinical data presented here show a correlation between KRAS genotype and ixazomib sensitivity in NSCLC and colon xenografts and provide new evidence of regulation of key metabolic pathways by proteasome inhibition.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA are the most common somatic alterations found in the colorectal cancer (CRC) patients from Western countries; but their prevalence and prognostic value have not been adequately assessed in Asian patients. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation frequencies of these genes in Chinese CRC patients and to investigate their impact on prognosis.<h4>Methods</h4>The sequences of exon 2 of KRAS, exon 15 of BRAF and exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA were evaluated by PCR and direct sequencing using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from primary CRC tumors of 214 patients (colon/rectum: 126/88).<h4>Results</h4>KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA mutations were identified in 44.9% (96/214), 4.2% (9/214) and 12.3% (26/212) CRCs, respectively. The most frequent mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were G12D, V600E and H1047R, respectively. All BRAF and 80.8% PIK3CA mutations were from colon cancer patients. BRAF V600E was associated with advanced TNM (P?<?0.001), more distant metastases (P?=?0.025), and worse overall survival (OS, P?<?0.001; multivariate HR?=?4.2, P?=?0.004) in colon cancer patients. Compared with KRAS wt/BRAF wt CRC patients (N?=?109), those with KRAS codon 13 mutations (N?=?25) had significantly worse OS (P?=?0.016; multivariate HR?=?2.7, P?=?0.011), whereas KRAS codon 12-mutated cases were not significantly associated with survival. Among the three most common KRAS mutations, G13D (N?=?23) showed significant association with poor OS (P?=?0.024; multivariate HR?=?2.6, P?=?0.016) compared with KRAS wt/BRAF wt patients.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings indicate that PI3K/RAS-RAF signaling pathway genes are frequently mutated in Chinese CRC patients, but have different characteristics than found in Western patients. BRAF V600E is an independent prognostic factor for Chinese patients. Our finding that KRAS codon 13 mutations (in particular G13D) are associated with inferior survival in BRAF wild-type CRCs in Chinese patients was not reported thus far. Our data emphasizes the importance of prospective evaluation of molecular features in CRC patients, because a single mutation type may represent a distinct biologic effect and clinical implication.
Project description:HRAS, NRAS, and KRAS isoforms are almost identical proteins that are ubiquitously expressed and activate a common set of effectors. In vivo studies have revealed that they are not biologically redundant; however, the isoform specificity of Ras signaling remains poorly understood. Using a novel panel of isogenic SW48 cell lines endogenously expressing wild-type or G12V-mutated activated Ras isoforms, we have performed a detailed characterization of endogenous isoform-specific mutant Ras signaling. We find that despite displaying significant Ras activation, the downstream outputs of oncogenic Ras mutants are minimal in the absence of growth factor inputs. The lack of mutant KRAS-induced effector activation observed in SW48 cells appears to be representative of a broad panel of colon cancer cell lines harboring mutant KRAS. For MAP kinase pathway activation in KRAS-mutant cells, the requirement for coincident growth factor stimulation occurs at an early point in the Raf activation cycle. Finally, we find that Ras isoform-specific signaling was highly context dependent and did not conform to the dogma derived from ectopic expression studies.
Project description:<i>KRAS</i> is the most frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, yet there is little understanding of how specific KRAS amino acid changes affect tumor initiation, progression, or therapy response. Using high-fidelity CRISPR-based engineering, we created an allelic series of new <i>LSL-Kras</i> mutant mice, reflecting codon 12 and 13 mutations that are highly prevalent in lung (KRAS<sup>G12C</sup>), pancreas (KRAS<sup>G12R</sup>), and colon (KRAS<sup>G13D</sup>) cancers. Induction of each allele in either the murine colon or pancreas revealed striking quantitative and qualitative differences between KRAS mutants in driving the early stages of transformation. Furthermore, using pancreatic organoid models, we show that KRAS<sup>G13D</sup> mutants are sensitive to EGFR inhibition, whereas KRAS<sup>G12C</sup>-mutant organoids are selectively responsive to covalent G12C inhibitors only when EGFR is suppressed. Together, these new mouse strains provide an ideal platform for investigating KRAS biology <i>in vivo</i> and for developing preclinical precision oncology models of KRAS-mutant pancreas, colon, and lung cancers. SIGNIFICANCE: KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene. Here, we describe new preclinical models that mimic tissue-selective KRAS mutations and show that each mutation has distinct cellular consequences <i>in vivo</i> and carries differential sensitivity to targeted therapeutic agents.<i>See related commentary by Kostyrko and Sweet-Cordero, p. 1626</i>.<i>This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 1611</i>.
Project description:KRAS mutations occur in ?35% of colorectal cancers and promote tumor growth by constitutively activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. KRAS mutations at codons 12, 13, or 61 are thought to prevent GAP protein-stimulated GTP hydrolysis and render KRAS-mutated colorectal cancers unresponsive to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors. We report here that KRAS G13-mutated cancer cells are frequently comutated with NF1 GAP but NF1 is rarely mutated in cancers with KRAS codon 12 or 61 mutations. Neurofibromin protein (encoded by the NF1 gene) hydrolyzes GTP directly in complex with KRAS G13D, and KRAS G13D-mutated cells can respond to EGFR inhibitors in a neurofibromin-dependent manner. Structures of the wild type and G13D mutant of KRAS in complex with neurofibromin (RasGAP domain) provide the structural basis for neurofibromin-mediated GTP hydrolysis. These results reveal that KRAS G13D is responsive to neurofibromin-stimulated hydrolysis and suggest that a subset of KRAS G13-mutated colorectal cancers that are neurofibromin-competent may respond to EGFR therapies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Kirsten Rat Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog (KRAS) mutations occur in approximately one-third of colorectal (CRC) tumours and have been associated with poor prognosis and resistance to some therapeutics. In addition to the well-documented pro-tumorigenic role of mutant Ras alleles, there is some evidence suggesting that not all KRAS mutations are equal and the position and type of amino acid substitutions regulate biochemical activity and transforming capacity of KRAS mutations. OBJECTIVES:To investigate the metabolic signatures associated with different KRAS mutations in codons 12, 13, 61 and 146 and to determine what metabolic pathways are affected by different KRAS mutations. METHODS:We applied an NMR-based metabonomics approach to compare the metabolic profiles of the intracellular extracts and the extracellular media from isogenic human SW48 CRC cell lines with different KRAS mutations in codons 12 (G12D, G12A, G12C, G12S, G12R, G12V), 13 (G13D), 61 (Q61H) and 146 (A146T) with their wild-type counterpart. We used false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine metabolites that were statistically significantly different in concentration between the different mutants. RESULTS:CRC cells carrying distinct KRAS mutations exhibited differential metabolic remodelling, including differences in glycolysis, glutamine utilization and in amino acid, nucleotide and hexosamine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS:Metabolic differences among different KRAS mutations might play a role in their different responses to anticancer treatments and hence could be exploited as novel metabolic vulnerabilities to develop more effective therapies against oncogenic KRAS.
Project description:Ras GTPases are mutated at codons 12, 13, and 61, with different frequencies in KRas, HRas, and NRas and in a cancer-specific manner. The G13D mutant appears in 25% of KRas-driven colorectal cancers, while observed only rarely in HRas or NRas. Structures of Ras G13D in the three isoforms show an open active site, with adjustments to the D13 backbone torsion angles and with disconnected switch regions. KRas G13D has unique features that destabilize the nucleotide-binding pocket. In KRas G13D bound to GDP, A59 is placed in the Mg2+ binding site, as in the HRas-SOS complex. Structure and biochemistry are consistent with an intermediate level of KRas G13D bound to GTP, relative to wild-type and KRas G12D, observed in genetically engineered mouse models. The results explain in part the elevated frequency of the G13D mutant in KRas over the other isoforms of Ras.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Genes in the Ras pathway have somatic mutations in at least 60 % of colorectal cancers. Despite activating the same pathway, the BRAF V600E mutation and the prevalent mutations in codon 12 and 13 of KRAS have all been linked to different clinical outcomes, but the molecular mechanisms behind these differences largely remain to be clarified.<h4>Methods</h4>To characterize the similarities and differences between common activating KRAS mutations and between KRAS and BRAF mutations, we used genome editing to engineer KRAS G12C/D/V and G13D mutations in colorectal cancer cells that had their mutant BRAF V600E allele removed and subjected them to transcriptome sequencing, global proteomics and metabolomics analyses.<h4>Results</h4>By intersecting differentially expressed genes, proteins and metabolites, we uncovered (i) two-fold more regulated genes and proteins when comparing KRAS to BRAF mutant cells to those lacking Ras pathway mutation, (ii) five differentially expressed proteins in KRAS mutants compared to cells lacking Ras pathway mutation (IFI16, S100A10, CD44, GLRX and AHNAK2) and 6 (CRABP2, FLNA, NXN, LCP1, S100A10 and S100A2) compared to BRAF mutant cells, (iii) 19 proteins expressed differentially in a KRAS mutation specific manner versus BRAF V600E cells, (iv) regulation of the Integrin Linked Kinase pathway by KRAS but not BRAF mutation, (v) regulation of amino acid metabolism, particularly of the tyrosine, histidine, arginine and proline pathways, the urea cycle and purine metabolism by Ras pathway mutations, (vi) increased free carnitine in KRAS and BRAF mutant RKO cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This comprehensive integrative -omics analysis confirms known and adds novel genes, proteins and metabolic pathways regulated by mutant KRAS and BRAF signaling in colorectal cancer. The results from the new model systems presented here can inform future development of diagnostic and therapeutic approaches targeting tumors with KRAS and BRAF mutations.
Project description:Ras proteins are important signalling hubs situated near the top of networks controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Three almost identical isoforms, HRAS, KRAS and NRAS, are ubiquitously expressed yet have differing biological and oncogenic properties. In order to help understand the relative biological contributions of each isoform we have optimised a quantitative proteomics method for accurately measuring Ras isoform protein copy number per cell. The use of isotopic protein standards together with selected reaction monitoring for diagnostic peptides is sensitive, robust and suitable for application to sub-milligram quantities of lysates. We find that in a panel of isogenic SW48 colorectal cancer cells, endogenous Ras proteins are highly abundant with ?260,000 total Ras protein copies per cell and the rank order of isoform abundance is KRAS>NRAS?HRAS. A subset of oncogenic KRAS mutants exhibit increased total cellular Ras abundance and altered the ratio of mutant versus wild type KRAS protein. These data and methodology are significant because Ras protein copy number is required to parameterise models of signalling networks and informs interpretation of isoform-specific Ras functional data.
Project description:KRAS is one of the most frequently mutated genes across all cancer subtypes. Two of the most frequent oncogenic KRAS mutations observed in patients result in glycine to aspartic acid substitution at either codon 12 (G12D) or 13 (G13D). Although the biochemical differences between these two predominant mutations are not fully understood, distinct clinical features of the resulting tumors suggest involvement of disparate signaling mechanisms. When we compared the global and phosphotyrosine proteomic profiles of isogenic colorectal cancer cell lines bearing either G12D or G13D KRAS mutation, we observed both shared as well as unique signaling events induced by the two KRAS mutations.