Structure-reactivity relationships of zwitterionic 1,3-diaza-Claisen rearrangements.
ABSTRACT: Bridged bicyclic tertiary allylic amines aza-norbornene 1 and isoquinuclidene 2 add to isocyanates, isothiocyanates, and in situ-generated carbodiimides to form zwitterionic intermediates that undergo 1,3-diaza-Claisen rearrangements to afford highly substituted ureas, thioureas, and guanidines, respectively. Aza-norbornene 1 is significantly more reactive toward 1,3-diaza-Claisen rearrangements than isoquinuclidene 2. This reactivity difference is most likely due to the inherent ring strain in the aza-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptene ring system of aza-norbornene 1. The most apparent reactivity trend of the heterocumulenes is that the most electron-deficient heterocumulenes are more reactive toward 1,3-diaza-Claisen rearrangements. The introduction of a new stereocenter ?- to the nucleophilic nitrogen in aza-norbornene 1 and isoquinuclidine 2 decreases the reactivity toward 1,3-diaza-Claisen rearrangements, while the exodiastereomers 3b and 4b are less reactive than the corresponding endodiastereomers 3a and 4a. Isocyanates that bear an electron-withdrawing group react with allylic amines 1-3b to afford mixtures of ureas and isoureas; however, with excess isocyanate and heat, thermodynamic equilibration is possible affording ureas. Inspired by this observation, a one-pot reaction of isocyanates with amines 1, 2, and 3b followed by BF3·OEt2-catalyzed isomerization of the urea/isourea mixture was developed that affords the corresponding ureas in excellent yields.
Project description:A detailed study of amidine synthesis from N-allyl-N-sulfonyl ynamides is described here. Mechanistically, this is a fascinating reaction consisting of diverging pathways that could lead to deallylation or allyl transfer depending upon the oxidation state of palladium catalysts, the nucleophilicity of amines, and the nature of the ligands. It essentially constitutes a Pd(0)-catalyzed aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-allyl ynamides, which can also be accomplished thermally. An observation of N-to-C 1,3-sulfonyl shift was made when examining these aza-Claisen rearrangements thermally. This represents a useful approach to nitrile synthesis. While attempts to render this 1,3-sulfonyl shift stereoselective failed, we uncovered another set of tandem sigmatropic rearrangements, leading to vinyl imidate formation. Collectively, this work showcases the rich array of chemistry one can discover using these ynamides.
Project description:A fascinating mechanistic study of ynamido-palladium-pi-allyl complexes is described that features isolation of a unique silyl ketenimine via aza-Claisen rearrangement, which can be accompanied by an unusual thermal N-to-C 1,3-Ts shift in the formation of tertiary nitriles and a novel cyclopentenimine formation via a palladium-catalyzed aza-Rautenstrauch-type cyclization pathway.
Project description:A novel catalytic system consisting of I2-SDS-H2O has been developed which cleaves 2,3-diaza-1,3-butadiene, 1-aza-1,3-butadienes, oximes and in presence of indoles in the medium uses the corresponding aldehyde products to produce bis(indolyl)alkanes in situ. This one pot simple and mild dual catalytic system works in water at room temperature under neutral conditions.
Project description:Readily available 1-mesyl-1,2,3-triazoles are efficiently converted into a variety of imidazolones and thiazoles by Rh(II)-catalyzed denitrogenative reactions with isocyanates and isothiocyanates, respectively. The proposed triazole-diazoimine equilibrium results in the formation of highly reactive azavinyl metal-carbenes, which react with heterocumulenes causing an apparent swap of 1,2,3-triazole core for another heterocycle.
Project description:A series of carbocyclization cascades of allyl ketenimines initiated through a thermal aza-Claisen rearrangement of N-phosphoryl-N-allyl ynamides is described. Interceptions of the cationic intermediate via Meerwein-Wagner rearrangements and polyene-type cyclizations en route to fused bi- and tricyclic frameworks are featured.
Project description:The versatile synthesis of (-)-6-desmethyl-fluvirucinine A? was accomplished at a 24% overall yield through a thirteen-step process from a known vinylpiperidine. The key part involved the elaboration of the distal stereocenters and a macrolactam skeleton via conformationally-induced diastereocontrol and the iterative aza-Claisen rearrangements of lactam precursors.
Project description:We report herein the actinide-mediated insertion of E-H bonds (E = C, N, P, S) into various heterocumulenes including carbodiimides, isocyanates, and isothiocyanates. The precatalysts are prepared by a simple, one-pot procedure using readily available starting materials, and challenging insertions are achieved with excellent selectivity in short reaction times. Spectroscopic data are utilised to propose the active catalytic mechanism and derive thermodynamic activation parameters, which are described in this study. The only example of an actinide-mediated C-H bond insertion into a carbon-heteroatom bond is presented within this study.
Project description:We describe here details of our investigations into Pd-catalyzed and thermal aza-Claisen-carbocyclizations of N-allyl ynamides to prepare a variety of ?,?-unsaturated cyclopentenimines. The nature of the ynamide electron-withdrawing group and ?-substituent plays critical roles in the success of this tandem cascade. With N-sulfonyl ynamides, the use of palladium catalysis is required, as facile 1,3-sulfonyl shifts dominate under thermal conditions. However, since no analogous 1,3-phosphoryl shift is operational, N-phosphoryl ynamides could be used to prepare similar cyclopentenimines under thermal conditions through zwitter ionic intermediates that undergo N-promoted H-shifts. Alternatively, by employing ynamides bearing tethered carbon nucleophiles, the zwitter ionic intermediates could be intercepted, giving rise rapidly to more complex fused bi- and tricyclic scaffolds.
Project description:We have quantum chemically explored the Diels-Alder reactivities of a systematic series of hetero-1,3-butadienes with ethylene by using density functional theory at the BP86/TZ2P level. Activation strain analyses provided physical insight into the factors controlling the relative cycloaddition reactivity of aza- and oxa-1,3-butadienes. We find that dienes with a terminal heteroatom, such as 2-propen-1-imine (NCCC) or acrolein (OCCC), are less reactive than the archetypal 1,3-butadiene (CCCC), primarily owing to weaker orbital interactions between the more electronegative heteroatoms with ethylene. Thus, the addition of a second heteroatom at the other terminal position (NCCN and OCCO) further reduces the reactivity. However, the introduction of a nitrogen atom in the backbone (CNCC) leads to enhanced reactivity, owing to less Pauli repulsion resulting from polarization of the diene HOMO in CNCC towards the nitrogen atom and away from the terminal carbon atom. The Diels-Alder reactions of ethenyl-diazene (NNCC) and 1,3-diaza-butadiene (NCNC), which contain heteroatoms at both the terminal and backbone positions, are much more reactive due to less activation strain compared to CCCC.
Project description:The first rubidium and cesium enediamide complexes based on bulky 1,4-diaza-1,3-diene ligands (DADs) have been prepared by metalation of either 1,4-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene (1, = H2DADDipp) or 1,4-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene (2, = Me2DADDipp) with an excess of Rb or Cs metals in coordinating solvents such as tetrahydrofuran (THF) or 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME). All new complexes were fully characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies.