Effect of saphenous nerve block for postoperative pain on knee surgery: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: Early post-operative mobilization is important both to reduce immobility-related complications and to get the best functional result following surgery on knee. We hypothesized that saphenous nerve block would reduce pain in this patient category compared with placebo injection. In this study, two reviewers independently searched the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library (last performed on 12 October, 2014) to retrieve eligible randomized controlled clinical trials. The primary outcomes were visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores within 24 hours after operation when at rest and at an active flexion of knee. Mean difference (MD) or odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated for each end point. Subgroup analysis was calculated to evaluate potential sources of heterogeneity. Nine randomized controlled trials were retrieved and analyzed. We found that VAS pain scores at rest within postoperative 24 hours were significantly decreased in saphenous nerve block group than that in placebo group (MD = -0.79; 95% CI -1.35 to -0.22; P = 0.007), as well as VAS pain scores at an active flexion of knee within postoperative 24 hours (MD = -0.92; 95% CI -1.61 to -0.22; P = 0.010). In addition, compared to placebo injection group, saphenous nerve block resulted in significantly less morphine consumption during the first postoperative 24 hours (MD = -6.56; 95% CI -11.26 to -1.86; P = 0.006). To conclude, this meta-analysis suggests that saphenous nerve block has an advantage in pain relief both at an active flexion of knee and at rest after knee surgery. Further studies are still wanted to validate these conclusions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The optimal position for continuous adductor canal block (ACB) for analgesia after total knee anthroplasty (TKA) remians controversial, mainly due to high variability in the localization of the the adductor canal (AC). Latest neuroanatomy studies show that the nerve to vastus medialis plays an important role in innervating the anteromedial aspect of the knee and dives outside of the exact AC at the proximal end of the AC. Therefore, we hypothesized that continuous ACB at the proximal end of the exact AC could provide a better analgesic effect after TKA compared with that at the middle of the AC (which appeared to only block the saphenous nerve). METHODS:Sixty-two adult patients who were scheduled for a unilateral TKA were randomized to receive continuous ACB at the proximal end or middle of the AC. All patients received patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with sufentanil postoperatively. The primary outcome measure was cumulative sufentanil consumption within 24?h after the surgery, which was analyzed using Mann-Whitney U tests. P-values <?0.05 (two-sided) were considered statistically significant. The secondary outcomes included postoperative sufentanil consumption at other time points, pain at rest and during passive knee flexion, quadriceps motor strength, and other recovery related paramaters. RESULTS:Sixty patients eventually completed the study (30/group). The 24-h sufentanil consumption was 0.22??g/kg (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.15-0.40??g/kg) and 0.39??g/kg (IQR: 0.23-0.52??g/kg) in the proximal end and middle groups (P?=?0.026), respectively. There were no significant inter-group differences in sufentanil consumption at other time points, pain at rest and during passive knee flexion, quadriceps motor strength, and other recovery related paramaters. CONCLUSIONS:Continuous ACB at the proximal end of the AC has a better opioid-sparing effect without a significant influence on quadriceps motor strength compared to that at the middle of the AC after TKA. These findings indicates that a true ACB may not produce the effective analgesia, instead, the proximal end AC might be a more suitable block to alleviate pain after TKA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03942133 ; registration date: May 06, 2019; enrollment date: May 11, 2019).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety between early preoperative administration and postoperative administration of oral meloxicam in patients underwent arthroscopic knee surgery (AKS).<h4>Methods</h4>Totally 296 patients with the intention to undergo AKS were recruited and randomly allocated as 1:1 ratio into early preoperative analgesia (EPA) group and postoperative analgesia (POA) group. Pain visual analog scale (VAS) score and severity (at rest and at flexion), patient global assessment (PGA) score, the consumption of rescue analgesia (pethidine), and adverse events were evaluated during the perioperation. And knee range of motion (ROM), International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, and Lysholm score were assessed at baseline and at 3 months after AKS.<h4>Results</h4>Both pain VAS score and severity (at rest and at flexion) were decreased at 4, 8, and 12?hours, but similar at -24, -2, 24, 36, and 48?hours after AKS in EPA group compared with POA group. Besides, PGA score was lower at 4, 8, 12, and 24?hours, but similar at -24, -2, 36, and 48?hours after AKS in EPA group compared with POA group. As to the consumption of pethidine in perioperative period, it was decreased in EPA group compared with POA group. No difference was observed in knee ROM, IKDC score, Lysholm score, and adverse effects between EPA group and POA group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Early preoperative administration of meloxicam was a superior approach in pain control compared with postoperative administration in treating patients underwent AKS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The PROSPECT (Procedure-Specific Postoperative Pain Management) Group recommended a single injection femoral nerve block in 2008 as a guideline for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty. Other authors have recommended the addition of sciatic and obturator nerve blocks. The lateral femoral cutaneous nerve is also involved in pain syndrome following total knee arthroplasty. We hypothesized that preoperative blocking of all four nerves would offer superior analgesia to femoral nerve block alone. METHODS:This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, and observer-blinded clinical study. A total of 107 patients were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a femoral nerve block group, a multiple nerve block group, and a control group. All patients were treated postoperatively using patient-controlled intravenous analgesia with morphine. Pain intensity at rest, during flexion and extension, and morphine consumption were compared between groups over three days. RESULTS:A total of 90 patients completed the study protocol. Patients who received multiple nerve blocks experienced superior analgesia and had reduced morphine consumption during the postoperative period compared to the other two groups. Pain intensity during flexion was significantly lower in the "blocks" groups versus the control group. Morphine consumption was significantly higher in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:Pain relief after total knee arthroplasty immediately after surgery and on the first postoperative day was significantly superior in patients who received multiple blocks preoperatively, with morphine consumption significantly lower during this period. A preoperative femoral nerve block alone produced partial and insufficient analgesia immediately after surgery and on the first postoperative day. (Clinical trial registration number (NIH): NCT01303120).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most common treatment for end-stage knee osteoarthritis and continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) has become the gold standard for analgesia. But the lack of knowledge about CFNB and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) often leads to inappropriate dose of medications and increased workload for ward nurses.<h4>Methods</h4>After retrospectively registering to http://www.chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1800018957), 60 patients undergoing unilateral TKA were randomly divided into groups A and B (n?=?30 each). Patients in group B and their families received a nurse-led preoperative visit the day before surgery focusing on PCA educational pamphlets for postoperative pain management. Before returning to the ward, patients and their families in both groups received face-to-face PCA pump operation training. The usual postoperative follow-up was performed by nurse anesthetists for 2 consecutive days. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores at rest and during movement, knowledge of the PCA evaluated by a ten-question questionnaire, knee flexion angles, and the number of PCA-related nurse calls were recorded.<h4>Results</h4>The VAS scores at rest and during movement of the patients in group B were both significantly lower than in group A on postoperative days 1 and 2. The questionnaire scores of the patients in group B were much higher than those in group A on postoperative day 1, but not on day 2. Patients in the 2 groups had similar knee flexion on postoperative days 1 and 2. Patients in group B asked for assistance from the ward nurses with the PCA fewer times than those in group A, and the ward nurses were more satisfied with the analgesic protocol in group B.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Enhanced preoperative education for CFNB with PCA can provide patients with a better grasp of postoperative pain management, improve the postoperative analgesic effect after TKA, and reduce the PCA-related workload for ward nurses.<h4>Trial registration</h4>This study was retrospectively registered to ChiCTR (identifier: ChiCTR1800018957 ) on October 18, 2018.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Revision knee arthroplasty is assumed to be even more painful than primary knee arthroplasty and predominantly performed in chronic pain patients, which challenges postoperative pain treatment. We hypothesized that the adductor canal block, effective for pain relief after primary total knee arthroplasty, may reduce pain during knee flexion (primary endpoint: at 4 h) compared with placebo after revision total knee arthroplasty. Secondary endpoints were pain at rest, morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects. METHODS:We included patients scheduled for revision knee arthroplasty in general anesthesia into this blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Patients were allocated to an adductor canal block via a catheter with either ropivacaine or placebo; bolus of 0.75% ropivacaine/saline, followed by infusion of 0.2% ropivacaine/saline. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT01191593. RESULTS:We enrolled 36 patients, of which 30 were analyzed. Mean pain scores during knee flexion at 4 h (primary endpoint) were: 52 ± 22 versus 71 ± 25 mm (mean difference 19, 95% CI: 1 to 37, P = 0.04), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. When calculated as area under the curve (1-8 h/7 h) pain scores were 55 ± 21 versus 69 ± 21 mm during knee flexion (P = 0.11) and 39 ± 18 versus 45 ± 23 mm at rest (P = 0.43), ropivacaine and placebo group respectively. Groups were similar regarding morphine consumption and morphine-related side effects (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:The only statistically significant difference found between groups was in the primary endpoint: pain during knee flexion at 4 h. However, due to a larger than anticipated dropout rate and heterogeneous study population, the study was underpowered. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01191593.
Project description:Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common procedure associated with moderate postoperative pain. No nerve block without loss of motor function has been documented for THA. We hypothesised that an ultrasound-guided lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) block added to a multimodal postoperative pain regimen would reduce postoperative pain after THA.One hundred patients who had a THA by the posterior approach were evaluated in this randomised, placebo-controlled, blinded, parallel-group trial comparing an ultrasound-guided LFCN-block with either 8 ml of ropivacaine, 7.5 mg/ml, (Group Ropivacaine) or 8 ml of saline (Group Placebo) given postoperatively. Surgery was performed under spinal anaesthesia. The primary outcome was pain (measured on a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)) 4 h post-blockade during 30° flexion of the hip. Secondary outcomes were pain at rest, pain during movement, oxycodone consumption (0-24 h), time to mobilisation, ability to mobilise, and length of stay. Patients, assessors and all staff involved with patient care were blinded to the intervention.There was no difference in primary outcome between Group Ropivacaine and Group Placebo (VAS 27 mm vs. 31 mm, p = 0.41; difference -5 mm (95% CI: -15 mm - +5 mm). No differences in any of the secondary outcomes were observed. No adverse events, or harms, were observed during the trial.Pain scores, opioid use, time to mobilisation, and length of stay were low in both Group Ropivacaine and Group Placebo. We found no added analgesic effect of a LFCN-block when combined with paracetamol and ibuprofen after THA by the posterior approach.EudraCT: 2013-004501-12 (December 16th 2013).
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Postoperative pain management is crucial for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There have been many recent clinical trials on post-TKA peripheral nerve block; however, they have reported inconsistent findings. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to comprehensively analyze studies on post-TKA analgesia to provide evidence-based clinical suggestions.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a computer-based query of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science to retrieve related articles using neurothe following search terms: nerve block, nerve blockade, chemodenervation, chemical neurolysis, peridural block, epidural anesthesia, extradural anesthesia, total knee arthroplasty, total knee replacement, partial knee replacement, and others. After quality evaluation and data extraction, we analyzed the complications, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, patient satisfaction, perioperative opioid dosage, and rehabilitation indices. Evidence was rated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach.<h4>Results</h4>We included 16 randomized controlled trials involving 981 patients (511 receiving peripheral nerve block and 470 receiving epidural block) in the final analysis. Compared with an epidural block, a peripheral nerve block significantly reduced complications. There were no significant between-group differences in the postoperative VAS score, patient satisfaction, perioperative opioid dosage, and rehabilitation indices.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings demonstrate that the peripheral nerve block is superior to the epidural block in reducing complications without compromising the analgesic effect and patient satisfaction. Therefore, a peripheral nerve block is a safe and effective postoperative analgesic method with encouraging clinical prospects.
Project description:Little information exists to support that patients care about flexion beyond what is needed to perform activities of daily living (ADL) after Total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to investigate if the achievement of a higher degree of knee flexion after TKA would result in a better patient perceived outcome.The study is a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial in which 36 patients (mean age: 67.2 yrs) undergoing one-stage bilateral TKA randomly received a standard cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA in one knee and a high-flex posterior-stabilized (PS) TKA in the contra lateral knee. At follow-up ROM, satisfaction, pain, "feel" of the knee and the abilities in daily activities were assessed.At 1-year follow-up we found an expected significantly higher degree of knee flexion of 7° in the high-flex knees (p = 0.001). The high-flex TKA's showed a mean active flexion of 121°. In both TKA's the median VAS pain score was 0, the median VAS satisfaction score was 9, and the median VAS score of the patient "feel" of the knee was 9 at 1-year follow-up. Further, there were no significant differences between the knees in the performance of daily activities.As expected the high-flex TKA showed increased knee flexion, but no significant differences in the patient perceived outcomes were found. This suggests little relevance to the patients of the difference in knee flexion - when flexion is of this magnitude - as pain free ROM and high patient satisfaction were achieved with both TKA's.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00294528.
Project description:We describe a case of entrapment neuropathy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve as it pierces sartorius muscle. This is a rare cause of anteromedial knee pain that is easily overlooked and may be mistaken as arising from other anatomical structures in that region. The pain was successfully treated by partially dividing the sartorius muscle and translocating the nerve away from the site of entrapment. It is important to consider entrapment neuropathy of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve as a differential diagnosis when assessing a patient with anteromedial knee pain.