Novel ENAM and LAMB3 mutations in Chinese families with hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta.
ABSTRACT: Amelogenesis imperfecta is a group of inherited diseases affecting the quality and quantity of dental enamel. To date, mutations in more than ten genes have been associated with non-syndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Among these, ENAM and LAMB3 mutations are known to be parts of the etiology of hypoplastic AI in human cases. When both alleles of LAMB3 are defective, it could cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB), while with only one mutant allele in the C-terminus of LAMB3, it could result in severe hypoplastic AI without skin fragility. We enrolled three Chinese families with hypoplastic autosomal-dominant AI. Despite the diagnosis falling into the same type, the characteristics of their enamel hypoplasia were different. Screening of ENAM and LAMB3 genes was performed by direct sequencing of genomic DNA from blood samples. Disease-causing mutations were identified and perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in three families: a 19-bp insertion mutation in the exon 7 of ENAM (c.406_407insTCAAAAAAGCCGACCACAA, p.K136Ifs*16) in Family 1, a single-base deletion mutation in the exon 5 of ENAM (c. 139delA, p. M47Cfs*11) in Family 2, and a LAMB3 nonsense mutation in the last exon (c.3466C>T, p.Q1156X) in Family 3. Our results suggest that heterozygous mutations in ENAM and LAMB3 genes can cause hypoplastic AI with markedly different phenotypes in Chinese patients. And these findings extend the mutation spectrum of both genes and can be used for mutation screening of AI in the Chinese population.
Project description:Five mutations in the ENAM gene have been found to cause hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), with phenotypes ranging from localized enamel pitting in carriers to severe hypoplastic AI. To determine the generality of ENAM mutations in hypoplastic AI, we sequenced the ENAM gene in ten Turkish families segregating autosomal hypoplastic AI. In two families, ENAM mutations were found. A novel nonsense mutation (g.12663C>A; p.S246X) was identified in one family segregating local hypoplastic AI as a dominant trait. Affected individuals in a second family segregating autosomal-recessive AI were compound heterozygotes for a novel insertion mutation (g.12946_12947insAGTCAGTACCAGTACTGTGTC) and a previously described insertion (g.13185_13186insAG) mutation. Heterozygous carriers of either insertion had a localized enamel-pitting phenotype. These findings substantiate that enamel phenotypes of ENAM mutations may be dose-dependent, with generalized hypoplastic AI segregating as a recessive trait and localized enamel pitting segregating as a dominant trait.
Project description:Tooth enamel, the hardest tissue in the human body, is formed after a complex series of interactions between dental epithelial tissue and the underlying ectomesenchyme. Nonsyndromic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare genetic disorder affecting tooth enamel without other nonoral symptoms. In this study, we identified 2 novel ENAM mutations in 2 families with hypoplastic AI by whole exome sequencing. Family 1 had a heterozygous splicing donor site mutation in intron 4, NM_031889; c.123+2T>G. Affected individuals had hypoplastic enamel with or without the characteristic horizontal hypoplastic grooves in some teeth. Family 2 had a nonsense mutation in the last exon, c.1842C>G, p.(Tyr614*), that was predicted to truncate the protein by 500 amino acids. Participating individuals had at least 1 mutant allele, while the proband had a homozygous mutation. Most interestingly, the clinical phenotype of the individuals harboring the heterozygous mutation varied from a lack of penetrance to a mild hypoplastic enamel defect. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations.
Project description:The genetic basis of non-syndromic autosomal recessive forms of amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is unknown. To evaluate five candidate genes for an aetiological role in AI. In this study 20 consanguineous families with AI were identified in whom probands suggested autosomal recessive transmission. Family members were genotyped for genetic markers spanning five candidate genes: AMBN and ENAM (4q13.3), TUFT1 (1q21), MMP20 (11q22.3-q23), and KLK4 (19q13). Genotype data were evaluated to identify homozygosity in affected individuals. Mutational analysis was by genomic sequencing. Homozygosity linkage studies were consistent for localisation of an AI locus in three families to the chromosome 4q region containing the ENAM gene. ENAM sequence analysis in families identified a 2 bp insertion mutation that introduced a premature stop codon in exon 10. All three probands were homozygous for the same g.13185_13186insAG mutation. These probands presented with a generalised hypoplastic AI phenotype and a class II openbite malocclusion. All heterozygous carriers of the g.13185_13186insAG mutation had localised hypoplastic enamel pitting defects, but none had AI or openbite. The phenotype associated with the g.13185_13186insAG ENAM mutation is dose dependent such that ARAI with openbite malocclusion segregates as a recessive trait, and enamel pitting as a dominant trait.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a genetic disease affecting tooth enamel formation. AI can be an isolated entity or a phenotype of syndromes. To date, more than 10 genes have been associated with various forms of AI. We have identified 2 unrelated Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed mutational analysis. Whole-exome sequencing identified 2 novel heterozygous nonsense mutations in the ENAM gene (c.454G>T p.Glu152* in family 1, c.358C>T p.Gln120* in family 2) in the probands. Affected individuals were heterozygous for the mutation in each family. Segregation analysis within each family revealed individuals with incomplete penetrance or extremely mild enamel phenotype, in spite of having the same mutation with the other affected individuals. We believe that these findings will broaden our understanding of the clinical phenotype of AI caused by ENAM mutations.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) is a disorder of tooth development where there is an abnormal formation of enamel or the external layer of teeth. The aim of this study was to screen mutations in the four most important candidate genes, ENAM, KLK4, MMP20 and FAM83H responsible for amelogenesis imperfect. METHODS: Geneomic DNA was isolated from five Iranian families with 22 members affected with enamel malformations. The PCR amplifications were typically carried out for amplification the coding regions for AI patients and unaffected family members. The PCR products were subjected to direct sequencing. The pedigree analysis was performed using Cyrillic software. RESULTS: One family had four affected members with autosomal dominant hypocalcified amelogenesis imperfecta (ADHPCAI); pedigree analysis revealed four consanguineous families with 18 patients with autosomal recessive hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (ARHPAI). One non-synonymous single-nucleotide substitution, c.1150T>A, p. Ser 342Thr was identified in the FAM83H, which resulted in ADHCAI. Furthermore, different polymorphisms or unclassified variants were detected in MMP20, ENAM and KLK4. CONCLUSION: Our results are consistent with other studies and provide further evidence for pathogenic mutations of FAM83H gene. These findings suggest different loci and genes could be implicated in the pathogenesis of AI.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by abnormal formation of dental enamel, either in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Heterozygous variants in laminin subunit beta 3 ( LAMB3) cause AI with dominant inheritance in the absence of other cosegregating clinical features. In contrast, biallelic loss-of-function variants in LAMB3 cause recessive junctional epidermolysis bullosa, characterized by life-threatening skin fragility. We identified 2 families segregating autosomal dominant AI with variable degrees of a distinctive hypoplastic phenotype due to pathogenic variants in LAMB3. Whole exome sequencing revealed a nonsense variant (c.3340G>T, p.E1114*) within the final exon in family 1, while Sanger sequencing in family 2 revealed a variant (c.3383-1G>A) in the canonical splice acceptor site of the final exon. Analysis of cDNA from family 2 revealed retention of the final intron leading to a premature termination codon. Two unerupted third molar teeth from individual IV:5 in family 2 were subject to computerized tomography and scanning electron microscopy. LAMB3 molar teeth have a multitude of cusps versus matched controls. LAMB3 enamel was well mineralized but pitted. The architecture of the initially secreted enamel was abnormal, with cervical enamel appearing much less severely affected than coronal enamel. This study further defines the variations in phenotype-genotype correlation for AI due to variants in LAMB3, underlines the clustering of nonsense and frameshift variants causing AI in the absence of junctional epidermolysis bullosa, and highlights the shared AI phenotype arising from variants in genes coding for hemidesmosome proteins.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) is a rare hereditary disorder affecting the quality and quantity of the tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic etiology of hypoplastic AI families based on the candidate gene approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We recruited three Turkish families with hypoplastic AI and performed a candidate gene screening based on the characteristic clinical feature to find the pathogenic genetic etiology. RESULTS:The candidate gene sequencing of the LAMB3 gene for family 1 revealed a heterozygous nonsense mutation in the last exon [c.3431C?>?A, p.(Ser1144*)]. FAM20A gene sequencing for families 2 and 3 identified a homozygous deletion [c.34_35delCT, p.(Leu12Alafs*67)] and a homozygous deletion-insertion (c.1109?+?3_1109?+?7delinsTGGTC) mutation, respectively. CONCLUSION:The candidate gene approach can be successfully used to identify the genetic etiology of the AI in some cases with characteristic clinical features. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Identification of the genetic etiology of the AI will help both the family members and dentist understand the nature of the disorder. Characteristic clinical feature can suggest possible genetic causes.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) can be either isolated or part of a larger syndrome. Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a collection of autosomal-recessive disorders featuring AI associated with skin fragility and other symptoms. JEB is a recessive syndrome usually caused by mutations in both alleles of COL17A1, LAMA3, LAMB3, or LAMC2. In rare cases, heterozygous carriers in JEB kindreds display enamel malformations in the absence of skin fragility (isolated AI). We recruited two kindreds with autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (ADAI) characterized by generalized severe enamel hypoplasia with deep linear grooves and pits. Whole-exome sequencing of both probands identified novel heterozygous mutations in the last exon of LAMB3 that likely truncated the protein. The mutations perfectly segregated with the enamel defects in both families. In Family 1, an 8-bp deletion (c.3446_3453del GACTGGAG) shifted the reading frame (p.Gly 1149Glufs*8). In Family 2, a single nucleotide substitution (c.C3431A) generated an in-frame translation termination codon (p.Ser1144*). We conclude that enamel formation is particularly sensitive to defects in hemidesmosome/basement-membrane complexes and that syndromic and non-syndromic forms of AI can be etiologically related.
Project description:Amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) refers to a genetically and clinically heterogeneous group of inherited disorders affecting the structure, composition, and quantity of tooth enamel. Both non-syndromic and syndromic forms of AI have been described and several genes affecting various aspects of the enamel physiology have been reported. Genetically modified murine models of various genes have provided insights into the complex regulation of proper amelogenesis. Non-syndromic AI occurs spontaneously also in dogs with known recessive variants in ENAM and SLC24A4 genes. Unlike rodents with a reduced dentition and continuously erupting incisors, canine models are valuable for human AI due to similarity in the dental anatomy including deciduous and permanent teeth. We have performed a series of clinical and genetic analyses to investigate AI in several breeds of dogs and describe here two novel recessive variants in the ENAM and ACP4 genes. A fully segregating missense variant (c.716C>T) in exon 8 of ENAM substitutes a well-conserved proline to leucine, p.(Pro239Leu), resulting in a clinical hypomineralization of teeth. A 1-bp insertion in ACP4 (c.1189dupG) is predicted to lead to a frameshift, p.(Ala397Glyfs), resulting in an abnormal C-terminal part of the protein, and hypoplastic AI. The ENAM variant was specific for Parson Russell Terriers with a carrier frequency of 9%. The ACP4 variant was found in two breeds, Akita and American Akita with a carrier frequency of 22%. These genetic findings establish novel canine models of human AI with a particular interest in the case of the ACP4-deficient model, since ACP4 physiology is poorly characterized in human AI. The affected dogs could also serve as preclinical models for novel treatments while the breeds would benefit from genetic tests devised here for veterinary diagnostics and breeding programs.
Project description:The conventional approach to identifying the defective gene in a family with an inherited disease is to find the disease locus through family studies. However, the rapid development and decreasing cost of next generation sequencing facilitates a more direct approach. Here, we report the identification of a frameshift mutation in LAMB3 as a cause of dominant hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta (AI). Whole-exome sequencing of three affected family members and subsequent filtering of shared variants, without prior genetic linkage, sufficed to identify the pathogenic variant. Simultaneous analysis of multiple family members confirms segregation, enhancing the power to filter the genetic variation found and leading to rapid identification of the pathogenic variant. LAMB3 encodes a subunit of Laminin-5, one of a family of basement membrane proteins with essential functions in cell growth, movement and adhesion. Homozygous LAMB3 mutations cause junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) and enamel defects are seen in JEB cases. However, to our knowledge, this is the first report of dominant AI due to a LAMB3 mutation in the absence of JEB.