Spot the difference-development of a syndrome based protein microarray for specific serological detection of multiple flavivirus infections in travelers.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, holds many of the world's most prevalent arboviral diseases that are also considered the most important travel related arboviral infections. In most cases, flavivirus diagnosis in travelers is primarily based on serology as viremia is often low and typically has already been reduced to undetectable levels when symptoms set in and patients seek medical attention. Serological differentiation between flaviviruses and the false-positive results caused by vaccination and cross-reactivity among the different species, are problematic for surveillance and diagnostics of flaviviruses. Their partially overlapping geographic distribution and symptoms, combined with increase in travel, and preexisting antibodies due to flavivirus vaccinations, expand the need for rapid and reliable multiplex diagnostic tests to supplement currently used methods. GOAL:We describe the development of a multiplex serological protein microarray using recombinant NS1 proteins for detection of medically important viruses within the genus Flavivirus. Sera from clinical flavivirus patients were used for primary development of the protein microarray. RESULTS:Results show a high IgG and IgM sensitivity and specificity for individual NS1 antigens, and limited cross reactivity, even within serocomplexes. In addition, the serology based on this array allows for discrimination between infection and vaccination response for JEV vaccine, and no cross-reactivity with TBEV and YFV vaccine induced antibodies when testing for antibodies to other flaviviruses. CONCLUSION:Based on these data, multiplex NS1-based protein microarray is a promising tool for surveillance and diagnosis of flaviviruses.
Project description:Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious agents is essential for patient care, disease control, and countermeasure development. The present serologic diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection relies mainly on IgM-capture ELISA which is confounded with the flaw of cross-reactivity among different flaviviruses. In this communication, we report a multiplex microsphere immunoassay (MIA) that captures the diagnostic power of viral envelope protein (that elicits robust, yet cross-reactive antibodies to other flaviviruses) and the differential power of viral nonstructural proteins NS1 and NS5 (that induce more virus-type specific antibodies). Using 153 patient specimens with known ZIKV and/or dengue virus (DENV; a closely related flavivirus) infections, we showed that (i) ZIKV envelope-based MIA is equivalent or more sensitive than IgM-capture ELISA in diagnosing ZIKV infection, (ii) antibody responses to NS1 and NS5 proteins are more ZIKV-specific than antibody response to envelope protein, (iii) inclusion of NS1 and NS5 in the MIA improves the diagnostic accuracy when compared with the MIA that uses envelope protein alone. The multiplex MIA achieves a rapid diagnosis (turnaround time<4h) and requires small specimen volume (10?l) in a single reaction. This serologic assay could be developed for use in clinical diagnosis of ZIKV infection and for monitoring immune responses in vaccine trials.
Project description:Flaviviruses are relevant animal and human pathogens of increasing importance worldwide. The similarities of the initial clinical symptoms and the serological cross-reactivity of viral structural antigens make a laboratory diagnosis of flavivirus infection problematic. The main aim of the present study was the comparative specificity and sensitivity analysis of the non-structural protein NS1 as an antigen to detect flavivirus antibodies in sera from exposed individuals. A strategy for the purification of native recombinant non-structural protein 1 of representative flaviviruses including tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, Zika and dengue virus was developed. The immunological properties of the purified antigens were analyzed using sera of immunized mice and of infected individuals in comparison with standard commercial assays. Recombinant NS1 protein was confirmed as a valuable option for the detection of flavivirus antibodies with reduced cross-reactivity and high sensitivity offering additional advantages for the detection of vaccine breakthrough cases.
Project description:The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and Asia necessitates an increased preparedness for improved maternal and perinatal health and blood safety. However, serological cross-reactions, especially to Dengue virus (DENV), complicate ZIKV antibody serodiagnosis. A novel "pan-Flavi" suspension multiplex immunoassay (PFSMIA) using 25 antigens, whole virus (WV), non-structural protein 1 (NS1), and envelope (E) proteins, from 7 zoonotic flaviviruses for specific detection of ZIKV and DENV IgM and IgG was developed. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity, avidity, and kinetics were established in 104 sera from returning travelers with known ZIKV and DENV infections. PFSMIA gave IgM- and IgG-sensitivities for both viruses of 96-100%, compared to an immunofluorescence assay. Main IgM cross-reactions were to NS1, for IgG to the E and WV antigens. Infecting virus yielded reactivity to several antigens of the homologous virus, while cross-reactions tended to occur only to a single antigen from heterologous virus(es). A specificity-enhancing computer procedure took into account antibody isotype, number of antibody-reactive antigens per virus, avidity, average degree of cross-reactivity to heterologous flavivirus antigens, and reactivity changes in serial sera. It classified all 50 cases correctly. Applied to sera from 200 pregnant women and 173 blood donors from Sweden, one blood donor was found ZIKV NS1 IgM positive, and another as ZIKV NS1 IgG positive. These samples did not react with other ZIKV antigens and were thereby judged as false-positives. PFSMIA provided sensitive and specific ZIKV and DENV serology, warranting high-throughput serological surveillance and a minimized need for laborious and expensive virus neutralization assays.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flavivirus family, has four distinct serotypes (DENV serotype 1 [DENV1], DENV2, DENV3, and DENV4) that require differentiation for the effective prevention of morbid disease. Early and rapid differentiation between flaviviruses remains challenging. Full assays combining four individual, serotype-specific and one group-specific nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against DENV NS1 were developed and validated. The sensitivities and specificities of the full NS1 ELISAs were evaluated with viral cultures and dengue acute-phase sera. Four serotype-specific NS1 ELISAs displayed high specificities for the detection and differentiation of appropriate serotypes. The group-specific NS1 ELISA was broadly reactive with the four dengue virus serotypes. None of the NS1 ELISAs displayed cross-reactivity with the other flaviviruses or samples from febrile patients with non-dengue virus infections. The full serotype- and group-specific MAb-based NS1 capture ELISAs may provide tools for the early detection and typing of dengue infection, which is preferable to reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) for the rapid differential diagnosis of dengue virus infection in the field.
Project description:Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family, are a major public health threat in tropical and subtropical regions, and have recently become a medical concern in temperate zones. Most flaviviruses are classified as zoonotic viruses. Human flavivirus infections can be asymptomatic, responsible for unspecific symptoms in the first few days following infection, or responsible for severe complications potentially resulting in death. During the first days following symptom onset, laboratory diagnosis of acute human flavivirus infection is mainly based on molecular detection of the viral genome by RT-PCR methods, followed by the capture of specific antibodies using serological tests after the first week of infection. The detection of antibodies that have virus neutralizing activity can be used to confirm flavivirus infection. However, human flavivirus infections induce the production of cross-reactive antibodies, often making serology inconclusive. Indeed, serological diagnosis of flavivirus infection can be hampered by a patient's history of flavivirus exposure, particularly in regions where multiple antigenically related flaviviruses co-circulate. We focus our mini review on conventional immunoassays that allow the diagnosis of major flavivirus-associated human infections in basic, routine and high-profile central health centers; and the interpretation of diagnostic serology tests for patients living within different epidemiological situations.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) has spread widely in the Pacific and recently throughout the Americas. Unless detected by RT-PCR, confirming an acute ZIKV infection can be challenging. We developed and validated a multiplexed flavivirus immunoglobulin M (IgM) microsphere immunoassay (flaviMIA) which can differentiate ZIKV-specific IgM from that due to other flavivirus infections in humans. The flaviMIA bound 12 inactivated flavivirus antigens, including those from ZIKV and yellow fever virus (YFV), to distinct anti-flavivirus antibody coupled beads. These beads were used to interrogate sera from patients with suspected ZIKV infection following travel to relevant countries. FlaviMIA results were validated by comparison to the ZIKV plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). The results highlight the complexity of serological ZIKV diagnosis, particularly in patients previously exposed to or vaccinated against other flaviviruses. We confirmed 99 patients with ZIKV infection by a combination of RT-PCR and serology. Importantly, ZIKV antibodies could be discriminated from those ascribed to other flavivirus infections. Serological results were sometimes confounded by the presence of pre-existing antibodies attributed to previous flavivirus infection or vaccination. Where RT-PCR results were negative, testing of appropriately timed paired sera was necessary to demonstrate seroconversion or differentiation of recent from past infection with or exposure to ZIKV.
Project description:Objectives:Recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreaks challenged existing laboratory diagnostic standards, especially for serology-based methods. Because of the genetic and structural similarity of ZIKV with other flaviviruses, this results in cross-reactive antibodies, which confounds serological interpretations. Methods:Plasma from Singapore ZIKV patients was screened longitudinally for antibody responses and neutralising capacities against ZIKV. Samples from healthy controls, ZIKV patients and DENV patients were further assessed using ZIKV and DENV peptides of precursor membrane (prM), envelope (E) or non-structural 1 (NS1) viral proteins in a peptide-based ELISA for epitope identification. Identified epitopes were re-validated and diagnostically evaluated using sera of patients with DENV, bacteria or unknown infections from Thailand. Results:Long-lasting ZIKV-neutralising antibodies were elicited during ZIKV infection. Thirteen potential linear B-cell epitopes were identified, and of these, four common flavivirus, three ZIKV-specific and one DENV-specific differential epitopes had more than 50% sensitivity and specificity. Notably, ZIKV-specific peptide 26 on domain I/II of E protein (amino acid residues 271-288) presented 80% sensitivity and 85.7% specificity. Importantly, the differential epitopes also showed significance in differentiating non-flavivirus patient samples. Conclusion:Linear B-cell epitope candidates to differentiate between ZIKV and DENV infections were identified, providing the first step towards the design of a much-needed serology-based assay.
Project description:Even in countries that are currently not facing a flavivirus epidemic, the spread of mosquito-borne flaviviruses presents an increasing public threat, owing to climate change, international travel, and other factors. Many of these countries lack the resources (viral strains, clinical specimens, etc.) needed for the research that could help cope with the threat imposed by flaviviruses, and therefore, an alternative approach is needed. Using an in silico approach to global databases, we aimed to design and develop flavivirus NS1 recombinant proteins with due consideration towards antigenic variation. NS1 genes analyzed in this study included a total of 6,823 sequences, from Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Yellow fever virus (YKV). We extracted and analyzed 316 DENV NS1 sequence types (STs), 59 JEV STs, 75 WNV STs, 30 YFV STs, and 43 ZIKV STs using a simple algorithm based on phylogenetic analysis. STs were reclassified according to the variation of the major epitope by MHC II binding. 78 DENV epitope type (EpT), 29 JEV EpTs, 29 WNV EpTs, 12 YFV EpTs, and 5 ZIKV EpTs were extracted according to their major epitopes. Also, frequency results showed that there were dominant EpTs in all flavivirus. Fifteen STs were selected and purified for the expression of recombinant antigen in Escherichia coli by sodium dodecyl sulfate extraction. Our study details a novel in silico approach for the development of flavivirus diagnostics, including a simple way to screen the important peptide regions.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the Flavivirus genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses, which includes Dengue, West Nile, Yellow Fever, and other mosquito-borne arboviruses. Infection by ZIKV can be difficult to distinguish from infection by other mosquito-borne Flaviviruses due to high sequence similarity, serum antibody cross-reactivity, and virus co-circulation in endemic areas. Indeed, existing serological methods are not able to consistently differentiate ZIKV from other Flaviviruses, which makes it extremely difficult to accurately calculate the incidence rate of Zika-associated Guillain-Barre in adults, microcephaly in newborns, or asymptomatic infections within a geographical area. In order to identify Zika-specific peptide regions that could be used as serology reagents, we have applied comparative genomics and protein structure analyses to identify amino acid residues that distinguish each of 10 Flavivirus species and subtypes from each other by calculating the specificity, sensitivity, and surface exposure of each residue in relevant target proteins. For ZIKV we identified 104 and 116 15-mer peptides in the E glycoprotein and NS1 non-structural protein, respectively, that contain multiple diagnostic sites and are located in surface-exposed regions in the tertiary protein structure. These sensitive, specific, and surface-exposed peptide regions should serve as useful reagents for seroprevalence studies to better distinguish between prior infections with any of these mosquito-borne Flaviviruses. The development of better detection methods and diagnostic tools will enable clinicians and public health workers to more accurately estimate the true incidence rate of asymptomatic infections, neurological syndromes, and birth defects associated with ZIKV infection.
Project description:Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) non-structural protein 1 (NS1) contributes to virus replication and elicits protective immune responses during infection. JEV NS1-specific antibody responses could be a target in the differential diagnosis of different flavivirus infections. However, the epitopes on JEV NS1 are poorly characterized. The present study describes the full mapping of linear B-cell epitopes in JEV NS1. We generated eleven NS1-specific monoclonal antibodies from mice immunized with recombinant NS1. For epitope mapping of monoclonal antibodies, a set of 51 partially-overlapping peptides covering the entire NS1 protein were expressed with a GST-tag and then screened using monoclonal antibodies. Through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), five linear epitope-containing peptides were identified. By sequentially removing amino acid residues from the carboxy and amino terminal of peptides, the minimal units of the five linear epitopes were identified and confirmed using monoclonal antibodies. Five linear epitopes are located in amino acids residues (5)AIDITRK(11), (72)RDELNVL(78), (251)KSKHNRREGY(260), (269)DENGIVLD(276), and (341)DETTLVRS(348). Furthermore, it was found that the epitopes are highly conserved among JEV strains through sequence alignment. Notably, none of the homologous regions on NS1 proteins from other flaviviruses reacted with the MAbs when they were tested for cross-reactivity, and all five epitope peptides were not recognized by sera against West Nile virus or Dengue virus. These novel virus-specific linear B-cell epitopes of JEV NS1 would benefit the development of new vaccines and diagnostic assays.